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Riney US History

The Progressive Era

Chapter 6


Unit Objectives:

  • Trace the roots of the Progressive Movement in the United States

  • Explain why many Americans joined the progressive movement

  • Assess the goals, methods and achievements of the Progressives

  • Evaluate the impact of reform leaders such as Susan B. Anthony, Robert LaFollette, WEB Du Bois,

  • Compare and contrast the reform efforts of the progressive presidents, Theodore Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson

  • Discuss and evaluate the political, economic, and social achievements made during the Progressive Era

  • Analyze the reasons for the passage of the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th amendments to the U.S. Constitution

  • Identify and analyze methods of expanding the right to participate in the democratic process: direct primary, initiative referendum and recall

  • Trace the development of the conservation of natural resources, including the establishment of the National Park System

  • Explain actions taken by people from racial, ethnic and religious groups to expand economic opportunities and political rights


2(A-C); 3(C); 5(A-C); 9(A); 14(B,C); 15(B,E); 21(B,C); 23(A,B); 24(A); 25(A); 26(A,D);

Agenda: Complete as assigned. BE PREPARED FOR DAILY QUIZZES. Packet

collected on test day. ALL WORK MUST BE COMPLETE!!:
10/23/15 Friday

Read Chap 6:1 (pg 202-210)

Complete Chap 6:1 Reading Guide Questions


Reread Chap 6:1

10/26/15 Monday

Chap 6 Notes


Read Chap 6:2 (212 – 218)

10/27/15 Tuesday

Complete Chap 6:1 Reading Guide Questions


Reread Chap 6:2

10/28/15 Wednesday

Chap 6 Notes


Read Chap 6:3

10/29/15 Thursday

Complete Chap 6:3 Reading Guide Questions


Reread Chap 6:3

10/30/15 Friday

Chap 6 Notes

11/02/15 Monday

Chap 6 Activities


Finish all Chap 13 Work
11/03/15 Tuesday

Chap 6 Activities

11/04/15 Wednesday

Chap 6 Test Review


Study for Chap 6 Test

11/05/15 Thursday

Chap 6 Test: The Progressive Era


Read Chap 7:1

Chapter 6: The Progressive Movement (1890-1920)
Lesson 1: The Roots of Progressivism (pg 202 - 210)
Content Vocabulary and Concepts:

muckraker a journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society

direct primary a vote held by all members of a political party to decide their candidate for public office

initiative the right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval

referendum the practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature

recall the right that enables voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from office

suffrage the right to vote

prohibition laws banning the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages
Academic Vocabulary

Laissez-faire a policy that the government should interfere as little as possible in the nation’s economy

Free market an economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses

Political corruption the use of public office for private gain

stimulate encourage interest or activity in

reform make changes in (something, typically a social, political, or economic institution or practice) in order to improve it

efficiency accomplishment of or ability to accomplish a job with a minimum expenditure of time, effort, and waste

municipal of or relating to the government of a city or town

legislation a proposed law to be voted on by a governing body

repeal to officially make (a law) no longer valid

lobbying the act of contacting a political leader to explain a concern in order to convince them to vote for a cause

judicial activism the view that the Supreme Court and other judges can and should creatively (re)interpret the texts of the Constitution and the laws in order to serve the judges' own visions regarding the needs of contemporary society

strict construction a literal interpretation of the Constitution

compensation the action or process of awarding someone money as a recompense for loss, injury, or suffering

temperance abstinence from alcoholic drink

advocate to propose a certain position or viewpoint

socialism a way of organizing a society in which major industries are owned and controlled by the government rather than by individual people and companies
People to Know
Jacob Riis Robert LaFollette Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony Alice Paul Francis Willard Eugene Debs Carrie Chapman Catt
Amendments to Know

5th 14th 15th 17th 18th 19th

Reading Guide
Main Idea: The Progressive Era was a time when many Americans tied to improve their society. They tried to make government honest, efficient, and more democratic. The movement for women’s suffrage gained more support, as did efforts to limit child labor and reduce alcohol consumption.
Why it matters now: This era marked the shift away from laissez-faire, a trend which continues today with the ever-increasing regulations on business and the continued calls for societal reforms.
When reading, focus on the following:

Progressive beliefs

Role of the muckrakers

Efficiency Progressives

Democracy Progressives

The road to women’s suffrage

Social Welfare Progressives

Child Labor and laws against it

Alcohol abuse and Prohibition

17-19th Amendments

Safety standards and building codes

  1. Progressives were concerned about laissez-faire economics and its emphasis on an ___________________________ market. What issues were present that led these reformers to doubt the free market’s ability to address problems?

  1. Progressives believed that rapid industrialization and urbanization in the Gilded Age created social problems. What sets apart Progressive from Gilded Age ideas is that Progressives believe the ___________________________ should take a more active role in solving society’s problems. What else did they believe could produce solutions for society?

3. Muckrakers generally targeted corruption in three areas. List those three areas.




*** Progressives have been grouped into 4 categories: Efficiency, Democracy, Social Welfare, and

Efficiency Progressives: goal to make city gov’ts more efficient

4. Describe the corruption and inefficiency in city government that the Progressives hoped to remedy.

5. In general, to make city gov’t run more efficiently the Progressives supported reforms that gave ________

a major role in managing the city. List the two city gov’t plans favored by the Progressives


Democracy Progressives: goal to expand democracy and give more political power to the people

6. According to the Democracy Progressives, what was the key to improving government?
7. Wisconsin became known as the “Laboratory of Democracy” because the governor, __________________,

initiated several reforms that expanded democracy in the federal and state gov’ts. List 4 political reforms

that were initiated by “Fightin’ Bob” (list, don’t define – this is already done in Vocabulary)




8. Another Progressive reform targeted the way US Senators (2 from each state, 6 yr terms) are elected.

According to Constitution, how were Senators chosen?

a) What was the problem with that?

b) What was the solution?
c) What is the negative effect of that solution?
9. Explain the split that weakened the women’s suffrage movement in the late 1800s.

10. How did women use lobbying to further the cause of women’s suffrage?

11. It is said that “well-behaved women rarely make history.” What did Alice Paul and Rose Winslow of the

NWP do to earn a spot in your history book?

12. How do women eventually achieve the right to vote in 1920?

13. Read the Biography on pg 206: Susan B. Anthony. As head of the National Woman’s Suffrage Association,

she began promoting a constitutional _________________________ as a means to grant women suffrage.
Social Welfare Progressives: goal to create solutions to social problems

14. List 5 social problems that were addressed by Social progressives.

15. What were they main issues that affected working class women.

16. What new laws against child labor (at least 3) came into effect because of such writings as John Spargo’s

The Bitter Cry of the Children?

17. Another issue of concern to the Progressives was protection for workers. Two Supreme Court cases

addressed this issue. Analyze each case according to strict vs activist judicial interpretation (see


a) How did Lochner v. New York (1905) reflect a strict constructionist interpretation?
b) How did Muller v. Oregon (1908) reflect an activist stance?
18. What was the impact of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire?

19. Summarize how the following type of laws improved health and safety for the American public.

a) zoning laws:
b) building codes:
c) health codes:
20. In summary, the Fifth Amendment states that private property cannot be taken for public use without

compensation ($$). Give examples about how zoning laws led some business owners to claim that

their fifth amendment rights were being violated

21. The temperance movement was led by Francis Willard and was supported by many. List reasons for

support of temperance and eventually prohibition.

22. The temperance movement first worked to reduce alcohol consumption, it later pressed for (and gets!)

_________________________________ through the 18th amendment
Business Progressives: goal to increase gov’t regulations on business

23. Business Progressives focused their efforts on ________________________ big business.

24. Some Business Progressives thought that big businesses should be broken up to restore competition

(Sherman Anti-trust Act). What approach did other Business Progressives suggest?

25. A more radical idea advocated by some Business Progressives was ____________________. Supporters

of this economic theory believed that the government should buy certain industries that affected

_____________________ such as __________________ and ________________________.
26. Though most Americans rejected socialism in favor of free enterprise (market economy, capitalism),

_________________ ___________ won nearly 1 million votes as the _____________________

____________________ candidate in the 1912 election.
Lesson 2: Roosevelt and Taft (pg 212 - 218)
Content Vocabulary and Concepts:

Social Darwinism a philosophy, based on Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution and natural selection, stating that humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving

arbitration settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider

insubordination disobedience to authority

Academic Vocabulary

Prosperity the state of being wealthy, or having a rich and full life

Trust a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition

Strict Construction a literal reading and strict interpretation of the Constitution – restricts judicial interpretation

Judicial Interpretation (also known as Loose Construction) occurs when justices extend the Constitution’s meaning beyond the framers’ original intent and allows for reasonable inferences based on the text

Commerce trade

Slippery slope a process or series of events that is hard to stop or control once it has begun and that usually leads to worse or more difficult things

Restraint a measure or condition that keeps someone or something under control or within limits

Regulation government imposed rule or law

Broker arrange or negotiate (a settlement, deal, or plan).

Consumer a person who buys goods and services

Patent the official legal right to make or sell an invention for a particular number of years

Distort give a misleading or false account or impression of

Scrutiny the act of carefully examining something especially in a critical way

Environmental relating to the environment; the complex system of plants, animals, water, and soil

Conservation planned management of a natural resource to prevent exploitation, destruction, or neglect

Bully pulpit an important public position, such as public office, that allows a person to express beliefs and opinions to many people
People to Know
Theodore Roosevelt Upton Sinclair Gifford Pinchot William H. Taft

Richard Ballinger

Supreme Court Cases to Know

Northern Securities v. US (1904) US v. EC Knight (1894)

Reading Guide
Main Idea: Energetic and strong-willed, Theodore Roosevelt extended the federal government’s ability to conserve natural resources and to curb the power of big business. His successor, William Howard Taft, was less popular with Progressives
Why it matters now: The power of the executive branch of government has grown significantly since the Progressive Era leading to debates over the issue. Over-regulation and Judicial Activism remain controversial.
When reading, focus on the following:


Strict Interpretation vs. Judicial Interpretation

Business Regulations


Taft and the Progressives

Legacy of the Progressive Movement

27. Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution is known as the Commerce Clause. It states that “The Congress

shall have Power …To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States…” In US

v. Knight (1894), the justices applied Strict Construction principles (see definition) to the Commerce

Clause. Ten years late, In Northern Securities v. US (1904), judicial interpretation (see definition) was

applied to the Commerce Clause. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes dissented (disagreed with the majority

opinion) in the Northern Securities case. He warned that the decision to loosely interpret the Commerce

Clause would lead us down a slippery slope (see definition). How was he correct?

28. What was TR’s approach to keep society operating efficiently?

29. By intervening in the coal strike of 1902, what role did TR establish for the federal gov’t?

30. TR believed that most trusts were good for the economy and that the cost of antitrust action outweighed

the benefits. List two of TRs arguments in support of trusts.

  1. They are an _______________________ way to do business

  2. They are more competition against _________________ _________________

31. In spite of being a reluctant trustbuster, as a Progressive, TR also distrusted large concentrations of

power. Why?

32. Summarize TRs solution for monitoring trusts that allowed him to regulate them without resorting to anti-

trust lawsuits.

33. How did the Hepburn Act attempt to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

34. In the Progressive Era, some reformers felt that the costs of a laissez-faire approach to the economy

outweighed the benefits. Briefly explain some of their concerns about the lack of gov’t regulations on the

following industries:

  1. Patent medicines

  1. Food

  1. Meatpacking

35. How did the following laws regulate those industries?

a) Meat Inspection Act (1906):
b) Pure Food and Drug Act (1906):
36. Explain the long-term pros and cons of those laws and others like it.


37. TRs most enduring legacy lies in the area of ______________________________________. What was

this major concern regarding this?

38. TR cautioned against ________________________ use of public (gov’t owned) lands and argued that

______________________ should be the guiding principle in managing the US’s natural resources.

39. Under TR, the Newlands Reclamation Act was passed. It authorized the use of federal funds from public

land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects. He also established the US Forest Service.

Under the leadership of Gifford Pinchot, What was the function of the US Forest Service?

40. List 3 additional ways that TR acted on his conservationist views.

41. Under TR, Americans began to look to the _______________________ ______________________ to

Solve the nation’s _____________________ and ____________________ problems.

42. Give examples of how the power of the Executive Branch of gov’t grew dramatically under TR.

1) Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC):

2) Dept of Commerce and Labor:
3) Expedition Act:
43. Republican William Howard Taft won the 1908 election by defeating Democrat ____________________,

who lost for the 3rd time.

44. For what 3 reasons were Progressive against high tariffs?


45. Why were Progressive Republicans outraged when Taft signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff?
46. What political change occurred as a result of Americans’ frustration with Taft?

47. Identify and EXPLAIN 3 of Taft’s Progressive achievements




48. Over what issue did TR break with Taft and led him to reenter politics by running for President in the 1912


Lesson 3: The Wilson Years (pg 220-225)
Content Vocabulary and Concepts:

income tax a tax based on the net income of a person or business

unfair trade practices trading practices that derive a gain at the expense of competition

direct tax a tax imposed directly on a person or their property

indirect tax a tax that someone pays, but the tax burden falls on someone else

Academic Vocabulary

Culminate to end or arrive at a final stage

excise tax a paid when purchases are made on a specific good, such as gasoline. They are often included in the price of the product

graduated income tax a tax based on the net income of an individual or business and which taxes different income levels at different rates. Sometimes called a progressive tax

lobby an organized group of people who work together to influence government decisions that relate to a particular industry, issue, etc.

revenue a process or series of events that is hard to stop or control once it has begun and that usually leads to worse or more difficult things

academic a person associated with higher learning at a scholarly institution

unconstitutional not in accordance with or authorized by the constitution of a state or society

interest money paid regularly at a particular rate for the use of money lent, or for delaying the repayment of a debt

Monetary policy the actions of a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates

inflation a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money

recession a period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters

discrimination the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex.

lynching to execute, usually by hanging, without lawful approval

emancipation freeing of someone from slavery

sect religious denomination

People to Know
Woodrow Wilson W.E.B DuBois Ida B. Wells
Amendments to Know


Reading Guide
Main Idea: Woodrow Wilson, a progressive Democrat, won the election of 1912. While in office, he supported lower tariffs, more regulation of business, and the creation of the Federal Reserve System
Why it matters now: Fair taxation, the power of big business and the actions of the Federal Reserve Board are current issues in American politics. The issue of discrimination has been renewed with more and more groups in American society demanding equal rights.
When reading, focus on the following:

1912 election and the role of the third party

16th Amendment

Federal Reserve Act of 1913

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

Clayton Antitrust Act

Keating-Owen Child Labor Act

WEB DuBois and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Anti-Defamation League

  1. 1912 Election: fill in chart


Political Party

Winner (mark )

50. Why was Wilson the easy winner in the 1912 election?

  1. Explain the difference between a direct tax and an indirect tax?

  1. Prior to 1900, through what means did the federal government raise most of its money?

  1. Why did progressives want a “graduated” income tax?

  1. Which amendment gave the federal government the power to collect income tax directly without having to apportion it among the states?

  1. The graduated income tax was promoted by Wilson to make up for the loss in revenue after the Underwood-Simmons Act reduced revenue from _____________________.

  1. Why did President Wilson support a Federal Reserve System?

  1. The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 established _____ regional reserve banks that kept a portion of banks’ deposits as a cushion against unexpected losses. The Federal Reserve Board (more commonly known as The Fed) is responsible for America’s Monetary Policy (see definition). The Fed manages the nation’s economy by adjusting ___________________ rates that affect the money _______________. How does the Fed react to address the following economic problems?

  1. Recession (see definition):

  1. Inflation (see definition):

  1. Why was Pres. Wilson reluctant to break up big businesses?

  1. To satisfy Progressives, Congress created the Federal Trade Commission. What is its function

and what powers does it have?

  1. Congress also passed the Clayton Antitrust Act. How did this law address the power of big business?

  1. How did the following, all signed into law by Wilson, reflect his support for progressive issues?

  1. Keating-Owen Child Labor Act:

  2. Adamson Act:

  3. Federal Farm Loan Act:

  1. How did the presidencies of progressive Presidents T. Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson change the role of the federal government?

  1. List two groups that did not benefit from the Progressive reforms of the early 1900?

  1. Led by W.E.B. DuBois, black Americans form the NAACP to address their issues. According to DuBois, what was essential to end lynching and racial discrimination?

  1. To address anti-semitism, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) was formed to combat stereotypes and discrimination. Give examples that highlight improvements in the treatment of Jews in the USA after this organization was founded.

The Diagram below shows the structure of the Federal Reserve System. Study the diagram. Use it and your textbook to help you answer the questions that follow.

  1. Who appoints the members of the Federal Reserve Board?

  1. What power does the Federal Reserve Board have?

  1. What is the function of the Federal Reserve Banks?

  1. How does the Federal Reserve Board pump money into the economy? (pg 223)

  1. How does the Federal Reserve System benefit the Economy? (pg 223)

Work in Groups of 3 to complete the following (use textbook and class notes):
Summary of Progressive Era Constitutional Amendments


What was the historical issue or problem that led to this amendment?

How did this amendment change the Constitution? (summarize the amendment)





Summary of the Progressive Era:

  1. Define Progressivism (notes):

  1. List the 3 Progressive Era Presidents and identify them as Republican (R) or Democrat (D).

  1. List Progressive Era reforms according to group and identify the problem that each was meant to address. Use your textbook and class notes to complete.

Progressive Group


Solution (Reform)

Efficiency Progressives: Goal to make city gov’t run more efficiently

Democracy Progressives

Goal to give the people more political power

Social Welfare Progressives

Goal to improve social conditions in the US

Big Business Progressives

Goal to reform big business and decrease the power of monopolies and trusts

Environmental Progressives

Goal to conserve US Natural Resources

  1. What was the long term legacy of the Progressive Era? (notes)

  1. What groups were left out of the Progressive Era Reforms?

I’m a STAAR!

What’s my Claim to Fame?

Susan B. Anthony

Era: Progressive

Why I’m Famous:

Francis Willard

Era: Progressive

Why I’m Famous:

  • Upton Sinclair

    Era: Progressive

    Why I’m Famous:

    Theodore Roosevelt

    Era: Progressive

    Why I’m Famous:

Woodrow Wilson

Era: Progressive

Why I’m Famous:

W.E.B. DuBois

Era: Progressive

Why I’m Famous:

  • Ida B. Wells

    Era: Progressive

    Why I’m Famous:

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