Lesson Focus/Topic: Struggle for Equal Opportunity during the Progressive Era for Minorities
Essential Question(s): How were African Americans and other minorities treated during the Progressive Era?
What ways did African Americans and minorities believe they could achieve equal citizenship, and what actions did they take to achieve these goals?
Materials and Resources Required**:
Teacher: The American Journeytextbook, primary source by W.E.B. Du Bois, primary source by Booker T. Washington, introductory worksheet, Youtube video.
Student: The American Journey textbook, utensils, paper.
Lesson Instructional Objectives
(concrete, conceptual, application, critical)
for each objective
(formative & summative)
1. Students will evaluate the beliefs and actions taken by African Americans and other minorities to achieve equality in the United States during the Progressive Era.
2. Students will analyze two primary documents from W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington.
1. Formative Assessment: Students will be assessed by their participation in discussion after reading pages 666-668 in The American Journey and how well they answer the discussion questions.
2. Summative Assessment: The summative assessment will be the question sheet that is associated with the two primary documents over W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington.
Standards Addressed (Label and copy)
16.A.2c Ask questions and seek answers by collecting and analyzing data from historic documents, images and other literary and non-literary sources.
16.D.2c (US) Describe the influence of key individuals and groups, including Susan B. Anthony/suffrage and Martin Luther King, Jr./civil rights, in the historical eras of Illinois and the United States.
Texts Used in Lesson
The American Journey
Excerpt from “The Souls of Black Folk” by W.E.B. Du Bois, 1903.
Excerpt from Booker T. Washington’s “Atlanta Compromise” Speech, 1895.
Video: KKK: A Secret History Pt. 3 (2:09-3:12)
Academic Language Considerations
Analyze, infer, evaluate, discuss, question.
Activating and Connecting
I will ask students several questions that will arouse curiosity, motivate readers, build and activate prior knowledge, and set a purpose. Some examples of questions I will ask are: How were African Americans and other minorities treated during the Progressive Era? What are some examples of organizations and institutions minorities were banned from? What type of discrimination and prejudice did they experience? Who discriminated against African Americans and minorities? The students will then watch the Youtube video, “KKK-A Secret History Pt. 3”, and they will answer two questions. How did the film “Birth of A Nation” depict the Ku Klux Klan? How did it depict African Americans? What were the films effects on African Americans?
1.1, 1.2, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 5.1, 7.2, 8.3.
Students will read pages 666-668 in The American Journey and they will do a worksheet/reading guide. The worksheet asks students to identify the most important information of the section, and it also has the students identify different components of the text such as primary sources and a bibliography. It also asks students if they have any previous knowledge over the subject. This will allow students to make predictions, build vocabulary, use text structures, ask questions, apply prior knowledge, and it will allow me to monitor their understanding.
Students will use the method of REAP (Read, Encode, Annotate, Ponder). Students will read the two primary sources and analyze each one. They will find the main ideas of each source, then they will compare and contrast the two documents. They will then answer questions over the two documents in a worksheet
2.1, 3.1, 6.3, 6.4, 7.3, 8.3, 9.1
Students will extend and reflect through discussion. We will come together as a class, and go over the two primary sources together. We will go over their answers, and we will discuss who they agree more with Booker T. Washington or W.E.B. Du Bois and why they do so.
2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 6.3, 6.4, 7.3, 8.3, 9.1, 9.2.
*Annotate the phases of instruction to demonstrate integration of UDL by principle, guideline & checkpoint.
**Include all materials and resources to be used with the lesson.
Document A: Booker T. Washington (Modified)
Booker T. Washington was born a slave in 1856 and was nine years old when slavery ended. He became the principal of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, a school designed to teach blacks industrial skills. Washington was a skillful politician and speaker, and he won the support of whites in the North and South who donated money to the school. Washington argued that blacks should gain success in the economy and that it would gradually result in them achieving equal rights. On September 18, 1895, Booker T. Washington spoke before a mostly white audience in Atlanta. Ignorant and inexperienced, it is not strange that in the first years of our freedom we began at the top instead of at the bottom; that a seat in Congress or the state legislature was more attractive than starting a dairy farm or garden.
A ship lost at sea for many days passed a friendly ship and sent out a signal, “Water, water; we die of thirst!” The answer from the friendly ship at once came back, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” A second time the signal, “Water, water; send us water!” ran up from the distressed ship, and was answered, “Cast down your bucket where you are” . . . .The captain of the distressed vessel(ship), at last heeding (listening to) the injunction (order), cast down his bucket, and it came up full of fresh, sparkling water.
To those of my race I would say: “Cast down your bucket where you are”— cast it down in making friends with the Southern white man, who is your next-door neighbor. Cast it down in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in domestic service. . . . No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem. It is at the bottom of life we must begin, and not at the top.
To those of the white race who look to foreign immigrants for the prosperity of the South, I would repeat what I say to my own race, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” Cast it down among the eight millions of Negroes, whose fidelity(loyalty) and love you have tested. . . . As we have proved our loyalty to you in the past . . . so in the future, in our humble way, we shall stand by you with a devotion that no foreigner can approach. . . . In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.
Source:Excerpt from Booker T. Washington’s ‘Atlanta Compromise’ speech, 1895.
STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu
Document B: W.E.B. DuBois (Modified)
The most influential public critique of Booker T. Washington came in 1903 when black leader and intellectual W.E.B. DuBois published an essay in his book, The Souls ofBlack Folk. DuBois rejected Washington’s message and instead called for political power, insistence on civil rights, and the higher education of African-American youth. DuBois was born and raised a free man in Massachusetts and was the first African American to earn a PhD from Harvard. The most striking thing in the history of the American Negro since 1876 is the rise of Mr. Booker T. Washington. His leadership began at the time when Civil War memories and ideals were rapidly passing; a day of astonishing commercial development was dawning; a sense of doubt and hesitation overtook the freedmen’s sons. Mr. Washington came at the psychological moment when whites were a little ashamed of having paid so much attention to Negroes [during Reconstruction], and were concentrating their energy on dollars.
Mr. Washington practically accepts the alleged inferiority of the Negro races. Mr. Washington withdraws many of the high demands of Negroes as men and American citizens. He asks that black people give up, at least for the present,three things—First, political power; Second, insistence on civil rights; Third, higher education of Negro youth,— and concentrate all their energies on industrial education, the accumulation of wealth, and the pacifying (calming down) of the South.
As a result of this tender of the palm-branch (peace offering), what has been the return? In these years there have occurred:
1. The disfranchisement (taking away the right to vote) of the Negro; 2. The legal creation of a distinct status of civil inferiority for the Negro; 3. The steady withdrawal of aid from institutions for the higher training of the Negro. Mr. Washington’s doctrine has tended to make the whites, North and South, shift the burden of the Negro problem to the Negro’s shoulders and stand aside as critical spectators (onlookers); when in fact the burden belongs to the nation, and the hands of none of us are clean if we do not all work on righting these great wrongs.
Source: W. E. B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk (Chicago, 1903).
Booker T. Washington vs. W.E.B. Dubois
Who do you believe Booker T. Washington is calling ignorant and inexperienced?
What does Washington mean when he says “Cast down your bucket where you are”?
In what ways does W.E.B. Dubois argue that Booker T Washington “accepts the alleged inferiority of the Negro races”?
According to W.E.B. Dubois, what are the results of Booker T. Washington’s “peace offering”?
Opinion: Who do you agree with the most? Does Booker T. Washington or W.E.B. Dubois have the best argument on how African Americans should achieve equality? Why?