MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) The loss of one third of French colonial trade revenues; the defeat of European armies by tropical disease and former African slaves; the inspiration of later African slave and colonial rebellions; and the creation of what would become the least developed and least politically stable state in the Western Hemisphere were the consequences of:
A) The 1799 - 1804 Haitian Revolution
B) The British takeover of French, West African territories and coastal peripheries in the Seven Years War
C) The 1820's Latin American wars of independence by Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin
D) The Kongo war of independence from France
2) In the 18th century, MOST revolutionary leaders tended to be members of the
A) slave class
B) working class
C) educated middle class
D) Catholic clergy
3) It can be said of the Industrial Revolution, by 1870
A) most middle class women worked outside the home
B) had shrunk in size dramatically and was almost non-existent
C) all segments of society experienced higher incomes from the changes
D) some people rose in social status, while many others worked in appalling conditions
4) Which of the following did NOT play a role in making Britain the site of the first Industrial Revolution?
A) Its increased population served as a labor source for the nation’s factories
B) Britain had, as was able to improve, an already adequate transport system
C) Over 95% of the population were literate
D) Britain was a country with ample supply of investment capital, natural resources and available markets
5) What European intellectual would have endorsed the following statement? "History is shaped by the available means of production and who controlled them, leading to inevitable class conflict."
A) Charles Darwin
C) Adam Smith
D) Karl Marx
6) The American and French Revolution were both caused in part by
D) high taxation that bred discontent
7) Latin American wars of independence in the early 1800s generally ended in
A) suppression of the Catholic Church
B) redistribution of land to the indigenous peoples
C) control by wealthy Spanish or Portuguese elites/creoles in the former colonies
D) expulsion of all US business
8) The North and South American independence movements in the late 18th and early 19th centuries shared which of the following?
A) political instability that caused constant warfare among the new states
B) reliance on Christian teachings to define revolutionary demands
C) industrial economies that permitted both areas to break free from European control
D) limitation of civil rights to a minority of the population
9) The Haitian Revolution was the first successful revolution in the Americas to be instigated by
A) the Catholic Church
B) creole elites
10) The most significant factor in beginning Latin American independence movements was
A) Napoleon's invasion of Spain and Portugal
B) the revolutionary activity in France
C) the victory of the rebels in Haiti
D) the revolutionary activity in the British colonies
11) After successful Mexican revolt against Spanish rule
A) Freedom and equality came to all Mexicans
B) Augustin de Inturbide became the first Mexican Emperor
C) The peasants and mestizos of Mexico were the only ones to gain from the revolution
D) Peninsulares were forced to return to their homelands
12) The Mughal (India), Ottoman and Qing (Manchu) land-based "gunpowder" empires declined in power from 1750-1914 relative to the maritime empires because of
A) difficulty collecting taxes on peasants over time to pay for large armies to protect long borders
D) the combination of both budget and trade deficits that made borrowing necessary
13) . In what way was the core-periphery relationship of the British East India Company in India similar to the Dutch style of control over Java?
A) the British removal of local rulers in the 18th century
B) direct intervention of the British government
C) the effort to maintain local customs and culture
D) the intervention into local disputes among indigenous princes in return for authority over land
14) Which of the following was among the first results of the European Industrial Revolution in other regions of the world?
A) increased demand for commodities such as cotton and palm oil
B) the partition of Africa by European imperial powers
C) construction of textile factories in Africa and Asia
D) the beginning of the transatlantic slave trade
15) To better exploit the economic potential of Latin America in the late 1800s,
A) Anti-slavery laws were repealed
B) Laborers from India were imported in great numbers
C) European and American railroads and port facilities were built
D) European and American settlers were encouraged to immigrate there
16) To protect their trading empire in India, the British East India Company used
A) Indian troops led by British officers
B) British troops trained in India
C) British troops trained in Britain
D) European mercenaries
17) All of the following were characteristics of the New Imperialism EXCEPT
A) the believe that Europeans were culturally superior
B) the need for raw materials
C) the desire to bring Christianity to Africans
D) the desire to bring an end to the slave trade
18) In the nineteenth century, European nations exploited areas of Asia and Africa for the following reasons EXCEPT
A) markets these regions provided for European manufactured goods
C) manufactured goods to be sent from Africa and Asia to Europe
D) opportunities such exploitation presented for European expansion
19) How is European influence in the Ottoman Empire at the end of the nineteenth century best characterized?
A) European nations occupied large portions of the Ottoman Empire during the late nineteenth century
B) Europeans fought several wars over parts of the declining Ottoman Empire, creating colonies that supplied raw materials for industrialization
C) European governments and financial institutions funded Ottoman attempts at industrialization and used the increasing debt to exert a large amount of control over Ottoman internal policies
D) Europeans aided in the creation of a secular and industrialized Ottoman Empire that joined Western nations as an equal partner
20) The major reason the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire resisted modernization of the military was that
A) they saw it as a threat to their special privileges and their cavalry-based military culture
B) Egyptian troops had not had success with a modernized military
C) they did not support any of the sultan's reforms
D) they believed that the modernization was made unnecessary by their superior skills
21) "Extraterritoriality" (i.e. by Europeans in the Ottoman Empire or in Qing China after the Opium War) can best be described as which of the following
A) acquisition of new colonies or territories
B) exemption of foreigners from the laws of the country in which they live
C) establishment of a government in exile
D) expansion of a country's international borders to natural boundaries
22) Which of the following is an accurate description of the relations between European states and the Ottoman Empire during the period from 1815 to 1914?
A) Russian, English and French expansion came at the expense of the Ottomans
B) The Ottomans and French cooperated to colonize North Africa
C) The Ottomans supported nationalism in the Balkans to destabilize Europe
D) The Ottomans alliance with the Russians, English and French sought to impede German unification
23) Which of the following was true about both Russia and Japan by 1914?
A) Both had effective democratic institutions
B) Both had low rates of illiteracy
C) Both were characterized by a high degree of ethnic homogeneity
D) Rapid, state-sponsored industrialization had occurred in both countries
24) Which of the following countries experienced all of the following?
- Unequal trading with western Europeans
- An anti-Western uprising in 1900
- A self-strengthening movement that was met with imperial opposition
25) Which of the following was a consequence for China of the Treaty of Nanking ending the Opium War?
A) It strengthened the position of Qing Manchu elites in Chinese society
B) new territories were annexed increasing the tax revenue of the Qing
C) Korea became and independent nation
D) The Canton system was dismantled, Hong Kong was given to the British, and new treaty ports were opened
26) All of the following were results of the Taiping Rebellion EXCEPT
A) the Qing reestablished their authority over regional warlords
B) refugees flooded into cities looking for safety and food
C) agricultural areas were devastated
D) over 20 million people were killed
27) Japan's modernization was successful primarily because of
A) limits on individual rights and a strong centralized state
B) the decentralization of the state under the Meiji Restoration
C) the adoption of Western technology and government control over the degree of western influence
D) the destruction of the daimyo and decades of colonial occupation
28) The new leaders of the Meiji regime accomplished all of the following EXCEPT
A) gave the emperor absolute power
B) successful modernized the Japanese military
C) stripped the daimyo of their hereditary privileges
D) gave key administrative posts to modernizing samurai
29) Which of the following best characterizes Russia's attitude toward Western Europe during the 19th century?
A) slowly recognized the importance of industrialization and modernization, but monitored the influence of western liberalism closely
B) reformed major industries using western models and competed at the same level as western powers by the end of the century
C) embraced industrialization and opened western-style schools and universities throughout the nation
D) attempted to limit the access the aristocracy had to western ideas while industrializing peasant communities
30) Which region of the world was characterized by decolonization rather than colonization by imperial powers in the 19th century?
A) SE Asia
B) West Africa
C) South Africa
D) Latin America
31) Which of the following statements is most accurate?
B) No African or Asian military force won any battle against the Europeans
C) Despite advances in military technology, Europeans remained unable to overcome the Asian advantages in population
D) Faced with the advanced military technology of Europeans, indigenous peoples ceases resisting the imperial advance
32) Which of the following was true in nearly all of the early governments in the Americas?
A) women were enfranchised
B) ownership of private property was outlawed
C) the right to vote was limited to men, and usually only those who owned property
D) a bicameral (two house like the Senate and House of Representatives in the US) legislature was created
33) The East India Company affected the Indian economy by
A) expanding agricultural production while damaging local industry
B) limiting taxes on the lower classes to increase their ability to buy British goods
C) substantially expanding Indian industrialization
D) reinforcing the importance of the caste system in determining the profession of Hindus
34) The British attitude toward Indian traditions and ceremony was generally to
A) replace them with strictly British custom
B) encourage them to maintain stability, but reform those that were seen as immoral
C) limit them to nonreligious traditions in order to encourage conversion to Christianity
D) end them to further British control
35) The Crimean War
A) enormously strengthened Russia's prestige
B) resulted in a military victory for the Ottomans, but led to substantial debt and economic decline
C) resulted in situation that made Germany reunification difficult
D) strengthened the conservative powers of Europe, as well as Russia's stature on the Continent
36) The Qing Empire in 1800
A) was militarily strong and able to fend off European attack
B) had studied the West and knew exactly what it was up against
C) had been colonized by multiple European governments
A) enacted a homestead decree which provided all Indian peasants with 55 acres to cultivate as their private property
B) established infrastructure and school systems that educated children of the elite
C) allowed Indians to participate in the highest levels of colonial government
D) brought democracy to the subcontinent by 1900
38) The Sepoy Rebellion was caused by most immediately by
A) the traditional hostility between Muslims and the Buddhist majority
B) Friction between the Sepoy troops and their Mongol and European commanders
C) Animal fat and lard that was on the rifle cartridges used by Sepoy troops, upsetting Muslims and Hindus
D) British tax policies in India
39) To increase trade profits in China, the British
A) replaced the Chinese government with a pro-western democratic government
B) had Lord Macartney successfully negotiate British trading rights with the Chinese
C) shipped large amounts of opium into China at a mass profit
D) seized Taiwan as their first Chinese "colony" in 1827
40) All of the following were true about Latin America in the late 19th century EXCEPT
A) all Latin Americans participated in the prosperity of the era
B) foreign investment in infrastructure increased significantly
C) European immigration into the region provided a source of labor
D) it was a time of economic dependence on foreign powers
41) Which nation, multi-ethnic empire or colony was part of the Middle East in the time period from 1750 - 1914?
A) Qing Dynasty
C) Mughal Dynasty
D) Ottoman Empire
42) The first successful revolution in the Caribbean and South America was launched in
A) Colombia B) Haiti C) Jamaica D) Argentina
43) In the nineteenth century, women's use of bound feet (China), white face paint (Japan), and corsets (western Europe) are examples of which of the following?
A) The middle class's setting the fashion for all women
B) The beauty of middle-class women
C) Women's participation in the labor force
D) Practices that inhibit female activities
44) Which of the following facilitated European expansion in Asia in the ninteenth century?
A) Europe's development of new military technologies
B) Europe's ability to send numerically superior armies to Asia
C) A general easing of tensions and cooperative expeditions among European powers
D) The popularity of democratic values among Asians
45) Which of the following best explains why Japan was more successful than China in resisting imperialist encroachments in the nineteenth century?
A) The introduction of democracy by the Meiji Restoration
B) Lack of interest in Japanese markets
C) Abundant natural resources
D) The willingness of Japan's elite to sponsor reform
46) During the eighteenth century, which of the following reigned, but did not rule?
A) The Ottoman sultan
B) The king of France
C) The Japanese emperor
D) The Russian tsar
47) Which of the following describes the major impact of the introduction of coffee growing in places like Kenya and El Salvador after 1880?
A) Access to cheaper food for Africans and Latin Americans
B) Greater dependence on foreign markets
C) The weakening of the European colonial military and landowning elite
D) Increased control over the land by Africans and Latin Americans
48) During the nineteenth century, Asian and African rulers usually desired transfer of which of the following western technologies most?
C) Navigational instruments
D) Textile manufacturing equipment
49) The first Industrial Revolution in Great Britain was initially based on which of the following?
A) Textiles B) Rubber C) Chemicals D) Electricity
50) After the Meiji restoration of 1868, Japan changed its policy toward contact with the outside world by
A) welcoming foreign bankers but discouraging Japanese citizens from visiting other countries
B) adopting a defensive policy in East Asia
C) forming an alliance with China in order to resist Western encroachment
D) seeking Western industrial expertise and equipment
51) Which of the following best describes how nineteenth-century European industrialization affected European women's lives?
B) led the business classes to reduce the number of children in their families
C) drove many people into the working-class proletariat
D) led to wholesale replacement of officeholders among the elite
59) Which ninteenth-century European political group listed below would espouse the following statement?
"As long as property is controlled by private individuals, inequality will exist. It is the role of the state to manage property for the benefit of all citizens."
C) Military leaders
60) Which of the following statements concerning conservative political strategies after 1850 in Europe is most accurate?
A) Conservatives used military power to retain control over European society.
B) With the destruction of the liberal movement, conservatives felt free to restore the aristocratic bias of absolute monarchy.
C) Conservatives strove to develop a new political consensus with liberals that would grant the appearance of constitutional reform but retain aristocratic privilege.
D) Conservatives began to ally more closely with socialists in order to offset the political advantages gained by liberals during the revolutions of 1848.
61) The ultimate task of all the explorations launched by the Europeans from the 14th century onward was
A) winning their long-standing competition with Islam.
B) establishing European political dominion over all of Asia.
C) finding a sea link between Europe and the wealthy civilizations of Asia.
D) spreading knowledge of European civilization to Asia.
62) All of the following were sources of disappointment to the Europeans who arrived in Asia in the 16th and 17th centuries EXCEPT
A) Asians were uninterested in converting to Christianity.
B) Asians were uninterested in European trade goods.
C) the Europeans were too few in numbers to exert force on Asian kingdoms.
D) Asian civilization seemed materially impoverished.
63) Which of the following statements most accurately describes the nature of the Asian sea trading network?
A) The system functioned only so long as it was administered from the Ottoman Empire with the tacit support of the Ming dynasty.
B) The entire network was dominated by Arab merchants who worked in common cause to establish a monopoly of trade.
C) There was no central control, and force was usually absent from commercial exchanges.
D) The Chinese empire kept the peace through the use of heavily armed junks.
64) How successful was the Portuguese monopoly on Asian products?
A) The Portuguese were unable to achieve control over any Asian products due to competition from the Chinese commercial navy.
B) For some decades they were able to maintain a complete monopoly over Asian products shipped to Europe.
C) The Portuguese monopoly was rigidly enforced over Asian products for almost two centuries.
D) Though they managed to monopolize some spices grown in limited locales, the Portuguese lacked the manpower and ships to sustain a monopoly.
65) How did the Dutch commercial strategy within the Asian trade network differ from that of the Portuguese?
A) The Dutch were more interested in establishing permanent settlements such as Batavia.
B) The Dutch did not make use of fortified towns and factories.
C) The Dutch were more humane in their treatment of island peoples who cultivated the spices.
D) The Dutch were more systematic in their monopoly control of a limited number of specific spices.
66) In what way did the Dutch and English participation within the Asian sea trading network change by the middle decades of the 17th century?
A) As allies, the Dutch and English were able to establish a naval supremacy in Asia sufficient to monopolize all trade within the Asian sea trading network.
B) Military expansion enabled greater commercial control due to the series of religious wars that had broken out in Europe.
C) Both northern European nations abandoned the commerce in spices in favor of cotton and silk textiles.
D) For both the Dutch and the English, peaceful commerce came to be more profitable than forcible control and monopolies were aimed at European rather than Asian rivals.
67) Which of the following was NOT a European contribution to the Asian sea trading network?
A) The addition of new routes, including the link to Europe around the Cape of Good Hope
B) A global flow of silver starting in the Americas and ending in China
C) The establishment of an exchange of new crops and diseases similar to the "Columbian Exchange" with the Americas
D) The introduction of sea warfare into the Asian trade network
68) Which of the following was a reform instituted by the first Ming emperor to reduce court factionalism and the power of the scholar-gentry?
A) Corrupt or incompetent members of the bureaucracy were punished by being beaten on the bare buttocks.
B) Exams were more complex and were based on the Legalist school.
C) Eunuchs were expelled from the royal household.
D) Imperial wives could only come from specified noble families of good repute.
69) Which of the following statements concerning Ming reforms in favor of the peasantry is most accurate?
A) The Ming reforms resulted in a reduction in the authority of the local landlords and the establishment of small farming operations throughout China.
B) The early Ming emperors were completely uninterested in the plight of the peasantry.
C) Peasants were made exempt from all taxation due to Hongwu being a peasant himself.
D) Despite some attempts to improve economic conditions for the peasantry, the growing power of the rural landlords led to increased tenancy and landless laborers.
70) Which of the following statements concerning Ming social organization is most accurate?
A) Occupational alternatives for women of all social levels dramatically expanded during the Ming era.
B) Under the continued influence of neo-Confucian ideology, Ming society remained rigidly stratified with emphasis on deference of youth to elders and women to men.
C) The adoption of more Buddhist beliefs began to break down the strict patterns of deference that had been customary in Han and Song China.
D) Social roles were more flexible than before due to the influence of Jesuit missionaries such as Matteo Ricci.