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Chapter 1—The Evolution of Psychology
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Which of the following individuals is responsible for establishing psychology as an independent discipline with its own subject matter?

a.

Wilhelm Wundt

b.

G. Stanley Hall

c.

René Descartes

d.

William James

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 4 BLM: Remember


2. According to historians, when and where did the “birth” of psychology occur?

a.

1859 in England

b.

1879 in Germany

c.

1883 in the United States

d.

1909 in Austria

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 4 BLM: Remember


3. According to Wilhelm Wundt, what was the focus of psychology?

a.

to understand functions of behaviour

b.

to understand unconscious motivation

c.

the scientific study of observable behaviour

d.

the scientific study of conscious experience

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 4 BLM: Remember


4. What did Wilhelm Wundt believe the focus of psychology should be?

a.

studying stimulus-response associations

b.

questioning the nature of existence

c.

examining people’s awareness of their immediate experience

d.

determining people’s unconscious motivation for behaviour

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 4 BLM: Higher order


5. Who established the first psychological research laboratory in the United States and launched that country’s first psychology journal?

a.

William James

b.

G. Stanley Hall

c.

John Watson

d.

Edward Titchener

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 5 BLM: Remember


6. Who was the first president of the American Psychological Association (APA)?

a.

G. Stanley Hall

b.

John Watson

c.

William James

d.

Sigmund Freud

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 5 BLM: Remember


7. What is the world’s largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology?

a.

Psychologists of North America

b.

Western Psychological Society

c.

World Psychology Organization

d.

American Psychological Association

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 5 BLM: Remember


8. What were the first two major schools of psychology?

a.

functionalism and behaviourism

b.

behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory

c.

behaviourism and Gestalt psychology

d.

structuralism and functionalism

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Remember


9. Which school of psychology focused on identifying and examining the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images?

a.

humanism

b.

structuralism

c.

functionalism

d.

behaviourism

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Remember


10. Which type of psychologist was most likely to use the technique of introspection?

a.

structuralist

b.

behaviourist

c.

cognitive

d.

humanist

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


11. Mariska is participating in a study in which she is asked to carefully observe and report her conscious reactions to several stimuli. Which type of psychologist is most likely to conduct a study like this?

a.

structuralist

b.

humanist

c.

behaviourist

d.

psychoanalytic

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


12. Isabel is listening to a piece of classical music and tape recording all her feelings and impressions as she experiences them. Which school of psychology was well-known for using this sort of technique?

a.

humanism

b.

structuralism

c.

functionalism

d.

behaviourism

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


13. In an attempt to learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. What is this technique called?

a.

retrospection

b.

empiricism

c.

introspection

d.

psychoanalysis

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


14. Dr. Asgaard believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as auditory processing, it is first necessary to understand all the separate component parts. Which of the following psychologists are Dr. Asgaard’s views most consistent with?

a.

Ivan Pavlov

b.

Carl Rogers

c.

William James

d.

Edward Titchener

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


15. Which of the following was an important reason why structuralism ended as a dominant school of psychology?

a.

Introspection was a highly subjective method of analyzing consciousness, and it was difficult for others to validate or evaluate the claims made about a subject’s conscious experiences.

b.

Psychoanalysis was a much better method than introspection for determining the conscious experiences of an individual.

c.

Structuralists did not want to examine important psychological issues like sensation and perception.

d.

Titchener died, and there were no other well-established structuralists to continue his work.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


16. Which of the following schools of psychology focused on understanding the purpose of behaviour?

a.

structuralism

b.

functionalism

c.

neodynamism

d.

behaviourism

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Remember


17. Which of the following statements is most likely to be made by a researcher who studies pain perception from a functionalist perspective?

a.

We can understand pain perception only if we understand the unconscious processes that initiate the sensation of pain.

b.

We can study pain only by observing the outward expression of pain in response to different stimuli.

c.

We can study pain only if all the component parts that make up the experience of pain are understood.

d.

We can understand pain perception only if we understand the role of pain in human survival and adaptation.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


18. Which of the following theorists most heavily influenced William James, who was a pioneer in the development of functionalism?

a.

theorist Charles Darwin

b.

theorist Sigmund Freud

c.

theorist B. F. Skinner

d.

theorist John Watson

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Remember


19. Which school of psychology stressed that psychology should study the purpose of consciousness rather than its structure?

a.

psychoanalysis

b.

structuralism

c.

Gestalt psychology

d.

functionalism

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Remember


20. Dr. Smythe believes that in order to fully understand complex processes, such as taste, it is necessary to understand the role that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. With which school of thought are Dr. Smythe’s views most consistent?

a.

structuralist approach

b.

behaviourist approach

c.

functionalist approach

d.

psychoanalytic approach

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


21. Dr. Ramos believes that it is not possible to fully understand emotions unless we understand the role that the conscious experiences associated with emotions play in survival and adaptation. With which theorist are Dr. Ramos’s views most consistent with?

a.

Ivan Pavlov

b.

Carl Rogers

c.

Edward Titchener

d.

William James

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


22. What is the term used by William James to describe a continuous flow of thoughts?

a.

phenomenological flow

b.

stream of consciousness

c.

transcendental meditation

d.

existential awareness

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Remember


23. Which of the following is a concept that is least associated with functionalism?

a.

mental testing

b.

elements of consciousness

c.

stream of consciousness

d.

adapting to the environment

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


24. Which of the following was an early approach in psychology that fostered the development of modern-day applied psychology?

a.

behaviourism

b.

functionalism

c.

pragmatism

d.

structuralism

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Remember


25. Which of the following was a major focus of study for structuralists, but not functionalists?

a.

effectiveness of educational practices

b.

sensation and perception

c.

development in children

d.

mental testing

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Higher order


26. Who was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology?

a.

Mary Calkins

b.

Anna Freud

c.

Margaret Washburn

d.

Leta Hollingworth

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 BLM: Remember


27. What is Leta Hollingworth most well known for?

a.

debunking theories which proposed that women are inferior to men

b.

founding one of the early psychology laboratories in America

c.

being the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology

d.

being the first woman president of the American Psychological Association

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 7 BLM: Remember


28. Which psychologist proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behaviour?

a.

G. Stanley Hall

b.

John B. Watson

c.

Sigmund Freud

d.

Abraham Maslow

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 7 BLM: Remember


29. Which theoretical orientation insisted that observations be verifiable?

a.

behaviourism

b.

functionalism

c.

psychoanalysis

d.

structuralism

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 7 BLM: Higher order


30. With which of the following statements would a behaviourist agree?

a.

Psychology should be the science of observable behaviour.

b.

Behaviour can be explained only in terms of phenomenology, that is, an individual’s interpretation of experience.

c.

In order to understand behaviour, one must understand the motives behind the behaviour.

d.

Conscious experiences can be studied in an objective, precise way.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 7 BLM: Higher order


31. Which of the following did John B. Watson argue that psychologists should do?

a.

confine their work to people who are diagnosed as mentally ill

b.

use the method of introspection to establish the structural aspects of consciousness

c.

abandon the study of consciousness

d.

concern themselves with the intentionality of behaviour

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 7 BLM: Remember


32. According to John Watson, by which of the following is behaviour governed, primarily?

a.

personal motives

b.

heredity

c.

environment

d.

unconscious desires



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