Please complete this review IN FULL (NOTHING LEFT OUT) for up to a 10 point curve on the test. *Government systems: please be able to know the difference between each: monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, direct democracy, republican democracy Ancient Greece
Type of government
Slavery in Athens
Type of government
Persian Wars – Ionian Rebellion, Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis
BIG IDEAS TO REMEMBER IN CLASSICAL CIVILIZATION
The Greeks became reconnected with the Mediterranean & left the dark ages after Phoenician traders began trading throughout Greece & the eastern Mediterranean. The Greeks also borrowed the Phoenician alphabet & combined it with their own characters to make it their own. Rome will later preserve the Greek legacy.
Greek rationality and philosophy is the basis of modern western philosophy. The unexamined life isn’t one worth having. Emphasis on reflection/morality/ethics/perception.
Greeks colonized the Mediterranean/Black Sea area for economic reasons just after the Dark Ages and onward.
The Persian Empire was the largest the world had seen prior to Alexander’s conquest of Persia and the Roman Empire. The further local rulers were away from Persepolis (& later Ctesiphon), the more autonomy they had – as long as they paid their share of taxes.
Alexander’s empire extended from Greece to India, Egypt to Afghanistan. He did this all before he was 33, & was successful governing by delegating power to Greek officials he placed in conquered lands.
Rome started off as a small collection of tribes in the middle of the Italian peninsula and then conquered surrounding peoples, Italy, and then looked beyond after the Second Punic War. The empire at its greatest length extended from Spain to Mesopotamia, Britain to Egypt/Northern Africa.
Roman government was complex. It had elements of monarchic, democratic, and oligarchic rule. The Senate was strong during the Republic, but by the Empire had become merely symbolic. Popular assemblies were used during the early Republic, but also became symbolic in the Empire, when only the Emperor’s wishes mattered.
Roman law and republican government will be the basis for western law & government to this day. The Romans had a complicated, but fair, legal system. The Law of the 12 Tables was the first form of that system that was later codified by the Byzantine Emperor Jusitinian ~530 CE.
Rome’s control of the Mediterranean/their roads facilitated trade. Security by the army/political stability promoted trade, instability & invasion killed trade. The empire will end due to economics – little money to pay the troops, feed the people/invaders – too few troops to guard the borders, protect the people.
Geography, social hierarchy, language, & varied economies led to political disunity in India prior to the Mauryans & Guptans.
Both the Mauryans and Guptans saw their empires collapse because of outside invasions. The Mauryans also dealt with the high cost of maintaining its vast borders.
Women’s roles in India changed as social changes occurred. They were more and more expected to be docile & subservient to men. Buddhism/Jainism gave women a bit more freedom than Hinduism.
The Qin state was in WEST CHINA & were highly legalist & centralized. This caused much upset within the Qin people, & the dynasty collapsed due to much forced labor on public works & legalist policies.
The Han Dynasty was legalist as well. They were also centralized, but sought foreign expansion. Confucian education was a big part of government for the Han.
Much like the Zhou, the Han dynasty fell because of factions (warring parties) in the Han court, which resulted in the fractioning of China into separate kingdoms afterwards.
Essay questions: At least half a page for each essay. You may write out these essay questions on a separate 3 x 5 note card to use on the essay portion of the test.
Please compare and contrast the decline and fall of three of the seven civilizations we studied in the Classical Era. Give the causes of collapse for each civilization and then analyze their similarities and differences.
Why were religions like Christianity and Judaism such a perceived threat to the Roman state religion?
Analyze and discuss the differences between Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism. You will first have to describe the principles of each before you describe their differences.
IMPORTANT GEOGRAPHY. Identify on the following map.