Mao Zedong and the People’s Republic of China GH2/Napp Do Now:
…The situation in China is like this: its population is enormous, there is a shortage of cultivated land (only three mou of land per head, taking the country as a whole; in many parts of the southern provinces, the average is only one mou or less), natural catastrophes occur from time to time — every year large numbers of farms suffer more or less from flood, drought, gales, frost, hail, or insect pests — and methods of farming are backward. As a result, many peasants are still having difficulties or are not well off. The welloff ones are comparatively few, although since land reform the standard of living of the peasants as a whole has improved. For all these reasons there is an active desire among most peasants to take the socialist road.
Source: Mao Zedong, “The Question of Agricultural Cooperation” (Speech, July 31, 1955)
According to Mao Zedong, what difficulties face Chinese peasants and why do Chinese peasants support socialism?
State three actions taken by Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi).
Who fought during the Chinese Civil War?
Why did fighting temporarily stop during the Chinese Civil War?
Who won the civil war? Why did this group win the civil war?
Who was Mao Zedong?
What was the Great Leap Forward?
What was the Cultural Revolution?
Who were the Red Guards? What was the Little Red Book?
When did Mao Zedong die?
Excerpt adapted from bbc.co.uk “Mao Zedong (1893-1976) was a Chinese communist leader and founder of the People's Republic of China… (He) was born into a peasant family …After training as a teacher …he began to read Marxist literature. In 1921, he became a founder (and) member of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)…In 1923, the Kuomintang (KMT) nationalist party had allied with the CCP to defeat the warlords…Then in 1927, the KMT leader, Chiang Kai-shek, launched an anti-communist purge. Mao and other communists retreated to southeast China. In 1934, after the KMT surrounded them, Mao led his followers on the 'Long March', a 6,000 mile journey to northwest China to establish a new base. The Communists and KMT were again temporarily allied during eight years of war with Japan…but shortly after the end of World War Two, civil war broke out...The Communists were victorious, and on 1 October 1949, Mao proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Chiang Kai-shek fled to the island of Taiwan.”
Mao Zedong announcing the founding of the People's Republic of China, October 1, 1949
1: Who was Mao Zedong? _______________________________________
2: What was the CCP? _______________________________________
3: What was the KMT? _______________________________________
4: Who was Chiang Kai-shek? _______________________________________
5: What was the Long March? _______________________________________
6: Why were the CCP and the KMT allies for eight years? _______________________________________
7: What happened on October 1, 1949? _______________________________________
8: Who fled to Taiwan? _______________________________________
9: The majority of the Chinese people were peasants before the Revolution. Why do you think many peasants supported the CCP? _______________________________________
10: How do you think Mao changed China? _______________________________________
Mao Zedong and some of the survivors of the Long March emerged as the core leaders in which country?
(1) Angola (3) China
(2) Cambodia (4) Nicaragua
One way in which Joseph Stalin’s five-year plans and Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward are similar is that both plans were
Base your answers to questions 6 and 7 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.
. . . (1) Internally, arouse the masses of the people. That is, unite the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie, form a domestic united front under the leadership of the working class, and advance from this to the establishment of a state which is a people’s democratic dictatorship under the leadership of the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants.
(2) Externally, unite in a common struggle with those nations of the world which treat us as equals and unite with the peoples of all countries. That is, ally ourselves with the Soviet Union, with the People’s Democracies and with the proletariat and the broad masses of the people in all other countries, and form an international united front. . . .
Source: Mao Tse-Tung [Mao Zedong], Selected Works, Volume Five, 1945–1949, New York International Publishers In this passage, Mao Zedong is suggesting that China
(1) create a government under the leadership of industrialists
(2) give up its independence and become a part of the Soviet Union