Moscow, liberated Moscow from the Mongols, and began to centralize the Russian govt which laid the foundation for the later absolute monarchy. The First Czar= Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) The boyars



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Chp 5.4 Russian Czars Increase Power
From Ivan to the Romanovs

*Ivan III (1462-1505), conquered much of the territory around Moscow, liberated Moscow from the Mongols, and began to centralize the Russian govt. which laid the foundation for the later absolute monarchy.

* The First Czar= Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)

* The boyars were the Russian landowning nobles who competed with Ivan IV for power

* Czar meant "Caesar"

* Married into the Romanov family, wife was Anastasia

*Ruled justly for period of time: great military victories, added lands and a code of law

* Rule by Terror

* Anastasia died in 1560 sending Ivan IV spiraling into his bad period

* He turned against the boyars

* Organized own police force to hunt down traitors, many were executed

* Seized boyars' estates and created a new class of nobles who had to be loyal or else

* In a fit of rage, Ivan IV killed his eldest son and heir, leaving his weak second son to rule

* Time of Troubles

* 1613 representatives met to chose the next czar: chose Michael Romanov, grandnephew of Ivan IV's wife Anastasia...began the Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917)
Peter the Great Takes the Throne

* Romanovs restored order, passed law code and put down a revolt

* Czar Peter I: Peter the Great- one of Russia's greatest reformers, and increased czar's power
Russia's Differences from Europe

* Serfdom still in place in Russia

* Russia looked to Constantinople for guidance (2nd, 3rd Rome)

* Mongols cut Russia off from Renaissance and Age of Exploration

* Eastern Orthodox
Peter Visits the West

* 6'8" tall

* Believed Russia needed a warm water port

* * Peter was 24 when he became sole ruler of Russia

*1697: "Grand Embassy": long visit to Western Europe to learn about European customs and industrial techniques

* Peter tried to remain undercover: worked as a ship's carpenter on the dock's in the Netherlands


Peter Rules Absolutely

* Wanted Russia to compete with Europe militarily and commercially

* Westernization of Russia to make it stronger
Peter's Reforms

* Brought Russian Orthodox Church under state control

* Abolished office of Patriarch and put in the Holy Synod instead.

* Reduced power of wealthy landholders

* helped lower-class men, expecting them to be loyal

* Hired European officers to modernize the army

* Soldiers became professionals, Peter raised taxes to pay for them
Westernizing Russia

* Potatoes were introduced (staple of Russian diet)

* Newspaper

* women allowed to attend social gatherings

* Nobles had to give up traditional clothes for Western Fashions

* Long coats could be cut *Had to pay a beard tax to keep a beard


A New Capital

* Peter went to war with Sweden to get control of a piece of the Baltic coast



* Built city of St. Petersburg on Neva River which went into Baltic Sea

* Many serfs died from disease while constructing St. Petersburg

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