Mou of land per head, taking the country as a whole; in many parts of the southern provinces, the average is only one

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Mao Zedong and the People’s Republic of China GH2/Napp
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The situation in China is like this: its population is enormous, there is a shortage of cultivated land (only three mou of land per head, taking the country as a whole; in many parts of the southern provinces, the average is only one mou or less), natural catastrophes occur from time to time — every year large numbers of farms suffer more or less from flood, drought, gales, frost, hail, or insect pests — and methods of farming are backward. As a result, many peasants are still having difficulties or are not well off. The well off ones are comparatively few, although since land reform the standard of living of the peasants as a whole has improved. For all these reasons there is an active desire among most peasants to take the socialist road.

Source: Mao Zedong, “The Question of Agricultural Cooperation” (Speech, July 31, 1955)


According to Mao Zedong, what difficulties face Chinese peasants and why do Chinese peasants support socialism?



  1. The Chinese Civil War

  1. By 1911, China had become a republic

  1. The emperor lost his political power

  2. Led by Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen)

  1. Chiang Kai-shek

  1. Next leader of KMT (Nationalist Party)

  2. Purged communists from party

  3. Forced communist retreat on Long March

  4. Fighting stopped during Japanese invasion

  1. Communists win in 1949

1- Support of peasants

  1. Mao Zedong

  1. Leader of People’s Republic of China

  1. Dictatorship and State-Owned Industries

  2. Great Leap Forward (1958 – 1959)

  1. Tried to quickly industrialize China

  2. Led to famine due to collectivization of agriculture

  1. Cultural Revolution (1966-1970)

  1. Red Guards or students devoted to Mao

  1. Removed “Four Olds” – old ideas

  2. Punished counterrevolutionaries

  3. Read “Little Red Book” – Mao’s words

  1. Death of Mao in 1976


  1. What happened in China in 1911?

  1. Who was Dr. Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian)?

  1. What was the KMT?

  1. State three actions taken by Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi).

  1. Who fought during the Chinese Civil War?

  1. Why did fighting temporarily stop during the Chinese Civil War?

  1. Who won the civil war? Why did this group win the civil war?

  1. Who was Mao Zedong?

  1. What was the Great Leap Forward?

  1. What was the Cultural Revolution?

  1. Who were the Red Guards? What was the Little Red Book?

  1. When did Mao Zedong die?

Excerpt adapted from
Mao Zedong (1893-1976) was a Chinese communist leader and founder of the People's Republic of China… (He) was born into a peasant family …After training as a teacher …he began to read Marxist literature. In 1921, he became a founder (and) member of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)… In 1923, the Kuomintang (KMT) nationalist party had allied with the CCP to defeat the warlords…Then in 1927, the KMT leader, Chiang Kai-shek, launched an anti-communist purge.
Mao and other communists retreated to southeast China. In 1934, after the KMT surrounded them, Mao led his followers on the 'Long March', a 6,000 mile journey to northwest China to establish a new base.
The Communists and KMT were again temporarily allied during eight years of war with Japan…but shortly after the end of World War Two, civil war broke out...The Communists were victorious, and on 1 October 1949, Mao proclaimed the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Chiang Kai-shek fled to the island of Taiwan.”

Mao Zedong announcing the founding of the People's Republic of China, October 1, 1949


1: Who was Mao Zedong? _______________________________________

2: What was the CCP? _______________________________________

3: What was the KMT? _______________________________________

4: Who was Chiang Kai-shek? _______________________________________

5: What was the Long March? _______________________________________

6: Why were the CCP and the KMT allies for eight years? _______________________________________

7: What happened on October 1, 1949? _______________________________________

8: Who fled to Taiwan? _______________________________________

9: The majority of the Chinese people were peasants before the Revolution. Why do you think many peasants supported the CCP? _______________________________________

10: How do you think Mao changed China? _______________________________________

  1. Mao Zedong and some of the survivors of the Long March emerged as the core leaders in which country?

(1) Angola (3) China

(2) Cambodia (4) Nicaragua

  1. One way in which Joseph Stalin’s five-year plans and Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward are similar is that both plans were

(1) efforts to reduce human rights violations

(2) policies to improve relations with the West

(3) methods used to control population growth

(4) attempts to increase agricultural and

industrial production

  1. The Communist Revolution in China differed from the 19th-century Marxist ideals because this revolution was primarily supported by the

(1) warlords (3) factory owners

(2) peasants (4) gentry

  1. Which group was accused of violating human rights in the city of Nanjing during World War II?

(1) Americans (3) Japanese

(2) Chinese (4) Germans

  1. One way in which the Hitler Youth of Germany and the Red Guard of China are similar is that both organizations

(1) required unquestioning loyalty to the leader

(2) helped increase religious tolerance

(3) hindered imperialistic goals

(4) led pro-democracy movements

Base your answers to questions 6 and 7 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.

. . . (1) Internally, arouse the masses of the people. That is, unite the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie, form a domestic united front under the leadership of the working class, and advance from this to the establishment of a state which is a people’s democratic dictatorship under the leadership of the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants.

(2) Externally, unite in a common struggle with those nations of the world which treat us as equals and unite with the peoples of all countries. That is, ally ourselves with the Soviet Union, with the People’s Democracies and with the proletariat and the broad masses of the people in all other countries, and form an international united front. . . .

Source: Mao Tse-Tung [Mao Zedong], Selected Works, Volume Five, 1945–1949, New York International Publishers
In this passage, Mao Zedong is suggesting that China

(1) create a government under the leadership of industrialists

(2) give up its independence and become a part of the Soviet Union

(3) rely on the United Nations for economic aid

(4) join with the Soviet Union as a partner in communism
7. In this passage, Mao Zedong is using the ideas of

(1) Thomas Malthus

(2) Adam Smith

(3) Karl Marx

(4) Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek)

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