E) The church and state are separate and equal entities.
15) Boniface VIII found himself locked in a struggle over the limits of monarchial authority with:
A) Charles V
B) Henry V
C) Edward I
D) Philip the Fair
E) Richard I
16) The first humanists were:
A) farmers and blacksmiths.
B) politicians and their secretaries.
C) orators and poets.
D) historians and musicians.
17) With the growing cost of warfare in the 15th and 16th centuries, monarchs needed new national sources of income and created them by taxing all of the following EXCEPT:
B) the nobility.
C) the feudal lords.
D) basic food and clothing.
E) the peasants.
18) Which of the following is most accurate?
A) Medieval and Renaissance Europe were both feudal societies that focused on an urban economy and organized commerce.
B) Medieval Europe was a feudal society with an agricultural economy and domination by the church whereas Renaissance Europe was characterized by a growing national consciousness and political centralization.
C) The church played little or no role in Renaissance Europe.
D) Renaissance Europe was a feudal society with an agricultural economy and domination by the church whereas Medieval Europe was characterized by a growing national consciousness and political centralization.
E) Renaissance Europe was a feudal society with an agricultural economy and domination by the church whereas Medieval Europe was characterized by an urban economy based on organized commerce and capitalism.
19) Humanism prepared the way for educational and religious reforms in all of the following countries EXCEPT:
A) France. B) Germany. C) England. D) Russia. E) Spain.
20) By the time of the Spanish conquest, the Aztecs ruled:
A) present-day California.
B) present-day Florida.
C) central Mexico and Guatemala.
D) eastern Peru.
21) Ludovico of Milan's fatal mistake was that he:
A) sold the city of Milan to the French without proper authority.
B) disregarded the threat posed by Milan and supported by Florence, and denied French aid or assistance.
C) appealed to the French for help and invited them to reenter Italy and revive their dynastic claim to Naples.
38) Which of the following best describes the Christian humanism of Erasmus?
A) A complete break with Roman Catholic Theology
B) A defense of individual interpretation of the Bible
C) The application of Renaissance scholorship to questions of ecclesiastical and moral reform
D) A return to the Scholasitic thologogy of Thomas Aquinas
E) A pleas for a return to monasticism as the highest Chirstian calling.
39) "A prince should have only one end and one idea in mind, take only one subject for study, and it is war, its science and discipline; for it is the only science that deals with the ruler's problems...[Sucess in war] not only maintains those born to princedoms but often causes men of private origin to rise to that rank...The first cause of losing power is the neglect of this art; the cause of winning power lies in its mastery."
In writing the passage above, Machiavelli drew on his obeservations of
A) feudal warfare in medieval Europe