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Chapter 13 section 4 pages 367 through 371

Living and Working Conditions

Learning Objectives:

A. Identify Adam Smith's ideas and explain how they affected people's views of industrialism.

B. Explain the causes of reform movements.

C. Analyze how workers tried to improve their lives.

The Main Idea: New theories helped shape the Industrial Revolution and its impact upon society

Economic Theories

After reading this section answer the following response question: What may be some outcomes of implementing Adam Smith's theories about free enterprise.

1. The economic theory based on the belief that the world contained only a fixed amount of wealth is called________________.

2. If you wanted to increase your country's wealth what did you have to do to another country's wealth since there was only a fixed amount?_______________

3. What was the name of the economists that disagreed with mercantilism?_____________

4. The physiocrats believed that____________ laws should be left to govern economic life. TF

5. Any attempt to interfere with these natural economic laws would bring disaster. TF

6. The founder of classical economics is__________________.

7. His famous book is titled________________- and was published in what year____________

8. On what does Adam Smith's book focus?_____________ and he notes that manufacturing and___________ are important

9. According to Adam Smith that to natural laws govern all business and economic activity. TF

10. What is the first law?______________________________

11. What is the second natural law_____________________?

12. According to Adam Smith's two natural laws of economic activity what manufacturers will survive?__________

13. According to Adam Smith who should choose what kind of business I should be in?____________

14. According to Smith what was mercantilism doing to natural economic forces?___________

15. Adam Smith was for complete free enterprise. TF

16. According to Adam Smith what should happen to laws, regulations and government controls?_____

Now answer the short response question posed to you at the beginning of this section.

Malthus and Ricardo

Read the following section and answer the following short response question: what does the theory of laissez-faire say should be done to achieve the most successful economy?

17. 22 years after Adam Smith publishes the wealth of Nations Thomas Malthus and 1798 writes about what?____________________

18. According to Thomas Malthus what's going to be the greatest obstacle to human progress?_______________

19. What's going to multiply according to Thomas Malthus faster than our food supply?

20. Approximately 40 years after the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, David Ricardo, writes that that working-class poverty is inevitable. TF

21. Because supply will determine wages, and labor supply will be plentiful because of the growing human population wages will_______________

22. David Ricardo's idea has become known as the iron_______________-

23. Because of David Ricardo and Thomas Malthus economics is known as the____________ science.

24. Employers who supported the idea that government should not interfere in business summed up their beliefs in a phrase called laissez-faire. TF

25. What does laissez-faire mean in French?________________.

26. Adam Smith's ideas "spread to the rest of Europe and the United States" let business alone". TF

Now answer the short response question posed to you at the beginning of this section.

27. Because of this laissez-faire theory regulations were dropped, trade became almost completely unregulated and working conditions worsened. TF

Reformers Arise

Read the following section and answer the short response question: why would improving education and guaranteeing individual liberty help the working class?

28. People who work to prove the conditions of others, those that urge reforms are called_________.

29. What were writers like Charles Dickens writing about?

30. Charles Dickens writes a famous novel called_________________ whose childhood was Dickens describing in his novel?

31 who argues that a law is useful, and therefore good, if it led to the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people?______________--

32. Jeremy Bentham and his followers also calls for reform of the nation's____________and________ what country is Bentham from________________

33. If you believe in Jeremy Bentham's theory you are a_________________-

34. The English philosopher who called for government to protect working children the to prove housing factory conditions was who____________________

35. Mill argued for full____________ and for____________ for all men and women regardless of their social____________- or economic________________-.

36. John Stuart Mill believe that the government should promote two things what were they_____________ and_______________-

37. John Stuart Mill also wrote that all human beings have an equal need of a ____________- and government to secure their share of benefits.

Now answer the short response question posed to you at the beginning of this section.

Early Reform Laws

Read the following section and answer the short response question: why did children in the 1800s work long hours in factories when the same is not true today?

38. The Factory Act of 1802 to 2 things for children working in______________. What were the two reforms?

39. If you were 10 years old you could not work the cotton mill. TF

40. You could only work four days a week if you were 10 years old and four hours a day in the cotton mills. TF

41. The Ten Hours Act of 1847 limited the number of hours women and children could work in a single day. TF

42. These new laws were aggressively enforced by the government TF

43. The laws also improved wages tremendously. TF

Now answer the short response question posed to you at the beginning of this section.

Collective Action:

Read the following section and answer the short response question: how were workers able to get higher wages and better working conditions by forming unions?

44. When workers form together to demand reform this is called___________-

45. When a large group of workers stop working because they are protesting working conditions or low wages this is called_______________

46. What two industries were striking the most in England and France and Eastern Europe?___________ and____________. What did government use to put down the strikes? And what usually happened to the workers?________________

47. When workers form associations in order to get employers to meet their demands these are called_____________

48. The Combination Act of 1799 and 1800 were passed to prevent what?______________

49. But in 1825 what happens to Combination Acts?______________ and in 1870 what does Parliament pass question Mark

50. The process of negotiation between employers and unions is called__________ __________

Now answer the question posed to you at the beginning of this section.

Google Ohio and Senate Bill 5. What is the purpose of Senate Bill 5? How would you vote on Senate Bill 5?

Suggested answers to short response questions:

1. What might be some outcomes of implementing Adam Smith's theories about free enterprise? Sharper competition, lower prices, and higher profits and control supplies.

2. What does the theory of laissez-faire say should be done to achieve the most successful economy? No government regulation of business

3. Why would improving education and guaranteeing individual liberty help the working-class? Help protect their rights and voice in government.

4. Why did children in the 1800s work long hours in factories when the same is not true today? Laws were passed preventing it.

5. How were workers able to get higher wages and better working conditions by forming unions? Workers could negotiate collectively as a group.

Look at page 370 of your textbook. Look at the signs on the left where the children asking for?



Read The History Maker Adam Smith on page 368. It says that Smith was interested in countries create wealth through industry and farming but he also noted that what was important in order to increase wealth?___________________----

Read the quotation at the bottle pages 367 from Adam Smith's famous wealth of Nations, published in 1776. Is Adam Smith saying that if you act in your self-interest, perhaps selfishly, you will actually be acting in the best interest of society? Explain
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