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Name: ______________________________________ Date: ________________
Industrialization & Imperialism Test Study Guide
Directions: Answer these questions ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER using notes and handouts from class and/or Chapters 7&12 in your textbook. You will receive homework grades for completion of this assignment.

  1. Identify characteristics of life in Britain BEFORE the Industrial Revolution.

  • Rural villages

  • Agriculture – farming

  • Work done by hand

  • Cottage Industry – work done in homes

  1. Industrialization is a shift from an agricultural (farming) economy to one based on industry (manufacturing).

  1. Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain? List three reasons.

-Stable government

-Natural resources (iron, coal, rivers)

-New technologies and sources of energy

-Large population = labor supply

-Capital (money) from colonies

  1. Identify three results of the Enclosure Movement.

-More land for crops

-Increases output (more crops) and profits

-Laborers forced off land – moved to cities to find work (urbanization)

  1. What was the Cotton Gin?

Machine that easily separates cotton fibers from seeds

  1. The cotton gin led to a demand for what?


  1. Improvements by James Watt made steam the best source of power for machinery.

  1. The invention of the train and expansion of railroads:

Increased/decreased (circle one) communication

Increased/decreased (circle one) trade

Increased/decreased (circle one) the demand for coal

Increased/decreased (circle one) the numbers of jobs


  1. What is urbanization?

Movement of people to cities

  1. The first factories developed in what industry?


  1. Why were many factory workers women and children?

Women and children could be paid less

  1. How did the assembly line benefit production – what was so good about it?

Made work faster, easier, and cheaper (mass production)

  1. What were some of the poor working conditions faced by factory workers during the Industrial Revolution?

-Dirty work

-Long hours

-Little pay

-Unsanitary conditions

-No health or safety codes (dangerous)

-Child labor

Living Conditions in Factory Towns

  1. What were some of the poor living conditions faced by factory workers during the Industrial Revolution?

-No running water

-No sewage or sanitation

-Tenement housing (cramped)



-No health or safety codes

  1. What is a tenement?

Multi-family building with substandard conditions

  1. Who lived in tenements?

Working class

Advocating for Change

  1. What did labor unions work to achieve?

-Laws for better working conditions (more money, shorter hours, safety codes, an end to child labor)

  1. What strategy did labor unions use to negotiate improved conditions for workers?

Collective bargaining

  1. Why did Upton Sinclair write The Jungle?

-Troubles of the working class

-Corruption of the American meatpacking industry

  1. What legislation (laws) were created as a result of The Jungle?

-Pure Food and Drug Act

-Meat Inspection Act

Economic Philosophies

  1. What are the principles of communism?

-Govt has total control & should distribute equally

-No classes (no rich and no poor)

-Society as a whole is important (not individual)

-No private property

  1. Why did Karl Marx hate capitalism?

-Unfair – benefitted a few rich, but most people were poor
Effects of the Industrial Revolution

  1. Identify two POSITIVE effects of the Industrial Revolution.

-New inventions (railroads, machines)

-Labor unions

-Increased productivity

-New opportunities for women

-Growth of education

-Middle class (flexible social structure)

-New entrepreneurs

  1. Identify two NEGATIVE effects of the Industrial Revolution.

-Child labor

-Rigid schedules, long hours

-Dangerous working conditions


-Imperialism (need for resources)

-Tenement housing and diseases


  1. What is imperialism?

A stronger/advanced country takes control of a weaker/less developed country to exploit the resources

  1. How did industrialization lead to imperialism?

A need for raw materials/resources and new trade markets

  1. What is direct rule?

Mother country” sends someone to rule the country – viceroy

  1. What is indirect rule?

Mother country” governs through local rulers

  1. What is a sphere of influence?

Foreign power claims exclusive trading privileges but doesn’t govern

  1. Identify the five motives for 19th Century imperialism.






  1. What European country colonized India?


  1. What was the Open Door Policy?

U.S. proposal to open China to trade

  1. What was the goal of the Boxer Rebellion?

Kill/expel foreigners from China

  1. What was the Meiji Restoration?

Japan’s modernization (social, political, economic/industrial)

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