Monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy



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Classical Era Test Review

Please complete this review IN FULL (NOTHING LEFT OUT) for up to a 10 point curve on the test.
*Government systems: please be able to know the difference between each: monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, direct democracy, republican democracy
Ancient Greece

Mycenaean Civilization

Minoan Civilization

Phoenician Civilization/Colonization


Classical Greece

Athens

City-state

Demos/kratien (democracy)

Hoplite


Type of government

Slavery in Athens

Female rights

Education

Pericles

Acropolis

Parthenon

Delian League

Socrates

Plato


Aristotle
Sparta

Helots


Female rights

Education

Type of government
Persian Wars – Ionian Rebellion, Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis

Peloponnesian War


Macedonia

Philip II

Alexander the Great

Gaugamela

Local governments in Alexander’s empire

Hoplite phalanx



Classical Persia

Medes


Achaemenids

Cyrus I


Cambyses

Darius I


Satraps

Satrapies

Persian Royal Road

Persian currency

Local officials in the Persian empire

Xerxes
Seleucids


Parthians

Parthian government

Sasanids

Persian social classes

Trade in the Persian Empire

Persian Economy


Zoroastrianism

Zarathustra

Magi

Gathas


Ahura Mazda/AngraMainyu

Heaven/Hell in Zoroastrianism

Popularity of Zoroastrianism

Influence of Zoroastrianism


Classical India

Mauryan Dynasty

Bactria


Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta’s government

Ashoka Maurya

Downfall of Mauryan Empire

Buddhism in the Mauryan Dynasty
Guptan Dynasty

Chandra Gupta (not CHANDRAGUPTA)

Downfall of the Guptan Empire

Concept of Zero

Hinduism in the Guptan Dynasty
Long distance trade in Classical India

Caste system (5 castes/job description)

Jati

Vaishya/Shudra prosperity


Jainism

Vadrhamana Mahavira

Jina/Jains

Jainist doctrine

Ahimsa
Buddhism

Siddartha Gautama

Dharma

Monasticism



Four Noble Truths

Noble Eightfold Path

Religious goal of Buddhism

Appeal of Buddhism

Ashoka

Mahayanas



Boddhisatva

Theravadas


Hinduism

Mahabarata

Vishnu

Ramayana


Bhagavad Gita

Hindu ethics

Appeal of Hinduism

Classical China

Qin Dynasty

Shang Yang/Han Feizi

Legalism in Qin China

Legalist doctrine

Basis of Qin economy

Suppression of resistance

Centralization in Qin China

Collapse of the Qin


Han Dynasty

Liu Bang


Han Wudi

Han Centralization

Legalism in Han China

Gov’t monopolies on industry

Confucian educational system

Imperial expansion

Social structure

Technological achievements

Taxation on commoners/wealthier Chinese

Problems with land distribution

Wang Mang

Collapse of the Han


Confucianism

Confucius

Key Confucian concepts

Mencius


Xunzi
Daoism

Laozi/Zhuangzi

The Dao

Wuwei


Daoism vs. Confucianism

Classical Rome

Republican Rome

Foundation of Rome

Romulus/Remus

Capitoline/Palatine Hills

Marcus Junius Brutus/The Republic

Etruscan inheritance

Roman Forum
Roman Government & Administration

The 12 Tables

Political/civil rights for citizens in Rome/outside of Rome

Colonial administration/taxation

Roman Government – structure

Office of Dictator

Basilicas
Roman Social Life

Patricians

Plebians

Clientage (Patron/Client rel.)

Struggle of the Orders

Plebiscite

Female roles in Rome
Roman Religion

Pontifex


Roman polytheism

Greek/Etruscan inheritance

Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus

Temple of Vesta


Roman Culture

Historians

Roman philosophies

Roman bloodsports – evolution


Roman economics

Battlefield success =

Roman soldier/farmer

Slave labor

Latifundia

Political stability & economics


End of the Republic

Optimates/Populares

The Gracchi’s political ambitions

Political instability

First Triumverate

Second Triumverate


Principate

Augustus’ cult of personality

Princeps

Pax Romana

Moral reforms

Virgil/Horace


Empire

Nero


Vespasian/Titus

Hadrian


Caracalla

Barracks Emperors

Tetrarchy

Diocletian

Foederati

Constantine

Constantinople

Edict of Milan

East/West split

Battle of Milvian Bridge

Senate/Popular assemblies in Emipre
Economics in the Empire

Debasement

“mare nostrum”

Imperial coinage – uses

Grain imports to Rome

Caracalla & increasing imperial revenue

Emperors & massive public buildings
Religion in the Empire

Oriental cults

Mithras/Isis & Osiris

Emperor cults

Judaism – diaspora

Christianity’s appeal

Christian Persecution

Toleration of Christianity

Christian theological councils

St. Jerome



Architectural achievements

Arches


Concrete

Pozzolano ash

Mining in the empire

Roads


Aqueducts
BIG IDEAS TO REMEMBER IN CLASSICAL CIVILIZATION

  1. The Greeks became reconnected with the Mediterranean & left the dark ages after Phoenician traders began trading throughout Greece & the eastern Mediterranean. The Greeks also borrowed the Phoenician alphabet & combined it with their own characters to make it their own. Rome will later preserve the Greek legacy.

  2. Greek rationality and philosophy is the basis of modern western philosophy. The unexamined life isn’t one worth having. Emphasis on reflection/morality/ethics/perception.

  3. Greeks colonized the Mediterranean/Black Sea area for economic reasons just after the Dark Ages and onward.

  4. The Persian Empire was the largest the world had seen prior to Alexander’s conquest of Persia and the Roman Empire. The further local rulers were away from Persepolis (& later Ctesiphon), the more autonomy they had – as long as they paid their share of taxes.

  5. Alexander’s empire extended from Greece to India, Egypt to Afghanistan. He did this all before he was 33, & was successful governing by delegating power to Greek officials he placed in conquered lands.

  6. Rome started off as a small collection of tribes in the middle of the Italian peninsula and then conquered surrounding peoples, Italy, and then looked beyond after the Second Punic War. The empire at its greatest length extended from Spain to Mesopotamia, Britain to Egypt/Northern Africa.

  7. Roman government was complex. It had elements of monarchic, democratic, and oligarchic rule. The Senate was strong during the Republic, but by the Empire had become merely symbolic. Popular assemblies were used during the early Republic, but also became symbolic in the Empire, when only the Emperor’s wishes mattered.

  8. Roman law and republican government will be the basis for western law & government to this day. The Romans had a complicated, but fair, legal system. The Law of the 12 Tables was the first form of that system that was later codified by the Byzantine Emperor Jusitinian ~530 CE.

  9. Rome’s control of the Mediterranean/their roads facilitated trade. Security by the army/political stability promoted trade, instability & invasion killed trade. The empire will end due to economics – little money to pay the troops, feed the people/invaders – too few troops to guard the borders, protect the people.

  10. Geography, social hierarchy, language, & varied economies led to political disunity in India prior to the Mauryans & Guptans.

  11. Both the Mauryans and Guptans saw their empires collapse because of outside invasions. The Mauryans also dealt with the high cost of maintaining its vast borders.

  12. Women’s roles in India changed as social changes occurred. They were more and more expected to be docile & subservient to men. Buddhism/Jainism gave women a bit more freedom than Hinduism.

  13. The Qin state was in WEST CHINA & were highly legalist & centralized. This caused much upset within the Qin people, & the dynasty collapsed due to much forced labor on public works & legalist policies.

  14. The Han Dynasty was legalist as well. They were also centralized, but sought foreign expansion. Confucian education was a big part of government for the Han.

  15. Much like the Zhou, the Han dynasty fell because of factions (warring parties) in the Han court, which resulted in the fractioning of China into separate kingdoms afterwards.

Essay questions: At least half a page for each essay. You may write out these essay questions on a separate 3 x 5 note card to use on the essay portion of the test.



  1. Please compare and contrast the decline and fall of three of the seven civilizations we studied in the Classical Era. Give the causes of collapse for each civilization and then analyze their similarities and differences.

  2. Why were religions like Christianity and Judaism such a perceived threat to the Roman state religion?

  3. Analyze and discuss the differences between Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism. You will first have to describe the principles of each before you describe their differences.

IMPORTANT GEOGRAPHY. Identify on the following map.


Ctesiphon Rubicon River

Rome Luoyang

Athens Xianyang

Sparta Hadrian’s Wall

Persepolis Constantinople

Gaugamela Etruria

Delos Magna Graecia

Marathon Carthage

Salamis Macedonia

Alexandria Black Sea



Jerusalem Hellespont

Pella


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