Module Aims and Learning Objectives



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The Art of Negotiation

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Politics & International Relation

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University of Leicester

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V1.0

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17 Feb 2010

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Module Aims and Learning Objectives

Strategic aims of the course

The general aims of this module are to: (a) provide a good grasp of the specialized language of diplomacy, and especially negotiation; (b) emphasise that while the world diplomatic system has many tasks, its chief one is the negotiation of agreements; and (c) examine the purposes and problems of each of the main stages through which negotiation normally proceeds.

By the end of this module students should:


  • have understood and assimilated some of the main features of the landscape of modern diplomatic practice;

  • have a more sophisticated understanding of the specialised language of diplomacy;

  • be able to think critically, analytically and conceptually about the subject matter;

  • have a strong grasp of the limits as well as the possibilities of diplomacy.

Key skills

By the end of this module students should:



  • have improved their skills in written presentation;

  • have experience of learning through online discussions and independent study;

  • be able to access the University catalogue;

  • be able to word process their essays.

Module Texts

The recommended textbook to accompany this course is:



  • G.R. Berridge, Diplomacy: Theory and Practice (3rd edn, Palgrave-Macmillan: Basingstoke, 2005)[updating pages available at http://grberridge.diplomacy.edu/]

Also important are:

  • G.R. Berridge et al (eds), Diplomatic Theory From Machiavelli To Kissinger (Palgrave‐Macmillan, 2001)

  • G.R. Berridge and Alan James, A Dictionary of Diplomacy (2nd edn, Palgrave‐Macmillan, 2003)

Good historical companions are:

  • Keith Hamilton and Richard Langhorne, The Practice of Diplomacy (Routledge, 1995)

  • M.S. Anderson, The Rise of Modern Diplomacy, 1450‐1919 (Longman, 1993)

All are available in paperback. Those who have not previously studied post‐1945 international politics would also be well advised to equip themselves with

  • Peter Calvocoressi, World Politics 1945‐2000 (8th edn, Longmans, London, 2000).

Useful journals are:

  • Diplomacy and Statecraft

  • Negotiation Journal

  • Foreign Affairs

  • International Negotiation

  • Hague Journal of Diplomacy

Week 1: Key Concepts of Diplomacy

Summary of topic

This introductory topic will begin to address the fundamental tenets of diplomacy and establish what your own views are. The main aim of the week's reading is to provide students with a conceptual foundation in understanding diplomacy. It will introduce you to the following topics areas:



    • recognition of states

    • recognition of governments

    • diplomatic relations/consular relations

    • representation

    • ambassador (and other ranks)

    • diplomats/diplomatists

    • diplomatic service/diplomatic corps

    • negotiation

Guiding question

What do you understand by diplomacy?



Recommended reading

Berridge, G.R., Diplomacy: Theory and Practice is the key work to be familiar with.

There is also Berridge, G.R., et al (eds), Diplomatic Theory from Machiavelli to Kissinger and his 2nd edition of A Dictionary of Diplomacy.

Pop quiz

1. Who was Machiavelli?

2. Who was Guicciardini?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 2: Richelieu

Summary of topic

This week deals with Richelieu's concept of négociation continuelle and whether or not he exaggerated its value. What does Richelieu mean by 'continuous negotiation'? Why does he value it so highly? What drawbacks of 'continuous negotiation', if any, does he overlook? These are the key questions considered here.



Guiding question

To what extent is Richelieu considered the founder of modern diplomacy?



Recommended reading

Key Reading

Political Testament (written circa 1646; first publ. 1688). Recommended edition: The Political Testament of Cardinal Richelieu: the significant chapters and supporting selections, trsl. H. B. Hill (1961), Part II only - from the Louis André edition, Testament Politique (Paris, 1947)

Berridge, G. R. et al, Diplomatic Theory from Machiavelli to Kissinger (2001), ch. 4

Background Reading

Bergin, J., Cardinal Richelieu: Power and the Pursuit of Wealth (1985)

Bergin, J. and L. Brockliss (eds), Richelieu and his Age (1992), ch. by Weber - 'Une bonne paix': Richelieu's foreign policy and the peace of Christendom'

Church, William F., Richelieu and Reason of State (1972)

Elliot, J. H., Richelieu and Olivares (1984)

Faber, Richard, The Brave Courtier: Sir William Temple (1983), ch. 4

Hill, David Jayne, A History of Diplomacy in the International Development of Europe (1905), vol. II, ch. 7

Knecht, Robert, Richelieu (1991)

Mandrou, R., Introduction to Modern France 1500-1640 (1975)

New Cambridge Modern History, vol. IV, chs. 11 and 16

Nicolson, Harold, The Evolution of Diplomatic Method (1954), chs. 3 and 4

O'Connell, D. P., Richelieu (1968)

Parker, D., The Making of French Absolutism (1983)

Ranum, Orest A., Richelieu and the Councillors of Louis XIII: A study of the Secretaries of State and Superintendents of Finance in the ministry of Richelieu, 1635-1642 (1963), ch. 4.

Tapié, Victor-Lucien, France in the Age of Louis XIII and Richelieu, new edn. (1984)

Treasure, G. R. R., Cardinal Richelieu and the development of absolutism (1972), ch. 19



Pop quiz

1. What did Richelieu mean by ‘continuous negotiation’?

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this négociation continuelle?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 3: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Summary of topic

In most states today the MFA must formally share influence over the conduct as well as the making of foreign policy with other ministries and executive agencies as they engage in 'direct dial diplomacy'. Nevertheless, in many of them the influence that it retains is considerable. The chief tasks of the student responsible for this session, therefore, are (a) to examine the reasons for this and in the process (b) to establish the nature of the role of the MFA today.



Guiding question

What influence does the Ministry of Foreign Affairs have on the conduct of diplomacy?



Recommended reading

For Berridge's explanation of the MFA please see the pdf Berridge Chapter 1 in the next item down.

Boyce, Peter J., 'Foreign offices and new states', International Journal, Winter 1974-5 vol. 30, no. 1 [Leicester E-link]

Boyce, Peter J., Foreign Affairs for New States (1977), chs. 6-8

Bullen, Roger (ed), The Foreign Office, 1782-1982 (1984)

Clapham, Christopher (ed), Foreign Policy Making in Developing States: A Comparative Approach (1978) [sections on 'The decision making process']

Coles, John, Making Foreign Policy: A Certain Idea of Britain (2000)

Dickie, John, Inside the Foreign Office (1992)

Hennessy, Peter, Whitehall (1990)

Herman, Michael, Intelligence Power in Peace and War (1996)

Herman, Michael, 'Diplomacy and intelligence', Diplomacy & Statecraft, vol. 9, no. 2, July 1998, pp. 1-22 [Leicester E-link]

Hocking, Brian (ed), Foreign Ministries: Change and Adaptation (1999)

Jones, Ray, The Nineteenth-Century Foreign Office: An Administrative History (1971)

Kennan, George F., Memoirs, 1925-1950 (1967), pp. 325-7, 426-7, 465-6 [on formation of policy planning staff in the State Department]

Merillat, H. C. L. (ed), Legal Advisers and Foreign Affairs (1964)

Prados, John, Keepers of the Keys: A History of the National Security Council from Truman to Bush (1991)

Rana, Kishan S., Inside Diplomacy (2000), chp. 11 [on the Indian MFA]

Rothstein, Robert L., Planning, Prediction, and Policymaking in Foreign Affairs: Theory and Practice (1972)

The Political Testament of Cardinal Richelieu: the significant chapters and supporting selections, trsl. H. B. Hill (1965), Part II only [written circa 1646; first publ. 1688].

Simpson, Smith, Anatomy of the State Department (1967)

Steiner, Zara, The Foreign Office and Foreign Policy, 1898-1914 (1969)

Steiner, Zara (ed), The Times Survey of Foreign Ministries of the World (1982)

Many Ministries of Foreign Affairs have their own web sites, and these are steadily becoming more numerous and improving in quality. Most provide at least a list of the different departments (sometimes even an 'organigram'), while a few go so far as to give a detailed history of the ministry. In the last regard, the web site of the Canadian MFA is outstanding. The back copies of State Magazine, available via the US State Department's web site, are also extremely useful. The easiest way to locate these sites is to use the Mediterranean Diplomatic Academy's Diplo Directory, the URL of which is http://diplo.diplomacy.edu/directory/.

For additional references on the role of the legal adviser in the MFA, see the bibliography compiled and updated by Hans Corell, the UN's own legal adviser: 'The Role of the Legal Adviser: List of Literature', http://www.un.org/law/counsel/litlist.htm.



Pop quiz

1. What are the typical attributes of a Ministry of Foreign Affairs?

2. Who is in charge of the MFA?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 4: Strategy and Tactics

Summary of topic

The student taking this seminar should: (a) discuss the concept of the 'ripe moment' with particular reference to Guicciardini and Richelieu; (b) examine the concept of 'stages of negotiation'; and (c) consider whether it is best to make concessions incrementally or in one fell swoop.



Guiding question

How far can one stick to a plan in deciding upon a course of action in diplomacy?



Recommended reading

For Berridge's explanation of the MFA please see the pdf Berridge Chapter 1 in the next item down

Cohen, R., Negotiating across Cultures, (2nd edn, 1997), pp. 67-82

G.R. Berridge (ed.) Guicciardini's Ricordi: Counsels and Reflections of Francesco Guicciardini, trsl. by Ninian Hill Thomson, (2000); See also Francesco Guicciardini, Selected Writings, ed. and introduced by C. Grayson, trsl. M. Grayson (OUP: London, 1965).

Iklé, Fred C., How Nations Negotiate (Harper and Row, 1964)

The Political Testament of Cardinal Richelieu: the significant chapters and supporting selections, trsl. H. B. Hill (1965), Part II only [written circa 1646; first publ. 1688].

Zartman, I.W. and M. Berman, The Practical Negotiator (1982)

Pop quiz

1. What do you make of the temporal nature of diplomacy with particular reference to Guicciardini and Richelieu and the "ripe moment"?

2. What are the merits of the "stages of negotiation"?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 5: Prenegotiations

Summary of topic

Prenegotiation is the whole range of activity conducted prior to the first stage of formal substantive, or 'around-the-table', negotiation. It is directed at achieving agreement on three matters. The first of these is agreement on the possibility that negotiation may prove advantageous to all parties concerned. The second is agreement on an agenda for talks. And the third is agreement on the manner in which the talks should be conducted - questions of procedure. The student doing this session should examine the difficulties confronted in achieving each of these aims and how their pursuit is affected by different circumstances.



Guiding question

How important is preparatory work?



Recommended reading

Alexander, M., Managing the Cold War (2005)

Cohen, R., Negotiating across Cultures, (2nd edn, 1997), pp. 67-82

Cradock, P., Experiences of China (1994), chs. 16-18

Gross-Stein, J. (ed), Getting to the Table: The Process of International Pre-negotiation (1989)

Quandt, W. B., Camp David: Peacemaking and Politics (1986), chs. 3-7

Zartman, I. W. and M. Berman, The Practical Negotiator (1982), ch. 3

Pop quiz

1. How are agendas set and procedures agreed upon?

2. What are the potential pitfalls?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 6: 'Around-the-table' Negotiations

Summary of topic

If prenegotiations are successfully concluded, the next task for the negotiators is to move into 'around-the-table' mode. This is generally more formal and there is usually more public awareness of what, in broad terms, is going on. First comes the task of trying to agree on the basic principles of a settlement: the 'formula stage'. If a formula is achieved, the details then have to be added. The students responsible for the presentation on this subject should: (a) recapitulate the concept of a formula (from Session 6); (b) provide some examples of well known formulas; and - most importantly - (c) compare the problems of achieving a sound formula with those of filling in its details.



Guiding question

How important is it to be seen to be ‘negotiating’?



Recommended reading

Berridge, G. R., 'Diplomacy and the Angola/Namibia accords, December 1988', International Affairs, vol. 65, no. 3, 1989 [Leicester E-link]

Binnendijk, H. (ed), National Negotiating Styles (1987)

Cohen, R., Negotiating across Cultures, (2nd edn 1997)

Crocker, C. A., High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighbourhood (1992)

Faure, G. O. and J. Z. Rubin (eds), Culture and Negotiation: the Resolution of Water Disputes (1993)

Golan, M., The Secret Conversations of Henry Kissinger: Step-by-Step Diplomacy in the Middle East (1976)

Kremenyuk, V. A. (ed), International Negotiation (1991)

Lee, D., Middle Powers and Commercial Diplomacy: British Influence at the Kennedy Trade Round (1999)

Quandt, W. B., Camp David: Peacemaking and Politics (1986), chs. 8-12

Meerts, P., 'The changing nature of diplomatic negotiation', in J. Melissen (ed), Innovation in Diplomatic Practice (1999)

Vance, C., Hard Choices: Critical Years in America's Foreign Policy (1983)

Webster, Sir C., The Art and Practice of Diplomacy (1961)

Zartman, I. W. and M. Berman, The Practical Negotiator (1982), chs. 4-6

Zartman, I. W. (ed), International Multilateral Negotiation (1997)

Pop quiz

1. What are the priorities in around-the-table negotiations?

2. How important are individual relationships in around-the-table negotiations?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 7: Diplomatic Momentum

Summary of topic

The momentum of a negotiation may falter even if the parties are serious about proceeding. This was a recurring problem with the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations, which started in September 1986 and was not finally completed until April 1994.



Guiding question

What creates and maintains momentum in Diplomacy



Recommended reading

Berridge, G. R., 'Diplomacy and the Angola/Namibia Accords, December 1988', International Affairs, vol. 65, no. 3, 1989 [Leicester E-link]

Tallbott, S. The Russia Hand: A Memoir of Presidential Diplomacy, (Random House: New York, 2002)

Carter, J., Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President (1982), pp. 267-429 [on the Egypt-Israel negotiations]

Cradock, P., Experiences of China (1994), chs. 16-20, 23 [on the negotiations in 1983-4 for the transfer of Hong Kong from British to Chinese sovereignty]

De Soto, A., 'Ending violent in El Salvador', in C. A. Crocker, F. A. Hampson, and P. Aall (eds), Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World (1999)

Harrison, S., 'Inside the Afghan talks', Foreign Policy, 1988 [Leicester E-link]

Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson, Metaphors We Live By (1981), esp. chs. 1-3, 11, 16 and 23

Quandt, W. B., Camp David: Peacemaking and Politics (1986)

Rofe, J.S. ‘Under the Influence of Mahan: Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt and their Understanding of American National Interest,’ Diplomacy and Statecraft, Vol. 19:4 2008 [Leicester E-link]

Sullivan, J. G., 'How peace came to El Salvador', Orbis (winter 1994), pp. 83-98 [Leicester E-link]

Pop quiz

1. How does tempo affect negotiations?

2. Why might momentum falter? Why is it serious? And what might be done to prevent it?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



Week 8: Packaging Agreements

Summary of topic

Diplomatic agreements vary in form to an almost bewildering degree. They vary most obviously in title or style: 'treaties', 'final acts', 'protocols', 'exchanges of notes' - even 'agreements', for example. However, they also vary significantly in textual structure, language, and whether or not they are accompanied by 'side letters'. They also vary - though they should not - in whether they are publicised or kept secret.



Guiding question

What influence a) does and b) should politics play in 'final' agreements?



Recommended reading

Barston, R. P., Modern Diplomacy, (2nd edn1997) ch. 10

Cohen, R., Negotiating Across Cultures, rev. ed (1997) ch. 9

Cradock, P., Experiences of China (1994), chs. 19, 20, 23

Franck, T. M. and E. Weisband, Foreign Policy by Congress (1979)

Glennon, M. J., 'The Senate role in treaty ratification', American Journal of International Law, vol. 77, 1983 [Leicester E-link]

Gore-Booth, Lord (ed), Satow's Guide to Diplomatic Practice, (5th edn Longmans: 1979)

Grenville, J. A. S. and B. Wasserstein, The Major International Treaties since 1945: A history and guide with texts (1987)

Johnson, L. K., The Making of International Agreements: Congress confronts the Executive (1984)

Shaw, M. N., International Law, 4th ed (1997)



Pop quiz

1. Explain the variation in the types of final agreements?

2. Explain what form an agreement might take depending on its subject matter and the political needs of its authors?

Go to the relevant forum to discuss this week's topic



E-tivities

E-tivity 1: Access and Socialisation

Purpose

Introduce yourself to your peers and familiarise yourself with the use of our forums.



Task

Tell us about something you have done on the Internet (maximum 10 lines) that you couldn’t have done in any other way, or could not have done within the same timescale or the same budget. One example might be locating and buying a particularly obscure book.

'Sign' your message with the name you'd like to be called during this course (e.g. Billy or Catherine), and post it to the E-tivity 1 forum.

Respond

Please comment on at least one other person’s description.



Outcome

You will be able to post messages to a forum and post replies thereby engaging with your fellow students.

(We recommend you spend a minimum of 30 minutes on this e-tivity, although you are encouraged to continue to converse with your peers.)

E-tivity 2: Information Retrieval at the Library (5%)

Purpose

To access e-resources and use a bibliographic database to find an article from an academic journal.



Task

1. Watch this tutorial on the Expanded Academic ASAP database. (The tutorial will last approximately 7 minutes 30 seconds and will open a new window.)

2. Discover how to access e-resources off campus (opens in a new window).

3. Go to your subject room. Choose an appropriate database to find an article from any academic journal on: The "founding fathers" of Diplomacy (opens in a new window).

4. Go to the E-tivity 2 forum and post the full bibliographic details by Sunday 10pm of Week 2. Remember, be precise and accurate, as your colleagues will need to find the article through Leicester E-link.

Respond

After this, return to the forum and please provide a brief analysis (400 words maximum) of the major argument in an article someone else has posted, before partaking in any subsequent discussion in the relevant forum.



Outcome

You will be able to search the university’s databases, identify and access an article, and post the required bibliographic information, as well as beginning to analyse its content and share your thoughts.



E-tivity 3: Text Critique I (5%)

Purpose

To analyse this well-known article and identify its major attributes:



  • Lloyd, L., ‘What’s in a name? The curious tale of the office of high commissioner’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 2000, 11/1, pp. 47-78

Task

Please follow the link above and read the article. Then provide a brief analysis of it (maximum 400 words) to the E-tivity 3 forum by Monday of Week 4.



Respond

In the E-tivity 3 forum please post comments on your peer’s assessments by way of sharing your own articulation on the article, between Monday of Week 4 and Sunday of Week 4.



Outcome

You will be able to analyse the content of a scholarly article and share your thoughts on it.

(We recommend you spend as much time as is necessary to read the article; up to 2 hours composing your analysis; and as much time as you are able participating in the forum).

E-tivity 4: Essay Plan (15%)

Purpose

To provide you with bespoke guidance to complete your module essay.



Task

Please compose a plan of between 800-1000 words (not including suggested bibliography of a minimum of 10 sources) for an essay chosen from the list of module essay questions.

Examples of essay plans can be found on the DL site. This will also provide you with broader guidance ahead of the essay.

Please submit your plan by 10pm Sunday Week 7 by submitting as an attachment in an email to your Associate Tutor.

Where relevant be aware of the sources identified in the weekly readings.

Respond

Mindful of the need to avoid plagiarism, and that everybody will have their own take on this, please feel free to spend as much time as you are able discussing your approach in the E-tivity 4 forum.



Outcome

You will have a clear idea as to the strengths and weakness of the approach you intend to undertake for your essay. Further you will have been notified of a particular source that you should consult for E-tivity 5.

(We recommend you spend a minimum of 6 hours researching amongst sources relevant to your essay topic; up to 2 hours composing your plan.

We aim to return to your essay plan to you within a week so you can begin the next e-tivity.



E-tivity 5: Text Critique II (5%)

Purpose

To analyse a well-known article and identify its major attributes.

Your source will be identified in the feedback to your essay plan for E-tivity 4.

Task

This e-tivity has two parts.

First, please read the suggested source, then post its full bibliographic reference and a brief analysis of it (maximum 400 words) in the E-tivity 5 forum as soon as you are able.

Respond

Second, please post comments on how you think your reading of this article informs your essay. Of course your wider reading will also be relevant here, especially if the source that has been recommended represented a different school of thought from your initial reading.



Outcome

You will be able to analyse the content of a scholarly article in relation to your own essay and share your thoughts on it.

(We recommend you spend as much time as is necessary to read the article; up to 2 hours composing your analysis; and as much time as you are able participating in the forum).

E-tivity 6: Module Essay (70%)

Purpose

Capstone exercise bringing together elements of the weekly readings and building upon the e-tivities to illustrate you have understood key aspects of the field of Diplomacy.



Task

Write a 5000 word essay at the MA level illustrating your analytical abilities from a list of questions below.

Your essay questions:


  1. How far do you agree Diplomacy is a dying art?

  2. To what extent is Richelieu the architect of modern diplomacy?

  3. Outline, with more than one example, the attributes of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in conducting Diplomacy historically and with reference to contemporary affairs?

  4. How far do you agree that it is best to make concessions incrementally or in one fell swoop? Answer with reference to at least two case studies.

  5. How far do you agree that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages in pre-negotiating?

  6. Analyse the potential difficulties for parties in agreeing upon the basic principles of a settlement in the ‘Formula stage’? Please support your answer with specific examples.

  7. Explain strategies for maintaining momentum in negotiations, and in what ways the tempo of negotiations affects the ultimate outcome?

  8. What is the importance of the form of the final outcome to the negotiations process? Answer with reference to more than one particular example.

Outcome

You will have met the learning objectives of the module in complete this aspect of the module.

Further details on the essay requirement for this module can be found under Module Information.

Forum References

Russell, Richard, ‘American Diplomatic Realism: A tradition practised and preached by George F. Kennan’, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 2000, 11/3, pp. 159 - 182

Berridge, G.R., ‘Machiavelli: Human Nature, Good Faith and Diplomacy’, Review of International Studies, 2001, 27/4, pp. 539-556

Rudin Harry R., ‘Diplomacy, Democracy, Security: Two Centuries in Contrast’, Political Science Quarterly, 71/ 2, pp. 161-181

Klaits, Joseph, ‘Men of Letters and Political Reform in France at the End of the Reign of Louis XIV: The Founding of the Academie Politique’, The Journal of Modern History, 43/4, pp. 577-597

Keens-Soper, M., ‘Francois de Callieres and Diplomatic Theory’, The Historical Journal, 16/ 3, pp. 485-508

Mallett, Michael, 'Italian Renaissance Diplomacy', Diplomacy and Statecraft, 2001, 12/ 1, pp. 61

Russell, Greg, 'Machiavelli's Science of Statecraft: The Diplomacy and Politics of Disorder', Diplomacy and Statecraft, 2005, 16/ 2, p. 227.

Hampton, T., ‘The Diplomatic Moment: Representing Negotiation in Early Modern Europe’, Modern Language Quarterly, 2006, 67/1, p. 81

Cohen, Raymond, ‘The Great Tradition: The Spread of Diplomacy in the Ancient World’, Diplomacy and Statecraft, 2001, 12/3, p. 23 (AN:2019025)



Mattingly, Garrett, ‘The First Resident Embassy: Medieval Italian Origins of Modern Diplomacy." Speculum, 12/4, pp. 423-439

Wiethoff, William E., ‘A Machiavellian Paradigm for Diplomatic Communication’, The Journal of Politics, 1981, 43/ 4, pp. 1090-1104


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