My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery

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“My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery.” -- Abraham Lincoln, 1862.
I. Call to Arms. With the fall of Ft. Sumter Lincoln’s call for 75,000 volunteers exhibits the Nationalism of both sides… on to Richmond.
II. Real Combat Begins. 1st major battles!

  • Eastern theater –

    • 1st Bull Run July 21, 1861.

    • Because of “Stonewall” Jackson confederate victory!

    • Union Soldiers “Skedaddled” back to Wash. D.C.

  • Western theater –

    • Battle of Shiloh April 6-7, 1862.

    • “Hornets Nest”, “Bloody Pond.” Union Victory for US Grant.

    • Sobered up the nation. No quick victory in West.

    • Shiloh means “Place of Peace” in Hebrew.

III. War at Sea.

  • Union “Anaconda Plan” led to blockade running.

  • March 9, 1862 off Hampton Roads, Virginia clash of Ironclads “Monitor vs. Merrimack.” It was a draw.

  • All navies on Earth were obsolete.

IV. The Peninsula & Seven Days

  • Union commander George B. McClellan launched campaign to take Richmond.

  • Attack up the James River Peninsula.

  • McClellan was overcautious, indecisive.

  • Stalled in Front of Richmond, Confederates, led by Robert E. Lee launched “Seven Days” counter attack June 26th to July 2, 1862.

  • McClellan retreats off the peninsula. (Fired)

  • Lee follows with victory at 2nd Bull Run. 3 times as large as 1st. Aug. 29-30, 1862.

V. Antietam.

  • Sept. 17, 1862 bloodiest day in American History.

  • Lee’s first invasion of the North. Armies met at Sharpsburg, Maryland.

  • 3 battles in one day: “Cornfield,” “Bloody Lane,” and “Burnside Bridge.”

  • Technically a draw. Lee moved back into Virginia.

  • McClellan fired again…this time for good!

VI. The Higher Cause

  • Abraham Lincoln used the “Victory” at Antietam to issue his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. (Sept. 23, 1862)

  • Freed slaves in states in rebellion. Military decree, “A Proclamation without Emancipation”

VII. Lee on the move: Universe of Battle

  • New union commander Burnside attacks Lee Army at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862.

  • “It is well that war is so terrible – we should grow too fond of it.” R. E. Lee.

  • Confederate victory. “Northern Lights”

  • Burnside Fired!

VIII. Lee’s Greatest Victory

  • The battle of Chancellorsville May2, 1863.

  • Divided forces led by Stonewall Jackson’s surprised union.

  • Jackson Lost. Lee… “He has lost his left arm and I have lost my right.”

  • Union commander Joe Hooker Fired!

  • “God, My God, What will the country think.” -- A. Lincoln.

IX. Gettysburg

  • July 1, 2, 3, 1863.

  • Day 1 – Macpherson’s Ridge

  • Day 2 – Little Round Top

  • Day 3 – Pickett’s Charge

  • Decisive Union victory. Proved to be the turning point in the war.

  • Nov. 19, 1863 Lincoln gave a 2 minute speech to dedicate the new national cemetery. He spoke of a “…New Birth of Freedom.”

X. Vicksburg: The key to the West

  • General Grant laid siege to the fortress of Vicksburg on the Mississippi after two month siege Vicksburg surrender on the 4th of July, 1863.

  • “The father of waters flows unvexed to the sea.” A. Lincoln.

  • Grant moves to Eastern Tennessee and clears Chattanooga of Rebels by the end of 1863… setting the stage for the invasion of Georgia.

XI. Lee vs. Grant

  • 1864 Grant placed in charge of all Union Armies.

  • Grand strategy… 1) send Sherman into Georgia and 2) Attack and destroy Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.

  • Grant struck toward Richmond. “Move by the left flank.”

    • Battle of the Wilderness. “Forest Fire.” May, 1864.

    • Spotsylvania Courthouse. “Bloody Angle.” May, 1864

    • Battle of Cold Harbor. “7000 Men fell in 20 Minute.” June 3, 1846

    • Petersburg. Siege. Prelude of WWI. June 1864 to April 1865.

    • Richmond falls April 3, 1865. Lee’s Army flees west.

XII. Sherman’s March

      • Begins May 1864

      • Atlanta Falls Sept. 1864

      • March to the Sea. Target Savannah 250 Mi., 60 Mile wide swath of destruction. “Scorched earth policy.”

      • “Make Georgia Howl.” – William T. Sherman

      • War is all Hell!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

XIII. The Issue is Settled !

  • Escaping Petersburg to the west Lee is finally cornered at “Appomattox Court House” Lee Surrenders to Grant April 9th, 1865.

  • Good Friday. April 14th, 1865

  • Lincoln is assassinated at Fords Theater by John Wilkes Booth.

  • “Now he belongs to the ages.”

  • “Useless, Useless.”

  • The last shot of the civil War.

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