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Chapter 13 section 2 pages 359 through 362

The Factory System

Learning Objectives:

A. How did the increase use of machinery affect workers and working conditions?

B. Identify the differences between the middle class and the working class

C. Analyze how the lives of women changed during the Industrial Revolution

The Main Idea:

New styles and living conditions grew out of the Industrial Revolution as society began to change.

How Machines Affected Work:

After reading this section answer this short response question: how did the production of goods change as work became mechanized?

1. Steam powered machinery made long term apprenticeships, for learning trades, obsolete. TF

2. Now a person could learn to operate a machine or to perform a task in just a few days. T F

3. Who could operate machines as efficiently as men?___________and__________

4. Women and children did not expect high_________.

5. As a result textile factories employed mainly whom?_____________-

6. What happens to older skilled workers? Who do they sent to work?

Now answer the short response question at the beginning of this section.



The Wage System:

Read the following section and answer the short response question: what for factors generally determined a factory workers wages?

7. The factory system and the domestic system were very similar. TF

8. Payment in the domestic system was for completed finished goods. TF

9. In the domestic system there was plenty of supervision. TF

10. In T=the factory system a worker only performed a small part of the entire job. TF

11. There was very little supervision, in the factory system. TF

12. Wages were paid, in the factory system, based on the number of hours worked or?

13. Employers, in the factory system, set wages according to the cost of two factors. TF what were those two factors___________ _____________

14. What happened to the wages of laborers if capital or land costs increased?

15. If there was an overabundance of laborers what happened to wages?

16. But if the supply of laborers went down what happened wages?

17. Wages were often set by what workers could expect to earn and other kinds of work. TF

18. Women earn more than men. TF.

19. Two additional disadvantages of the factory system, workers did not own their tools and there were very few opportunities for advancement. TF

Now answer the short response question posed to you at the beginning of this section.

The Lives of Factory Workers:

What were the living conditions of factory workers like during the Industrial Revolution?

20. Name three things that that happened to you if you broke factory rules_________ _______ ________.

21. What kind of temperatures existed in factories during the Industrial Revolution? And what kind of sanitary facilities were there?

22. How many hours a day and how many days a week the factory workers work? What, compensation to the factory worker receive if they were hurt on the job?

23. How old was Elizabeth Bentley when she started working? What was the punishment for being late or working too slowly? In 1833 Elizabeth Bentley is responsible for the passage of one-act?

24. What two things were gained by the factory act of 1833?___________and__________-

25. A shabby apartment building is also known as a___________-

26. It is estimated that up to 50,000 workers in Manchester England lived where?

Now answer the short response question posed to you at the beginning of this section

Development of the Middle Class:

Read the following section and answer the short response question what factors led to the rise of the middle class.

27. During the Industrial Revolution economic and political power shift from agricultural to?__________-

28. Name at least five members of this new middle class which is thriving and well-educated._________ _________ ________ _________ __________--

28. This new class was based on economic standing rather than what?___________-

29. What two advances does this new middle class gain?_________- influence and__________ power.

30. Name five changes in the lifestyle of the new middle class._________ ___________ ___________ _________ __________-

Now answer the short response question posed to you at the beginning of this section

Effect of Industrialization on Women's Lives

Read the following section and answer the short response question what might each of the following groups have thought about women's roles in society: working class men, working-class women, middle class men, middle class women?

31. Name two things that because of the Industrial Revolution women did no longer have to do.________ _________

32. What has been the traditional woman's job?____________

33. Middle and upper class families hired women as name at least three__________ __________and__________

34. It was often said that it was in the DNA of women to do only what three or four tasks?________ _______ ________ _______

35. Now during and after the Industrial Revolution what kind of jobs began to open up for women name at least four._________ __________ __________ _________---

36. By the late 1800s most elementary school teachers were____________. How many female teachers did you have the middle school and elementary school compared to the number of male teachers?

Now answer the short response question posed to you at the beginning of this section.

Suggested answers to short response questions:

1. How did the production of goods change as work became mechanized? Made job simpler and less skilled

2.What for factors generally determined of factory workers wages? Costs of production labor supply wages for other work and gender.

3. What were the living conditions of factory workers like during the Industrial Revolution? Poor, cramped and dirty



4. What factors led to the rise of the middle class: growth of industries and the growth of cities

5. What might each of the following groups have thought about women's roles in society: working-class man, working-class women, middle class men, middle class women? Middle class men and women may have been less accepting of women in the workplace.
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