lobbying the act of contacting a political leader to explain a concern in order to convince them to vote for a cause
judicial activism the view that the Supreme Court and other judges can and should creatively (re)interpret the texts of the Constitution and the laws in order to serve the judges' own visions regarding the needs of contemporary society
strict construction a literal interpretation of the Constitution
compensation the action or process of awarding someone money as a recompense for loss, injury, or suffering
temperance abstinence from alcoholic drink
advocate to propose a certain position or viewpoint
socialism a way of organizing a society in which major industries are owned and controlled by the government rather than by individual people and companies
People to Know Jacob Riis Robert LaFollette Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony Alice Paul Francis Willard Eugene Debs Carrie Chapman Catt
Amendments to Know
5th 14th 15th 17th 18th 19th
Reading Guide Main Idea: The Progressive Era was a time when many Americans tied to improve their society. They tried to make government honest, efficient, and more democratic. The movement for women’s suffrage gained more support, as did efforts to limit child labor and reduce alcohol consumption.
Why it matters now: This era marked the shift away from laissez-faire, a trend which continues today with the ever-increasing regulations on business and the continued calls for societal reforms.
When reading, focus on the following:
Progressives were concerned about laissez-faire economics and its emphasis on an ___________________________ market. What issues were present that led these reformers to doubt the free market’s ability to address problems?
Progressives believed that rapid industrialization and urbanization in the Gilded Age created social problems. What sets apart Progressive from Gilded Age ideas is that Progressives believe the ___________________________ should take a more active role in solving society’s problems. What else did they believe could produce solutions for society?
3. Muckrakers generally targeted corruption in three areas. List those three areas.
*** Progressives have been grouped into 4 categories: Efficiency, Democracy, Social Welfare, and
Business Efficiency Progressives: goal to make city gov’ts more efficient
4. Describe the corruption and inefficiency in city government that the Progressives hoped to remedy.
5. In general, to make city gov’t run more efficiently the Progressives supported reforms that gave ________
a major role in managing the city. List the two city gov’t plans favored by the Progressives
Democracy Progressives: goal to expand democracy and give more political power to the people
6. According to the Democracy Progressives, what was the key to improving government?
7. Wisconsin became known as the “Laboratory of Democracy” because the governor, __________________,
initiated several reforms that expanded democracy in the federal and state gov’ts. List 4 political reforms
that were initiated by “Fightin’ Bob” (list, don’t define – this is already done in Vocabulary)
8. Another Progressive reform targeted the way US Senators (2 from each state, 6 yr terms) are elected.
According to Constitution, how were Senators chosen?
a) What was the problem with that?
b) What was the solution?
c) What is the negative effect of that solution?
9. Explain the split that weakened the women’s suffrage movement in the late 1800s.
10. How did women use lobbying to further the cause of women’s suffrage?
11. It is said that “well-behaved women rarely make history.” What did Alice Paul and Rose Winslow of the
NWP do to earn a spot in your history book?
12. How do women eventually achieve the right to vote in 1920?
13. Read the Biography on pg 206: Susan B. Anthony. As head of the National Woman’s Suffrage Association,
she began promoting a constitutional _________________________ as a means to grant women suffrage.
Social Welfare Progressives: goal to create solutions to social problems
14. List 5 social problems that were addressed by Social progressives.
15. What were they main issues that affected working class women.
16. What new laws against child labor (at least 3) came into effect because of such writings as John Spargo’s
The Bitter Cry of the Children?
17. Another issue of concern to the Progressives was protection for workers. Two Supreme Court cases
addressed this issue. Analyze each case according to strict vs activist judicial interpretation (see
a) How did Lochner v. New York (1905) reflect a strict constructionist interpretation?
b) How did Muller v. Oregon (1908) reflect an activist stance?
18. What was the impact of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire?
19. Summarize how the following type of laws improved health and safety for the American public.
a) zoning laws:
b) building codes:
c) health codes:
20. In summary, the Fifth Amendment states that private property cannot be taken for public use without
compensation ($$). Give examples about how zoning laws led some business owners to claim that
their fifth amendment rights were being violated
21. The temperance movement was led by Francis Willard and was supported by many. List reasons for
support of temperance and eventually prohibition.
22. The temperance movement first worked to reduce alcohol consumption, it later pressed for (and gets!)
_________________________________ through the 18th amendment
Business Progressives: goal to increase gov’t regulations on business
23. Business Progressives focused their efforts on ________________________ big business.
24. Some Business Progressives thought that big businesses should be broken up to restore competition
(Sherman Anti-trust Act). What approach did other Business Progressives suggest?
25. A more radical idea advocated by some Business Progressives was ____________________. Supporters
of this economic theory believed that the government should buy certain industries that affected
_____________________ such as __________________ and ________________________.
26. Though most Americans rejected socialism in favor of free enterprise (market economy, capitalism),
_________________ ___________ won nearly 1 million votes as the _____________________
____________________ candidate in the 1912 election.
Lesson 2: Roosevelt and Taft (pg 212 - 218) Vocabulary:
Content Vocabulary and Concepts:
Social Darwinism a philosophy, based on Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution and natural selection, stating that humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving
arbitration settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider
insubordination disobedience to authority
Prosperity the state of being wealthy, or having a rich and full life
Trust a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition
Strict Construction a literal reading and strict interpretation of the Constitution – restricts judicial interpretation
Judicial Interpretation (also known as Loose Construction) occurs when justices extend the Constitution’s meaning beyond the framers’ original intent and allows for reasonable inferences based on the text
Slippery slope a process or series of events that is hard to stop or control once it has begun and that usually leads to worse or more difficult things
Restraint a measure or condition that keeps someone or something under control or within limits
Regulation government imposed rule or law
Broker arrange or negotiate (a settlement, deal, or plan).
Consumer a person who buys goods and services
Patent the official legal right to make or sell an invention for a particular number of years
Distort give a misleading or false account or impression of
Scrutiny the act of carefully examining something especially in a critical way
Environmental relating to the environment; the complex system of plants, animals, water, and soil
Conservation planned management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect
Bully pulpit an important public position, such as public office, that allows a person to express beliefs and opinions to many people
People to Know Theodore Roosevelt Upton Sinclair Gifford Pinchot William H. Taft
Supreme Court Cases to Know
Northern Securities v. US (1904) US v. EC Knight (1894)
Reading Guide Main Idea: Energetic and strong-willed, Theodore Roosevelt extended the federal government’s ability to conserve natural resources and to curb the power of big business. His successor, William Howard Taft, was less popular with Progressives
Why it matters now: The power of the executive branch of government has grown significantly since the Progressive Era leading to debates over the issue. Over-regulation and Judicial Activism remain controversial.
When reading, focus on the following:
Strict Interpretation vs. Judicial Interpretation
Taft and the Progressives
Legacy of the Progressive Movement
27. Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution is known as the Commerce Clause. It states that “The Congress
shall have Power …To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States…” In US
v. Knight (1894), the justices applied Strict Construction principles (see definition) to the Commerce
Clause. Ten years late, In Northern Securities v. US (1904), judicial interpretation (see definition) was
applied to the Commerce Clause. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes dissented (disagreed with the majority
opinion) in the Northern Securities case. He warned that the decision to loosely interpret the Commerce
Clause would lead us down a slippery slope (see definition). How was he correct?
28. What was TR’s approach to keep society operating efficiently?
29. By intervening in the coal strike of 1902, what role did TR establish for the federal gov’t?
30. TR believed that most trusts were good for the economy and that the cost of antitrust action outweighed
the benefits. List two of TRs arguments in support of trusts.
They are an _______________________ way to do business
They are more competition against _________________ _________________
31. In spite of being a reluctant trustbuster, as a Progressive, TR also distrusted large concentrations of
32. Summarize TRs solution for monitoring trusts that allowed him to regulate them without resorting to anti-
33. How did the Hepburn Act attempt to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
34. In the Progressive Era, some reformers felt that the costs of a laissez-faire approach to the economy
outweighed the benefits. Briefly explain some of their concerns about the lack of gov’t regulations on the
35. How did the following laws regulate those industries?
a) Meat Inspection Act (1906):
b) Pure Food and Drug Act (1906):
36. Explain the long-term pros and cons of those laws and others like it.
37. TRs most enduring legacy lies in the area of ______________________________________. What was
this major concern regarding this?
38. TR cautioned against ________________________ use of public (gov’t owned) lands and argued that
______________________ should be the guiding principle in managing the US’s natural resources.
land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects. He also established the US Forest Service.
Under the leadership of Gifford Pinchot, What was the function of the US Forest Service?
40. List 3 additional ways that TR acted on his conservationist views.
41. Under TR, Americans began to look to the _______________________ ______________________ to
Solve the nation’s _____________________ and ____________________ problems.
42. Give examples of how the power of the Executive Branch of gov’t grew dramatically under TR.
1) Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC):
2) Dept of Commerce and Labor:
3) Expedition Act:
43. Republican William Howard Taft won the 1908 election by defeating Democrat ____________________,
who lost for the 3rd time.
44. For what 3 reasons were Progressive against high tariffs?
45. Why were Progressive Republicans outraged when Taft signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff?
46. What political change occurred as a result of Americans’ frustration with Taft?
47. Identify and EXPLAIN 3 of Taft’s Progressive achievements
48. Over what issue did TR break with Taft and led him to reenter politics by running for President in the 1912
Lesson 3: The Wilson Years (pg 220-225) Vocabulary:
Content Vocabulary and Concepts:
income tax a tax based on the net income of a person or business
unfair trade practices trading practices that derive a gain at the expense of competition
direct tax a tax imposed directly on a person or their property
indirect tax a tax that someone pays, but the tax burden falls on someone else
Culminate to end or arrive at a final stage
excise tax a paid when purchases are made on a specific good, such as gasoline. They are often included in the price of the product
graduated income tax a tax based on the net income of an individual or business and which taxes different income levels at different rates. Sometimes called a progressive tax
lobby an organized group of people who work together to influence government decisions that relate to a particular industry, issue, etc.
revenue a process or series of events that is hard to stop or control once it has begun and that usually leads to worse or more difficult things
academic a person associated with higher learning at a scholarly institution
unconstitutional not in accordance with or authorized by the constitution of a state or society
interest money paid regularly at a particular rate for the use of money lent, or for delaying the repayment of a debt
Monetary policythe actions of a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates
inflationa general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money
recessiona period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters
discriminationthe unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex.
lynching to execute, usually by hanging, without lawful approval
emancipation freeing of someone from slavery
sect religious denomination
People to Know Woodrow Wilson W.E.B DuBoisIda B. Wells Amendments to Know
Reading Guide Main Idea: Woodrow Wilson, a progressive Democrat, won the election of 1912. While in office, he supported lower tariffs, more regulation of business, and the creation of the Federal Reserve System
Why it matters now: Fair taxation, the power of big business and the actions of the Federal Reserve Board are current issues in American politics. The issue of discrimination has been renewed with more and more groups in American society demanding equal rights.
When reading, focus on the following:
1912 election and the role of the third party
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
Clayton Antitrust Act
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
WEB DuBois and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
1912 Election: fill in chart
Winner (mark )
50. Why was Wilson the easy winner in the 1912 election?
Explain the difference between a direct tax and an indirect tax?
Prior to 1900, through what means did the federal government raise most of its money?
Why did progressives want a “graduated” income tax?
Which amendment gave the federal government the power to collect income tax directly without having to apportion it among the states?
The graduated income tax was promoted by Wilson to make up for the loss in revenue after the Underwood-Simmons Act reduced revenue from _____________________.
Why did President Wilson support a Federal Reserve System?
The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 established _____ regional reserve banks that kept a portion of banks’ deposits as a cushion against unexpected losses. The Federal Reserve Board (more commonly known as The Fed) is responsible for America’s Monetary Policy (see definition). The Fed manages the nation’s economy by adjusting ___________________ rates that affect the money _______________. How does the Fed react to address the following economic problems?
Recession (see definition):
Inflation (see definition):
Why was Pres. Wilson reluctant to break up big businesses?
To satisfy Progressives, Congress created the Federal Trade Commission. What is its function
and what powers does it have?
Congress also passed the Clayton Antitrust Act. How did this law address the power of big business?
How did the following, all signed into law by Wilson, reflect his support for progressive issues?
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act:
Federal Farm Loan Act:
How did the presidencies of progressive Presidents T. Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson change the role of the federal government?
List two groups that did not benefit from the Progressive reforms of the early 1900?
Led by W.E.B. DuBois, black Americans form the NAACP to address their issues. According to DuBois, what was essential to end lynching and racial discrimination?
To address anti-semitism, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) was formed to combat stereotypes and discrimination. Give examples that highlight improvements in the treatment of Jews in the USA after this organization was founded.
The Diagram below shows the structure of the Federal Reserve System. Study the diagram. Use it and your textbook to help you answer the questions that follow.
Who appoints the members of the Federal Reserve Board?
What power does the Federal Reserve Board have?
What is the function of the Federal Reserve Banks?
How does the Federal Reserve Board pump money into the economy? (pg 223)
How does the Federal Reserve System benefit the Economy? (pg 223)
Work in Groups of 3 to complete the following (use textbook and class notes): Summary of Progressive Era Constitutional Amendments
What was the historical issue or problem that led to this amendment?
How did this amendment change the Constitution? (summarize the amendment)
Summary of the Progressive Era:
Define Progressivism (notes):
List the 3 Progressive Era Presidents and identify them as Republican (R) or Democrat (D).
List Progressive Era reforms according to group and identify the problem that each was meant to address. Use your textbook and class notes to complete.
Efficiency Progressives: Goal to make city gov’t run more efficiently
Goal to give the people more political power
Social Welfare Progressives
Goal to improve social conditions in the US
Big Business Progressives
Goal to reform big business and decrease the power of monopolies and trusts
Goal to conserve US Natural Resources
What was the long term legacy of the Progressive Era? (notes)
What groups were left out of the Progressive Era Reforms?