Mr. East’s Senior Literature and ap lit. Senior Literature and Composition



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Tartuffe and Candide Notes

Mr. East’s Senior Literature and AP Lit.


Senior Literature and Composition

Enlightenment 1660-1770

November 8, 2011

Enlightenment: 17e movement started in England. Key features:



  1. intellectual skepticism (of conventional beliefs) implied ILLUMINED or enLIGHTENed over superstitious dogma of earlier ages. Authority challenged EVERYWHERE (Cartesian “doubt”); Protestant reformation (logical after 3 popes and centuries of bickering, persecutions, and falsehoods) creates MANY authorities; Aristotelian physics is retired. (Bacon and Newton)

  2. Absolute monarchs challenged: Though Tudors, Bourbons, Hapsburgs, Romanovs are offered as successful absolute monarchs with centralized governments and nation states, they are everywhere being challenged with Parliaments, Common Law, Petition of Right, Constitution (1650’s), Habeas Corpus, Revolutions (took off a head 1649; replaced a catholic with Will and Mary)

  3. New authority? REASON is chief faculty and positive faculty of human mind

  4. REASON allows us to think and act correctly.

  5. through REASON man is perfectible

  6. REASON suggests all men are equal: (Locke) experience→knowledge

  7. Reason and Moderation are prized over Passions

  8. Absolute monarchs challenged: Though Tudors, Bourbons, Hapsburgs, Romanovs are offered as successful absolute monarchs with centralized governments and nation states, they are everywhere being challenged with Parliaments, Common Law, Petition of Right, Constitution (1650’s), Habeas Corpus, Revolutions (took off a head 1649; replaced a catholic with Will and Mary)

Essential questions:

1. What are the primary historical/cultural forces that gave rise to the Enlightenment?

2. What do we mean when we say a work is an Enlightenment work?

3. What are the typical features of an Enlightenment hero?

4. What are the devices/genres common to the Enlightenment period?

5. How is the language of the European Enlightenment reflected in our own seminal documents as well as in our current attitudes?

6. What do we mean when we say Comedy as a dramatic medium?

7. What does it suggest about a culture when Comedy becomes a chief means of social criticism?


Tartuffe (1664) Molière

Part of the point here: "Molière suggests how readily religious faith lends itself to misuse, how high-sounding pieties allow men and women to evade self-examination and immediate responsibilities. Tartuffe deceives others by his grandiosities of mortification ("Hang up my hair shirt") and charity; he encourages his victims in their own grandiosities…. Religion offers ready justification for a course manifestly destructive as well as self-seeking" (1401)


Note : Moliere targets Tartuffe as a hypocrite; he targets Damis and Orgon as those among us who have excessive passion (Orgon’s too credulous passion for spiritualism; Damis’ excessive passion for revenge), but he also exposes us to the ameliorating influences of Elmire (Orgon’s wife) and Cleante (the peace maker and voice of enlightenment in this work).
Act I

Scene 1 (introduction of tension: break down of manners or obsessive compulsive?)

Pernelle (Orgon's mom), Elmire (his second wife), Dorine (maid), Damis (son), Mariane (daughter):

Mom angry and leaving b/c of unruly house (no manners)

All interrupt her (proving her claim) 1411)

Pernelle accuses Elmire of being less thrifty than first wife

Damis claims Tartuffe is too full of religious speeches; Mom defends Tartuffe

Dorine (maid): he's taken over house (1412); he's a fraud, and jealous of guests

Pernelle (mom): you entertain too much

Cleante (brother-in-law): one must live by conscience's clear decrees (1413)

Dorine (maid): complains that gossip (Daphne) covers own guilt with gossip of others

Gives example of Orante who criticizes b/c her beauty is leaving her

Pernelle (mom): says revels are invention of devil (slaps maid and leaves) (1414)



Scene 2 (astonished Tartuffe has snowed these folks with his sanctimony)

Cléante, Dorine (Mariane's maid)

Amazed how snowed Pernelle (Orgon's mom) is by Tartuffe (1414), and Orgon's snowed more!

Orgon served Louis the XIV well (note connection between Molière and king)

Catalogue of all Orgon does for Tartuffe (1415)

Scene 3 (worried about true love)

Elmire (second wife), Mariane (Org's daughter), Damis (son), Cléante (brother-in-law), Dorine (maid)

Damis asks Cléante to ask Orgon about Mariane's marriage to Valère (who she wants to marry)

Scene 4 (Orgon's indifference to all but Tartuffe)

Orgon (father, just returned from countryside), Cléante, Dorine:

Orgon sweeps away concerns about wife's (Elmire's) fever, inquires of Tartuffe's well-being (1416)

Scene 5 (Orgon defends Tartuffe: "freed my soul", and hedges on marriage)

Cléante (brother-in-law, Elmire's brother), Orgon (father): Cléante reproaches Orgon for devotion to

Tartuffe (1417). Orgon's defense (1418); Orgon reproaches free thinking (1418); Cléante: I see through humbug and pretense; man often transgresses Reason's laws (1419); I hate "specious piety's dishonest face."

Orgon is indefinite about Mariane's marriage to Valere (he's gone back on his word) (1421)

Senior Literature and Composition

December 1, 2010


Act II

Tartuffe (1664) Molière
Part of the point here: "Molière suggests how readily religious faith lends itself to misuse, how high-sounding pieties allow men and women to evade self-examination and immediate responsibilities. Tartuffe deceives others by his grandiosities of mortification ("Hang up my hair shirt") and charity; he encourages his victims in their own grandiosities…. Religion offers ready justification for a course manifestly destructive as well as self-seeking" (1401)
Note : Moliere targets Tartuffe as a hypocrite; he targets Damis and Orgon as those among us who have excessive passion (Orgon’s too credulous passion for spiritualism; Damis’ excessive passion for revenge), but he also exposes us to the ameliorating influences of Elmire (Orgon’s wife) and Cleante (the peace maker and voice of enlightenment in this work).


Today’s focus:

Moliere targets more than Orgon’s excessive credulity and Tartuffe’s religious hypocrisy

Tell me, what is he targeting (in us) through the use of the characters Valere and Mariane?

What is the source of the tension in Act II?
Scene 1 (Orgon's religious zeal tramples over Mariane's desire for truthful union)

Orgon, Mariane (daughter): Orgon asks her to marry Tartuffe so to ally Tartuffe with family (1422)

Mariane justifiably outraged.
Scene 2 (Dorine--maid--boldly defends Mariane)

Where Dorine (a maid) nobly attacks Tartuffe and Orgon's contradictions (1423) and defends Mariane, very methodically, logically against the appropriateness of such a union. Dorine foreshadows infidelity (1424).

Orgon slaps, but misses (1425)
Scene 3 (Dorine counsels resistance to Organ's planned marriage) (1426)

When Mariane (who loves Valère) promises suicide in the event of forced marriage; Dorine answers sarcastically: great, die and all your troubles will end (1426). [Note: in the Age of Reason, one extreme does not therefore cancel out another!] Dorine has no sympathy for snivelers (1427). Mariane relents and they decide to act.


Scene 4 (Dorine, ironically, observes argument between Valère and Mariane) (1428) Comical episode.

Dorine finally interrupts a fruitless argument and devises a plan (1432): pretend to yield to your father's demands, but postpone the date; Damis (Mariane's brother) also contributes to plot. All are unified.

Senior Literature and Composition

December 3, 2010



Tartuffe (1664) Molière
Here, we meet Tartuffe at last. His actions quickly reveal him as a hypocrit. Too, Moliere examines further how the hypocrits masterfully escape their own misdeeds and cast doubt on their accusers. Oh, credulity.
Act III
Scene 1 (Dorine, maid, tries to temper Damis's over-aggressive plan to take down Tartuffe)

Damis (brother of Mariane) threatens revenge; Dorine argues they'll use Elmire (Orgon's own wife) (1433); your temper will only start a brawl.


Scene 2 (Dorine encounters Tartuffe who is affecting his religiosity by going to prison to minister to prisoners and hanging up his hair shirt)

Tartuffe chastises her for her low neckline; Dorine says Elmire wants to see you (1434)


Scene 3 (Tartuffe's inappropriate advances toward Elmire) (1436)

Tartuffe (1436) confesses he wants someone other than Mariane (hint, hint); Orgon calls her a marvel of Heaven (in earthly beauty--pulchritude--is echo of heaven). My passion (typical of age's view of hypocrisy of religious zealots) can made to square with rectitude. Confesses love. Even promises to be discreet with her (1437). Elmire, promises to forgive his approaches if he will promise to support the marriage of Elmire and Valère


Scene 4 (pigheadedly Damis interrupts the illicit contract and nearly blows the plan)

[Note: here Molière may be schooling the reader on the results of adopting extremes to counteract other extremes; Dorine had warned him of such dangers in 3.1.]


Scene 5 (Damis only succeeds in drawing Elmire to defend Orgon's peace)

Astonishingly (but perhaps Reasonably), reproaches Damis for disturbing Orgon's peace with such a trifle (1439)


Scene 6 (How the religious zealots subtly turn such episodes into advantageous martyrdom)

Tartuffe apologizes and defends Damis' indignation; goes on knees to beg Damis' forgiveness in front of Orgon; Orgon turns on Damis (villain!) (1441); Orgon reasserts desire to have Tart marry Mariane.


Scene 7 (Alone with Orgon, Tartuffe continues his martyrdom and wins Orgon's confidence)

Tartuffe asks God to forgive Damis; says he'll have difficulty living on here; asserts he ought to avoid Orgon's wife. Thus, he achieves his desired effect: Orgon INSISTS that he visit his wife. (1442)

Senior Literature and Composition

Enlightenment 1660-1770

November 23, 2009

Essential questions:


  1. Tell me the ways the comedic has been achieved up to this point—(think of visual effects, too)

  2. How, again, do we see Elmire’s adopting the role of reason in Scene 5?

  3. What do we mean when we say rhyming couplets?

Act IV

Scene 1 (where Molière reveals the hypocrisy of religious zealots)

Tartuffe refuses to accept Cléante's reasonable request to forgive Damis (who Orgon plans to cut from his will, leaving all to the control of Tartuffe when he marries Mariane!)


Scene 2 (Elmire (wife), Mariane (Org's daughter), Cleante (brother-in-law), Dorine (maid)

Dorine convinces all to stand together to defend Marine.


Scene 3 (Elmire explains her reason for not ratting out Tartuffe's advances)

Organ arrives with contract of marriage (1445); Mariane says give him the property but her; When Elmire chimes in, Tartuffe reminds her that she didn't defend Damis' attack on Tartuffe; she responds (1446) that she detests extreme emotion; because men make such overtures doesn't mean we have to tell (1446).

Orgon agrees to let Elmire show what kind of person Tartuffe is.
Scene 4 (Elmire has Organ hide under a table)
Scene 5 (Elmire allows Tartuffe to rat himself out and reveal his hypocrisy)

After her confession of desire for Tartuffe; he asks for concrete proof (sex) of her love (1449); she demurs, arguing that she will offend his Heaven (1450); Tartuffe says he'll teach her how to conquer scruples (heaven likes compromise). Comically, she keeps coughing as a signal to Orgon (1450). Elmire does more to incriminate Tartuffe. [Note: her reference to how Language is not enough for people to have proof, applying both to Tartuffe and to Orgon]. She gets him out of the room briefly.


Scene 6 (Tartuffe's discovery)

Orgon confronts Tartuffe (saying he knew all along) (1451). OUT! He orders him. But Tartuffe says, he, Tartuffe, is the master (has the deed)



Scene 7

Orgon tells Elmire that he, indeed, has signed the deed over to Tartuffe.


Act V

Scene 1 (Cléante counsels Orgon--and us?--against extremes. Learn to distinguish virtue from pretense)

Orgon, in a rage, swears to persecute the brotherhood (the religious); Cléante disappointed that he has not learned his lesson yet: "just because one rascal made you swallow a show of zeal which turned out to be hollow, shall you conclude that all men are deceivers?"



Scene 2

Damis informs father that Tartuffe plans to use his gifts to crush Orgon. (1454)



Scene 3 (Orgon attempts to convince mom, Madmae Pernelle, of Tartuffe's hypocrisy)

Mom believes others have turned Orgon against Tartuffe (1455). Orgon: was his pawing Elmire charity? Dorine points up how now Orgon is not listened to (another danger of being duped).

Cléante (ALWAYS PRACTICAL) says we're wasting time; let's face our problem.

Scene 4 (where Orgon, and family, get their eviction notice)

Ironically, it's a Mr. Loyal who comes to confer the eviction notice on them.



Scene 5 (finally, Madame Pernelle is persuaded)

Again, it is Cléante, who is the voice of reason and action here (1458), urges action.



Scene 6 (Valère comes to Orgon's aid with more bad news)

Tartuffe took personal papers that Orgon to the king violating the secrecy of the state. (1459) Now there's a warrant for his arrest. Valère offers money and carriage.


Scene 7 (Orgon confronts Tartuffe)

Reversal: Officer arrests Tartuffe instead of Orgon (1460). Officer had been following the imposter for a long time, saying that the kind "makes more of men's virtues than of their mistakes." (1461).

Clèante at the end counsels Orgon to moderate, even in his wrath toward Tartuffe.

Since it is a comedy, the work ends with the promise of union: Valère and Mariane, and praise to God.


Senior Literature and Composition

Enlightenment 1660-1770

November 4, 2008
Enlightenment: 17e movement started in England. Key features:


  1. intellectual skepticism (of conventional beliefs) implied ILLUMINED or enLIGHTENed over superstitious dogma of earlier ages.

  2. REASON is chief faculty and positive faculty of human mind

  3. REASON allows us to think and act correctly.

  4. through REASON man is perfectible

  5. REASON suggests all men are equal

Reason and Moderation are prized over emotions

Act V
Scene 1 (Cléante counsels Orgon--and us?--against extremes. Learn to distinguish virtue from pretense)

Orgon, in a rage, swears to persecute the brotherhood (the religious); Cléante disappointed that he has not learned his lesson yet: "just because one rascal made you swallow a show of zeal which turned out to be hollow, shall you conclude that all men are deceivers?"


Scene 2

Damis informs father that Tartuffe plans to use his gifts to crush Orgon. (1454)


Scene 3 (Orgon attempts to convince mom, Madmae Pernelle, of Tartuffe's hypocrisy)

Mom believes others have turned Orgon against Tartuffe (1455). Orgon: was his pawing Elmire charity? Dorine points up how now Orgon is not listened to (another danger of being duped).

Cléante (ALWAYS PRACTICAL) says we're wasting time; let's face our problem.
Scene 4 (where Orgon, and family, get their eviction notice)

Ironically, it's a Mr. Loyal who comes to confer the eviction notice on them.


Scene 5 (finally, Madame Pernelle is persuaded)

Again, it is Cléante, who is the voice of reason and action here (1458), urges action.


Scene 6 (Valère comes to Orgon's aid with more bad news)

Tartuffe took personal papers that Orgon to the king violating the secrecy of the state. (1459) Now there's a warrant for his arrest. Valère offers money and carriage.


Scene 7 (Orgon confronts Tartuffe)

Reversal: Officer arrests Tartuffe instead of Orgon (1460). Officer had been following the imposter for a long time, saying that the kind "makes more of men's virtues than of their mistakes." (1461).

Clèante at the end counsels Orgon to moderate, even in his wrath toward Tartuffe.

Since it is a comedy, the work ends with the promise of union: Valère and Mariane, and praise to God.

NOTES FOR CANDIDE


Senior Literature and Composition

December 7, 2010

Age of Enlightenment
Candide by Francois Voltaire 1759

Mode: novel

Subject: Candide and Cunégonde’s exploration of world

Theme: A satire on systems of thought which are not founded on

experience. Voltaire also despises the notion of a God who could

dispense suffering for the sake of some higher good. Conversely,

humanity's irrational resilience is celebrated. A trying on of differing philosophies of optimism and pessimism against the backdrop of the real world. More specifically, the discontinuous aspect of life that makes Candide, and the audience, question the rationality of existence. Martin, the pessimist, insists on it; Pangloss, the optimist, insists on a linkage in all things, a cause and effect, implying a rational universe. Central problem: human conduct in relation to evil.

Fictional devices: a parody (undercutting through humor) of romance and all of its trappings:

through characterization: the noble hero, the virginal--and beautiful—maid

through plot or structure: the impossible coincidences of romantic fiction, the idea of continuity

(or reliability) of life, the resurrection (or redemption) of the hero or central characters.

through major plot elements: Candide/Cunégonde exposed to world, in a mock-adventure story plot design


Chapter 1 (1545)


→In Westphalia at the castle of Baron of Thunder-ten-tronckh, his 350 -pound wife, daughter Cunégonde, and an unnamed son. Living happily at the castle is Candide, whose name points to his character? (Innocent). The tutor of the castle is Pangloss whose philosophy was that this was "the best of all possible worlds" (1545)

→Pangloss' illicit relations with a still unnamed chambermaid create curiosity in Cunégonde herself. But when she and Candide duplicate the experiment they are caught. Candide is banished.

→[ Note: Voltaire and Moliére were correspondents with their kings—Frederick the Great and Louis XIV—which is characteristic of the Enlightenment.]

Why this method of expulsion from earthly paradise?



Chapters 2 & 3: Candide & Bulgarians (notable for satire of Seven Years War) (1547-1550)

[Bulgarians are the Prussians—unflattering reference to Frederick as pederast. Abarians are French.]

→Candide’s shift from juvenile innocence to disenchantment. He is helped by two uniformed men, espousing gospel of brotherhood; they pay for his meal (stupidly penniless in real world). Then they force him into army. Fails to escape; chooses beating over shooting. Helps with war against Abarians. Voltaire describes the “glories of wars”: butchery of innocence.

→Then to Holland looking for good Christian treatment, but he is not received well because he didn’t answer a religious question the right way. But, an Anabaptist (who had never been baptized), protects him. Pangloss may have been right, then (1550). Meets the diseased beggar.
Chapters 4-6: Candide and Pangloss Reunited (target intolerance, injustice, cruelty caused by superstition Especially the “providential theory”: benign God who remains concerned with human activity)

→Coincidence: the damaged and frail beggar is PANGLOSS! (1550) [first of many silly coincidences and resurrections designed to parody romantic notions of happy endings and a rational world]

→We learn of Cunégonde’s violent death (1551).

→How Pangloss came to be diseased (1551) by Franciscan monk. Yet all is good…VD linked to chocolate.1551-52 Anabaptist (Jacques) helps cure Pangloss. Candide unconvinced with Pangloss’ rationalizations about good and evil. Storm arrives while on ship.



Chapter 5:

→Action made to suit the theme here where they witness ship go through tempest by Lisbon. Anabaptist helps sailor who in turn lets him die (1553).

→Earthquake at Lisbon (11/1/1755; 30,000 die) follows; thousands die. Pangloss has trouble explaining the “sufficient cause” for this. Sailor Anabaptist saved hunts for money not for people to help.

Chapter 6:

→Town decides on an auto-da-fé: Portuguese for “act of faith,” put them in yellow robes (sanbenito) and paper mitre! Candide flogged; Biscayan burned; Pangloss hanged. Candide can’t believe this is the best of all possible worlds. An old woman saves him.



Chapters 7-10: Candide and Cunégonde Reunited [note Voltaire’s adroit maintenance of suspense and his transitions (old woman, deus ex machina, appears to help; note the parallel of the lovers’ experiences; neither of the two completely abandon Pangloss’ philosophy) but how SLOW Candide is on learning.]

→The old woman cares and prays for Candide. She leads him to Cunégonde!



Chapter 8: She tells dreadful tale of rape and wounding. Dead parents. How she was passed from person to the next as a sort of sex slave: Bulgarian, Don Issachar (Jew) shares her with a Grand Inquisitor (but she resists both men). She witnessed the auto-da-fé (flogging of Candide and Pangloss). She felt Pangloss’ philosophy was wrong. (She was one who sent old lady to Candide.)

Chapter 9: Jew arrives and finds Candide there. Candide kills in self defense. Then he kills Inquisitor. Escape.

Chapter 10:A Franciscan stole their money, so they were destitute. They sell horse and ride to Cádiz. Then board a ship going to Paraguay to suppress a rebellion incited by Jesuit Fathers.
Discuss Pangloss philosophy on voyage; perhaps in the new world all would be for the best, thought Candide.

Senior Literature and Composition

Age of Enlightenment

November 30


Candide by Francois Voltaire 1759

Don’t lose sight of the central questions: can we find a life of contentment; if so, how? Utopias?

Don’t lose sight of Voltaire’s pointing up the silliness adopting beliefs without testing them against experience.

Remember: to read this in the context of a “Romantic Tale”; it is a parody of it.

Here: we try the NEW WORLD out with its theocratic utopias of Jesuits in Paraguay, Biglugs (cannibals), and Eldorado

Here too: note Candide’s gradual questioning of Pangloss



Chapter 11: History of the Old Woman (1562) [note: Voltaire shows us how the evil of men goes beyond little deceptions]

Old Woman's Story seems to parallel the opening of Cunégonde and Candide’s early on.

Essential action: Old woman (daughter of Pope Urban X) and princess Palestrina, and also lived in a palace.

She, too, had her romance interrupted (with prince Mass-Carrara), but he was poisoned by his mistress (1563). She and her mom are attacked by pirates; exposed to many indignities (cavity search). Taken as slaves to Morocco, raped by captain on route. The girl, her mother; all were taken as slaves to Morocco. Morocco filled with civil war: fifty sons fighting one another (1564). Most of the women (and mom) torn to bits. Awakened by a eunuch who wishes he could rape her (1565).



Chapter 12: The Old Woman's Story Continued (1565)

Essential action: Eunuch cares for her. Eunuch tells his tale, COINCIDENCE: he was a singer in her mom's court (Princess of Palestrina). So, he and old lady had been raised together. He was one of the 3,000 boys annually emasculated. Some die, some rule, some sing. Eunuch’s treachery: sells old lady to Algiers and a long sequence of loss of freedom occurs: Tripoli, Turkish Janizaries. Nearly eaten during siege, but ladies give up half a butt (1566). Then life as servant.

→Old lady's bet to Cunégonde: all on board will curse the day they were born. Our Curse: to want to cling to life.

→The point: The old woman's story is a digression characteristic of the romantic tale of adventure, but it provides the Voltaire another chance to attack the cheery philosophies.



Chapter 13: How Candide Was Forced to Leave the Lovely Cunégonde and the Old Woman (1567)

Essential action: Cunégonde takes up the old woman's wager. Candide wishes Pangloss had survived (1568) to see all of the evil in the world.

→Buenos Aires, where Cunégonde, Captain, Candide, and the old woman called on the overbearing governor, Don

Fernando d'Ibarra y Figueroa y Mascarenes y Lampourdos y Souza. His chief passion was women. Hot for Cunégonde, he diverts Candide (1568) and proposes to Cunégonde. The old woman (hardened by the world) advises her to marry the greatest lord in South America. Why pride yourself on "fidelity"? COINCIDENCE: police arrive with intention of arresting Candide for murder of Franciscan and Inquisitor (1569); if she married, she would not be touched. Old woman counsels Candide to flee.



Chapter 14: How Candide and Cacambo were received by the Jesuits in Paraguay (1569) [First of two Utopias]

Essential action: Candide and valet, Cacambo (from Spain) ride out of town to fight with the Jesuits (1570); he speaks of Paraguay as of an Utopia "it's a masterpiece of reason and justice" (1570); they'd welcome one who drilled Bulgarian style. They are seized and disarmed at the border. Candide meets Jesuit Commander in beautiful garden (1571). COINCIDENCE: Jesuit commander is Cunégonde's brother! And Baron (1571). He reports of his sister's health, and that he opposes the Jesuits in Paraguay.



Chapter 15: How Candide Killed the Brother of His Dear Cunégonde (1572)

Essential action: The Jesuit Commander recounts the savagery that occurred at his home in Westphalia, death of mom and dad, and sister, and feels providence has sent Candide to help punish. Candide’s desire to marry Cunégonde enrages the Commander (now a Baron) who brings up the pedigree of Candide. (Supreme irony after all of the rapes and indignities.) In self defense, Candide kills him. (1573)

→The point: we are introduced to ONE of several Utopias, but it was theocratic tyranny. Cacambo says, ironically, "It is an admirable thing, this government. The Fathers have everything and the people nothing; it is a masterpiece of reason and justice." Note the arbor too (1570). And it will be recalled that Candide was served an excellent breakfast prepared in vessels of gold, whereas the native Paraguayans ate corn in wooden bowls out in the open fields under the blazing sun.

Chapter 16: Adventures of the Two Travellers, with two girls, two monkeys, and the savages called Oreillons.

[Two Utopias examined and rejected? Jesuits are tyrants; Biglugs can be cruel] Thus disproving the New World ideal.

(Adventures in Buenos Aires, Paraguay, and the Land of the Oreillons--Biglugs)

Essential action: After mistakenly killing the lovers of two girls, Candide and Cacambo go into the woods to eat and sleep (1575) and awake to find themselves tied down by Biglugs). What would Pangloss say to this? Satirically, Cacambo reasons with the Biglugs (1575) they are released. So, utopias described in this group: Jesuits in Paraguay (theocratic tyranny of Los Padres); and Biglugs, are unreliable.



Chapters 17: Candide in the Country of Eldorado

Essential action: Leave the new world, and after horses die, they take abandoned canoe down river, discover a beautiful land with people. (1577) Carriages drawn by red sheep, children playing quoits with expensive jewels on them. 1577 They are served splendid food. Is this a place where there is the best of possible worlds?



Chapter 18: What they saw in the Land of Eldorado (is this enlightened paradise?); manner of prayers

Essential action: They interview a local commoner (172 years old!). He relates history of place: from Incas to destruction by Spaniards. Inca ruler closed borders to preserve innocence. Spaniards named it; Raleigh never quite got there. So the rapacity of the Europeans never got there. Speak of religion (one god, no prayer, only songs of thanks) (1580); no monks to burn folks at the stake! Candide reflects on Pangloss again (1580). Journey to king's (1580); not expected to kneel before the king. Visit city before dinner (1581); king represents a sort of intellectual leader. No courts needed; impressed with the palace of sciences.

→But no paradise without Cuné; they load jewels on sheep and depart. Not ideal world without love.

→The main point: Voltaire uses Eldorado (Raleigh, 1595) to point out shortcomings in the real world, another way to attack the philosophy of optimism. Also it's used to contrast brutality of Europe/South America; where Pangloss had argued all was ideal (pointing up that it wasn't).

►Deism rules in Eldorado ("we are all priests" 1580); it is the basis of social and practical morality; it is the true faith. (again it is an attack on institutional religion). NOTE: enlightenment of Candide? Realizes Westphalia of Pangloss was NOT the best of all possible worlds, so a fall from optimism, or his teacher’s views.

Chapter 19: Meet Martin! In Surinam (Dutch town) [Does meeting Martin signal our becoming cynical??]

Essential action: They begin to lose sheep (1583) , so riches don't last. Candide addresses a street person (1583) in horrible shape, waiting for his master (Vanderdendur) who had maimed him and other servants. He had been sold by his parents. Converted to Christianity that asserted, ironically, we are brothers: "You must admit that no one could treat his relatives more horribly" (1584). Candide again brings up Pangloss' faulty optimism, and cries.

Candide tries to catch ride to Buenos Aires, but merchant (1584) knows the Governor likes Cuné and would not like Candide there. So he sends Cacambo to ransom her. 1584 Candide heads toward free state of Venice with a Dutch merchant who steals his money. 1585 When he knocks loudly on a judge's door for justice, he's fined. Grows more bitter toward man 1585. Books passage to Bordeaux and for any who told the story that convinced him he was the most miserable (1586). Pangloss' ideas are now truly suspect. Chooses a Socinian (disbelieves divinity of Christ, the Trinity, eternal punishment) elderly scholar.

`The point: Candide is losing faith in Pangloss' views here: robbed, abandoned, victimized. But at least he is fighting. Plight of the black man underscores cruelty at the personal level; hypocrisy of church again. And an attack, again, at institutions who prohibit free thought.



Chapters 20: Adventures of Candide and Martin

Essential action: On journey, they discuss moral and physical evil. Hope of Cuné is the only saving grace (1587)

But, he still had money and leaned toward Pangloss again. Martin calls self Manichean (dark and light). God abandoned the world (1587). Catalogues world's miseries. Candide still has some optimism (1587). They witness two ships fighting and a hundred men perish (1588). Candide's recovering one of his stolen sheep from the ship that had taken it allows him to claim that justice is served sometimes (1588). But did the passengers on the ship have to be punished too?

Senior Literature and Composition

Enlightenment

Mr. East
Candide Voltaire



Chapter 21: Candide and Martin approach coast of France [renunciation of optimism? And note in this section social evils of gambling and other vices (1594) replace external horrors of war and nature. Over riding question: do we have any control?]

► Martin opens with unflattering characterization of French, just as they approach the shore: half mad, too crafty, love making, gentle, stupid. Martin consents to go to Venice with him. (1589). Candide's stories don't phase Martin who has seen everything and believes man had always been predatory. Candide disagrees arguing that we have "freedom of the will." (1590)



Chapter 22: Candide and Martin still in France

► In France they cash in on gems and give red sheep to science. Candide, sick, has to wait at a Paris Inn where he is exploited for his money. (1590): extreme unction, gambling, card sharks (1593). Discuss optimism (1594). Duped into handing false Cunégond some diamonds (behind a screen) (1597). Abbé, still sore about losing, sends cops to arrest. Close with pessimistic assessment of world.



Chapters 23: Candide and Martin (Pierre Bayle 1647-1706) Pass Shores of England

►Calling out names for friends, Candide angrily asked what kind of a world this was. Martin says it was something insane and abominable [we are to ask can evil occur if the creator is infinitely good, infinitely wise, infinitely powerful? Thus, they reject providentialism,]. In England, witness the execution of an admiral for not killing enough. See how they kill him. Candide immediately arranges passage to Venice. Trusting Cacambo will find Cunégonde.



Chapter 24: (Venice) Paquette (maid Pangloss had an affair with) and Giroflée (monk)

►Search for Cacambo (1599). Feels Cuné dead; wishes he hadn’t left Eldorado.

Martin, cynical, calls him fool to expect Cacambo to have used money to free her.

Candide sees a monk (Giroflée) with a lady (1600), at least someone is in love. Martin doubts it 1600. It’s Pacquette! She tells her horror story. Candide still hopes for Cunégonde.



Chapter 25: Decision to visit Lord Pococurante (purportedly a happy Venetian Nobleman) does art and culture bring contentment?

►Nice place with great servants (1603). Pococurante admits having pleasure with the girls; he does not find pleasure in his Raphael paintings (not true to life) nor his music, nor books. Martin agrees with Lord. He does flatter English authors (write what they feel), but not Milton (1605)

Ironically, Candide thinks the Lord is great because nothing can please him! 1606. Sad still because there was no Cunégonde.

Chapter 26: Supper with Six Strangers (1606) (parallel structure of Old Lady’s sharing stories on boat)

►Candide discovers Cacambo at a hotel (he’s servent) and learns that Cuné is in Constantinople. Candide (waiting for ship to Turkey) dines with six kings 1607 (Russian, Turkish, English, Polish, etc.) Each tells depressing stories of how he lost his realm. All give money to the worst story. The point: further examples of the misfortune and evil to be found everywhere; no individual, however lowly or exalted, could escape them. Even kings fail to find serenity.



Chapters 27: The Concluding Adventures of Candide Trip to Constantinople

►Cacambo arranged trip (1609) with Turkish captain under orders of the Sultan.

Candide feels luckier than 6 kings, going to Cuné. Pangloss was right: all is good. Cacambo tells what befell him over his journey to ransom Cunégonde, who is a servant and has lost her beauty. (1610) Candide remains gallant. On shore, coincidence, two galley slaves are Pangloss and Jesuit baron, Cunégonde's brother. He ransoms both (1611). Then they all set off to rescue Cuné in Transylvania.

Chapter 28: What Happened to Candide, Cuné, Pangloss, Martin:

►Baron (Jesuit) pardons him and tells his story (1612): prisoner of Spaniards; dispenser of alms; imprisoned for bathing naked with a Moslem page; then to galleys. Pangloss' story (1613). Hanged, but taken by a surgeon as cadavar (1613). No one had been worse hanged than Pangloss. Scares doctor (thinks he's devil) at beginning incision (1613). He had cried out loudly when the doctor made an incision. Doctor healed him; then, job with knight of Malta going to Venice, then merchant to Constantinople. Still, Pangloss persists in optimism.



Chapter 29: Candide finds Cunégonde and the Old Woman (1614): Free will versus necessity

►En route to the house of the prince of Transylvania, Candide, the baron, Pangloss, Martin, and Cacambo talk about their adventures, reason on the contingent and non-contingent events of the world, argued about causes and effects, moral and physical evil, and free will and necessity. They find and ransom ladies. Old woman suggests they buy farm (1614); again, Baron balks at marriage of Cuné to Candide (1615).



Chapter 30 [Concludes with urge to conduct positive action without windy theorizing]

►Candide really had no desire to marry Cunégonde, but the baron's



arrogance made him determined. They make plan to send Baron back to galleys (to punish pride). None are happy on the farm (1615). Old Lady wonders if it was worse being raped and cut up? They continue to witness human atrocities (heads on pikes). Martin was sure that it was humanity's lot to live in a state of anxiety and boredom. (1616) Candide disagreed but asserted nothing. Pangloss admitted that his life had been filled with suffering, but still believes. See Martin and Candide’s summary.



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