Name: __________________________ Chapter 21 Test Date: _____________
Use the following to answer questions 1-10:
Write the letter of the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.
1. The location of the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London, an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron.
2. Theory proposed by English economist David Ricardo suggesting that the pressure of population growth prevents wages from rising above the subsistence level.
3. A spinning machine created by Richard Arkwright that had a capacity of several hundred spindles and used waterpower; it therefore required a larger and more specialized mill—a factory.
4. English laws passed in 1799 that outlawed unions and strikes, favoring capitalist businesspeople over skilled artisans. Bitterly resented and widely disregarded by many craft guilds, the acts were repealed by Parliament in 1824.
5. A simple, inexpensive, hand-powered spinning machine created by James Hargreaves in 1765.
6. The name given to George Stephenson's effective locomotive that was first tested in 1830 on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16 miles per hour.
7. Group of handicraft workers who attacked whole factories in northern England in 1812 and after, smashing the new machines that they believed were putting them out of work.
8. A term first coined in the 1830s to describe the burst of major inventions and economic expansion that took place in certain industries, such as cotton textiles and iron.
9. A government's way of supporting and aiding its own economy by laying high taxes on imported goods from other countries, as when the French responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country by imposing high tariffs on some imported products.
10. English law that led to a sharp decline in the employment of children by limiting the hours that children over age nine could work and requiring younger children to attend factory-run elementary schools.
Choose the letter of the best answer.
they received substantially lower wages than cottage work.
they were consistently punished if they broke work rules.
The Factory Act of 1833
limited the work of children and thereby broke the pattern of families working together in factories.
required employers to keep logs of all work-related injuries and accidents and provide copies to local authorities.
established the first minimum wage for workers, although it did not apply to children.
mandated a maximum workweek for adults of 60 hours if the adult operated machinery.
authorized workers to form unions if the factory had more than twenty-five employees.
In the “separate spheres” pattern of gender relationships,
women were expected to produce sufficient income for the family to provide for themselves.
men were made responsible for managing families' finances.
women generally stopped working outside of the home after the first child was born.
men took on significant childcare and domestic roles so that women could work outside of the home.
women increasingly gained access to employment opportunities that had traditionally been reserved for men.
The reformer Robert Owens sought to
oppose industrial development as contrary to human happiness.
create a single large national union for British workers.
defend the rights of private property against socialist claims.
free laborers from the restrictions of the Factory Acts.
form a committee of industrialists to advise the government on industrial policy.
The key demand of the Chartist movement was that
employers be required to provide basic education for child workers under the age of ten.
women be paid equally to men.
Britain permit the import of grain without duties attached in order to keep food prices low.
all men be given the right to vote.
employers give all employees a “workers' charter” that outlined their rights and responsibilities.
Answer 2 of the following questions with three or four sentences.
Why did the cotton-spinning jenny and the water frame prove a crucial breakthrough for industrialization?
Why did both mill owners and families initially favor the family unit form of employment?
How did continental European countries, when they began to industrialize after 1815, have advantages that Great Britain had lacked?
Answer 2 of the following questions in a few paragraphs. Include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.
Britain was the first industrial nation. Why?
The Industrial Revolution profoundly affected the British working classes. Describe its impact on working-class men, women, and children. Overall, was the Industrial Revolution beneficial or harmful for the working class?
How did the Industrial Revolution impact political and economic thought in eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century Europe?
The Industrial Revolution not only transformed British industry and society, it called forth a multifaceted reform effort to cope with the societal problems created by industrialization. What were the goals and motivations of both the parliamentary reform movement and the labor movement in nineteenth-century Britain? What were their successes and failures?
The cotton-spinning jenny and the water frame permitted textile manufacturers to overcome the constant shortage of thread that inhibited the growth of the textile industry. The water frame, further, required waterpower and led to the creation of large specialized mills, which formed into factories. Cotton goods became much cheaper and widely demanded.
By working as a family unit, families earned more money and thereby continued the labor practice to which they had been accustomed on the farm. Parents were able to watch over children while they worked, and mill owners permitted parents to discipline their children so that the firm discipline of the workshop would be socially acceptable.
Continental countries had strong traditions of trade and urban crafts able to adapt to new market conditions. The continental economies could borrow technology from Great Britain that the British had taken decades to develop, as well as hire the engineers who built and ran the machinery. Some continental powers also had state governments willing to aid industrial development and fashion industrial policies.
Students should thoroughly describe contributing factors, including the physical environment and the importance of water transport; the agricultural revolution; the Atlantic economy, cottage industry, government stability, and positive attitude toward commercial and industrial expansion; and the unified national market, human capital in terms of labor, and technological innovators. Following this descriptive section, the student should identify those factors unique to Britain. Finally, students should decide which factor was most important and justify this decision.
This essay should describe the lives of the working class in terms of employment opportunities, working and living conditions, sexual division of labor, education, and political rights. Students should be sure to discuss the psychological effects of changes in the work process and the new urban environment. Reference to the testimony of the Ashley Mines Commission would reinforce students' arguments. The changing patterns of employment in the factory system, from pauper apprentices to family units to the male-dominated workforce, as well as the role of kinship networks in the labor market, should be addressed. Finally, students should provide an informed opinion regarding the optimist/pessimist debate on the benefits of the Industrial Revolution for the working people of Britain.
Students should draw on the text's discussion of Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, Friedrich List, Friedrich Engels, and Robert Owen. They should also address the emergence of the ideology of separate spheres for men and women in the context of the Industrial Revolution.
Students should begin by briefly describing the problems: working conditions, living conditions, class conflict, and exploitation. Next, they should discuss the parliamentary reform effort, including motivations, information gathering, and relevant legislation. Then, students should turn to the labor movement; this section should discuss the efforts of such reformers as Owen, as well as the efforts of the working class itself to organize politically, to improve working and living conditions, and to ensure higher wages, job security, and other benefits. The rise of class-consciousness, the Combination Acts, and the emergence of the new model unions should be discussed. Successes include the Factory Act and Mines Act and the formation of the labor movement. Failures include Owen's grandiose schemes of societal reform and the primary aim of the Chartist movement—the right to vote. An astute students will conclude by assessing the impact of these early efforts on subsequent developments in labor relations.