1a. Correct. Truman responded to a threatened railroad strike in 1946 by threatening to seize the rail industry and draft into military service all workers who refused to return to work. This threat and others alienated union members in general. See page 492.
1b. No. Beginning in 1945, Truman repeatedly proposed the creation of a nationwide health insurance program. Congress repeatedly refused to enact such a plan. See page 492.
1c. No. Truman initially directed the OPA to lift price controls, a decision which pleased manufacturers and farmers but displeased consumers. When the OPA reimposed price controls, angry producers withheld products from the market, causing shortages and angry consumers. See page 492.
1d. No. Truman won support from African Americans because of his strong stand in favor of civil rights. See page 492.
2a. No. During the 1950s, most Americans paid little attention to the “faults” of American society, shunned idealistic causes, and saw society’s critics as maladjusted. See page 494.
2b. Correct. During the 1950s, most Americans unquestioningly accepted American society. Their belief that the country was engaged in a moral crusade against communism led most Americans to believe liberal reform was unnecessary. See page 494.
2c. No. During the 1950s, most Americans were convinced of their ability to stand against any foe. See page 494.
2d. No. During the 1950s, most Americans trusted and respected those in positions of authority and seldom questioned their decisions. See page 494.
3a. No. The intent of the termination policy was to dissolve Indian reservations, not expand them. See page 495.
3b. No. Although one in eight Indians left the reservations between 1954 and 1960, it cannot be said that they were either “successfully relocated” or “successfully assimilated.” See page 495.
3c. Correct. In this attempt to dissolve reservations and end federal services to Native Americans, many Indians were displaced and many joined the ranks of the urban poor. See page 495.
3d. No. This was not a program designed to aid Indians in the extraction of natural resources from tribal lands. See page 495.
4a. Correct. Although McCarthy was probably the most successful redbaiter in the country, conservative and liberal politicians, labor leaders, religious leaders, and others used the public’s fear of communism against their opponents. They all contributed to the anti-Communist hysteria known as McCarthyism. See page 496.
4b. No. There was no such treaty. See page 496.
4c. No. Communist Party membership declined from 83,000 in 1947 to 25,000 in 1954. See page 496.
4d. No. Henry Wallace was a liberal Democrat, not a Communist, and no such conspiracy existed. See page 496.
5a. No. The bill passed the Senate unanimously. See page 497.
5b. No. No Republicans were expelled from the party for having opposed this act. See page 497.
5c. Correct. This act, which made membership in the Communist Party illegal, was passed with no dissenting votes by the Senate and with only two dissenting votes by the House. This indicates that both liberals and conservatives shared in the anti-Communist consensus of the age. See page 497.
5d. No. There was little disagreement within either party over passage of this act. Furthermore, the Democrats retained control of both houses of Congress in the 1954 elections. See page 497.
6a. No. Congress did not pass effective voting rights legislation until 1965. See page 498.
6b. Correct. The gap between American ideals and the realities of American society made it difficult to compete with the Soviet Union among the Third World nonaligned nations. To win the support of these nations, the United States had to begin to live up to its ideals. See page 498.
6c. No. Although Truman sent a special message to Congress in February 1948 calling for federal antilynching and anti-poll tax laws, southern congressmen were openly opposed to such legislation and Congress never formally responded to the message. See page 498.
6d. No. Congress did not outlaw the Klan. See page 498.
7a. No. The Brown decision did not declare the poll tax to be unconstitutional. Use of the poll tax to abridge a citizen’s right to vote was not made illegal nationally until ratification of the Twenty-Fourth Amendment in 1964. See page 499.
7b. Correct. The NAACP’s legal campaign against desegregation scored a major victory when the Court ruled separate educational facilities to be “inherently unequal.” See page 499.
7c. No. In the Brown decision, the Supreme Court found that black Americans had suffered from segregated public educational institutions. See page 499.
7d. No. It was not until 1964 that the Civil Rights Act of that year made discrimination in public accommodations illegal. This was upheld by the Court in the same year. See page 499.
8b. No. Martin Luther King, Jr., did not urge his followers to accept a socialist philosophy. See page 499.
8c. Correct. King had studied and was impressed by the nonviolent philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi of India. See page 499.
8d. No. Black Power was a concept put forward by Stokely Carmichael in the late 1960s. See page 499.
9a. No. Although stocks and bonds rose in value, most Americans did not invest heavily in the stock market. Furthermore, rising stock values do not automatically translate into real money or increased purchasing power. See page 501.
9b. No. Although the nation’s GNP rose from $286.5 billion in 1950 to $506.5 billion in 1960, this rise was a consequence of the consumer culture rather than the economic basis of that culture. See page 501.
9c. Correct. Americans were able to purchase consumer goods because of the availability of credit. See page 501.
9d. No. The computer, although an important technological achievement of the age, did not put money into the hands of consumers, allowing them to purchase consumer goods. Therefore, the computer was not the economic basis of the consumer culture. See page 501.
10a. No. The number of births exceeded 4 million per year through the 1950s and into the 1960s. All these extra people had a ripple effect throughout the economy. See page 501.
10b. No. The urban middle class, consisting of professionals, white-collar workers, and college graduates, contributed disproportionately to the baby boom. See page 501.
10c. No. Many people having second, third, and fourth children had demonstrated in the past that they knew how to practice birth control, but during the 1950s they chose not to do so. See page 501.
10d. Correct. Prosperity during the 1950s and early 1960s created a mood of optimism in American society. Because of this optimism, many Americans chose to have more children. See page 501.
11a. No. Farming methods continued to be revolutionized by the introduction of new machines. See page 503.
11b. No. The value of farm output increased by 120 percent from 1945 to 1970. See page 503.
11c. Correct. The increase in land values and in the cost of machinery and fertilizers meant that farming became more expensive. As a result, there was a movement toward agricultural consolidation and away from the family farm. See page 503.
11d. No. Farm-labor productivity increased threefold between 1945 and 1970. See page 503.
12a. Correct. As the number of American households with televisions multiplied from 8,000 in 1946 to 47 million in 1961, the movie industry suffered. While Americans had attended movies at a rate of some 90 million per week from 1946 to 1948, they attended movies at a rate of only 40 million per week by 1960. Therefore, movie theaters steadily closed and decreased in numbers during the postwar years. See page 505 and page 505.
12b. No. During the postwar years, the movie industry increasingly catered to teens and young adults, not to the elderly. See page 505 and page 505.
12c. No. Some 70 percent of moviegoers during the 1950s were under the age of thirty. This statistic indicates that the movie industry was very successful in attracting young patrons. See page 505 and page 505.
12d. No. The number of people attending movies during the postwar years changed significantly. See page 505 and page 505.
13a. No. The “bebop” style is associated with developments in jazz during the 1940s and 1950s, when musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie began to experiment with complicated chord patterns. See pages 505-506.
13b. No. The Beats are not associated with new advertising techniques. See pages 505-506.
13c. No. The Beats were not rock-’n’-roll performers. See pages 505-506.
13d. Correct. The Beats challenged the consensus of the 1950s by questioning the materialism of consumer culture. They openly flaunted their sexual freedom and consumption of drugs. Their writings and lifestyle inspired the counterculture of the 1960s. See pages 505-506.
14a. Correct. In 1960 the median annual earnings for full-time women workers were 60 percent of men’s earnings. One reason for this disparity was occupational segregation of women into low-paying “women’s jobs.” See page 506.
14b. No. Many husbands failed to pay child support and were seldom prosecuted for nonpayment; nevertheless, the courts still awarded child-support payments in divorce proceedings. See page 506.
14c. No. Although more women were getting more education, “overeducation” was not the reason a woman was more likely than a man to be poor. See page 506.
14d. No. Women were not more likely to suffer from catastrophic illnesses than men. See page 506.
15a. No. Black Americans generally continued to suffer from economic discrimination and particularly from discrimination in housing practices. As a result, blacks continued to congregate in the inner-city ghettos. See page 506.
15b. Correct. Although the black population was 48.6 percent urban in 1940, by 1970 it was 81.3 percent urban. See page 506.
15c. No. Blacks continued to move from the South to the North. See page 506.
15d. No. Although economic expansion and anti-poverty programs caused an overall decline in the number of poor, black Americans continued to experience economic discrimination, and poverty among blacks did not decrease “dramatically.” See page 506.