Module 8 Cloze Notes 01 a nation Divided

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Module 8 Cloze Notes

8.01 A Nation Divided

The Causes of the Civil War

Issues that divided the Union





Abolitionists (saw slaves as people)

______________ (saw slaves as property)


Favored ___________ tariffs

Favored ________tariffs

Politics (state’s rights)

Believed more power should reside in the ____________ government.

Believed more power should reside in the __________ governments.

In the North, the _______ winters and rocky land discouraged large scale farming. Men turned to the ______for their livelihoods.

The North had more than _______ percent of the nation's factories and over _______ percent of its _______________________.

The _________________North wanted duties, or ____________, placed on __________________ goods to give their own products a competitive advantage.

The factories in the North were dependent on the ____________________ grown on Southern plantations; however they disliked the institution of slavery.

The South’s economy was based on _____________________.

The South depended on foreign trade and were therefor _______________-the tariffs which could only hurt the South because of the tariff's trade restrictions.

South believed in more power to the _____________governments and less to the federal government.

The Debate Surrounding Slavery

The addition of new _________________was also a source of tension during this period. The United States tried very hard to maintain a sense of political equality in Congress by maintaining an ___________ number of free and ____________states in the Union.

Lincoln, slavery, and the Civil War

The _________________Party nominated Abraham Lincoln as its candidate; this party had taken a stance ____________ the ____________ of slavery into the newly acquired territories.

Lincoln disliked slavery and he was considered an anti-Southern abolitionist candidate (they feared he would abolish slavery). Lincoln supported the Transcontinental Railroad.

The people of the South saw Lincoln’s election as the ___________straw in a long list of actions that they felt favored the North. Many slaveholders believed the U.S. government no longer equally represented their political views. This belief was the final straw that led South Carolina to _____________ from the Union.

8.02 Taking Sides

December of 1860, ____________ became the ___________ state to secede. February 1861: ________________, _______________, __________________, ____________________, __________________, and ______________ seceded. 1861: these 7 states formed the ___________________States of ______________________.

The Civil War Begins

  • February 1861: ____________, Florida, Alabama, ______________, Mississippi, Louisiana, and _______________

  • _____________ elected president

  • National capitol in____________, Alabama

  • April 1861: Confederate troops to fire at the federal troops stationed at ____________, South Carolina. The Civil War begins.

  • Arkansas, ____________, North Carolina, and ____________ secede from the Union and join the Confederate States of America. The ____________ and Indian territories sided with the Confederacy.

Border States

Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Missouri were called ____________. These states were ____________ states that had not _____________from the United States.

The nation is divided. Union forces are supported by ___________ states and __________territories. Confederate forces are supported by ________ states and________ territories.

Union Army


  • ___________ Population – 22 million citizens.

  • More Industry – ____________ and industries to produce materials needed during a war.

  • More ____________ – people,_____________, manufacturing plants, and industrial workers.

  • Better ______________ System – controlled at least 70% of the nation’s wealth.

  • More___________ Mileage – easier and faster to move _________, men, and equipment.

  • _____________ – a strong, decisive leader in the midst of the war.

  • More ships – easier to create______________.

  • ____________ as spies – spies and guides in support of Northern soldiers.


  • Faced hostile people – Not every __________in the North supported the war. At the start of the war, ____________ led an unruly volunteer regiment.

  • Southern territory_____________ – Union troops not familiar with the land.

Confederate States of America


  • _____________ Support by Citizens – fighting to ___________ their own land.

  • Familiar with Territory – fighting on their own _________ so they knew the ____________of the area.

  • ___________ Military Leadership – Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston and “Stonewall” Jackson.

  • Strong__________ Traditions – men ___________ to serve in the armed forces or attend a military school.


  • ___________ Population – 9 million citizens.

  • Fewer Factories – Not enough____________ to produce the needed materials to fight a war.

  • Less ___________Production – Due to the ______________, Southerners could not export goods or earn a profit to buy food.

  • ______________ railroad miles – ___________ to move supplies, men and equipment.

  • Fewer ships – ___________ Navy a disadvantage due to Union blockade.

  • _____________________ – Failed to raise sufficient money to fight the Civil War and could not gain support from _____________ countries.

  • Threat of Slave Rebellion – ____________ population offered ______________ to the North.

8.03Shots Fired

  • Fort Sumter, SC: April of 1861 - Fort Sumter was located in ______________ and occupied by Union troops. Union soldiers at Fort Sumter were running low on _____________, Lincoln sent ___________ to the fort. Lincoln made it clear that he was not sending ________________ as he did not want to provoke a war. The president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, felt this was an attack on the Confederacy. ___________ ordered his troops to shell Fort Sumter. This marked the____________ of the American Civil War.

  • The Battle of Bull Run: July of 1861 - The Battle of Bull Run was the first ____________ battle of the Civil War. Union troops __________ to Washington, D.C. Confederates win this battle due to the Union’s retreat. The _____________ victory proved that this was not going to be a one-sided war as some had predicted.

  • Fort Pickens, FL: May 1862 - There were Union soldiers stationed at Fort Pickens off the coast of _____________. Confederate soldiers demanded that the _____________troops surrender their fort. The Union soldiers refused to leave the fort. The Union brought in more soldiers, and they held their ground. A ___________ began and a ___________ lasted over a year. By ______________, the Confederates withdrew their troops. The Union was able to ______________ control of Fort Pickens and Pensacola for the rest of the war.

  • Battle of Antietam: September of 1862 - General __________ decided to invade Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862. This was the first time that the Confederates had fought on ______________ soil. Lee invaded Sharpsburg, near Antietam Creek, because his troops were in desperate need of supplies. ____________ thousand men lost their lives in this battle. The Battle of Antietam was the ______________day in U.S. military history.

  • The Emancipation Proclamation: January of 1863 - President Lincoln signed the ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­_______________freeing all slaves living in the__________________ states. Lincoln had no power to______________ the Emancipation Proclamation because he was not the president of the _______________ states. The proclamation had an effect on the South's war effort. The South's foreign allies _____________ and_______________ could no longer support a country that believed in enslaving people.

  • Battle of Gettysburg: July of 1863 - General Robert E. Lee mounted a full-scale _____________of the North. This clash, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, is often described as ________________________________. Major General ________________ arrived with fresh Confederate troops and led what became known as ______________. At the Battle of Gettysburg, the Confederacy lost 28,000 men, __________________________. The Union troops declared____________.

  • The Siege of Vicksburg: July of 1863 - In the west, Union General Ulysses S. Grant had been trying to overtake the city of _______________, Mississippi. Confederate General John C. Pemberton was in charge of the city's defense. He notified President _______________that he intended to hold his position. For ____________weeks General Grant attacked Vicksburg. On July 4, 1863, Pemberton surrendered. The siege of Vicksburg gave the Union full control of the __________________ and divided the Confederacy in two.

  • November of 1864 –Abraham Lincoln was reelected President. Some ___________________ citizens refuse to vote for Lincoln because they ______________ with many of his decisions during the Civil War. The South did not have a voice in this election because they did not ________________ (the perceived themselves as a separate country- the Confederate States of America). Lincoln gets 212 ___________ votes to win the election. Lincoln gets 55% of popular vote. McClellan gets ___________of popular vote.

Key to the North’s Victory

  • The North had a __________ population. The South was not able to replace the soldiers they lost. The North controlled_________ of the country’s wealth so they were able to spend more than the South. The North had a larger_________. It was able to prevent the South from ___________with other countries for the things it could not make. Most of the ____________ were located in the North. The ___________________ caused the French and British to back away from the South (they ___________ support slavery).

08.04 The Cost of Conflict

  • The Civil War had raged for ­­­­­­­­­__________ years. (APR 1861- MAY 1865)

  • Much of the_________ lay in ruins.

  • Countless families lost their ___________.

  • More than ______________ soldiers had died - more than the American losses in World War One and Two, Korea and Vietnam put together.

  • The Union was ___________. The authority of the Federal government was solidified. And _____________ was ended.

Social Costs of the War

  • According to some historians, roughly ________out of every 16 white men from the __________between 16 and 43 lost his life during the war.

  • At ___________ alone, nearly 25,000 ___________ soldiers and 23,000 ___________ soldiers died, suffered ____________, or went missing in action during the three-day battle.

Economic Costs of the War

  • In_____________ terms, what was the direct effect of the American Civil War?

  • We measure this cost of war by examining the money spent by government to fight the war, the amount of ____________ destructed in the war, and the loss of ______________ as a result of casualties.

  • Because the war was fought mainly in the___________, property _____________ in the Southern states was extensive.

  • After the Emancipation Proclamation and Union victory in the war, slaves whose ___________ had been the backbone of the Southern ___________were now free.

  • Many left their ______________, never to return.

Political Costs of the War

  • You know the North and South disagreed on many issues, but did you know that the citizens of the ___________ had very different____________ about what should be done after the Southern states ______________ from the Union?

  • This is evident in the__________ election of 1864, which was held only in ___________states.

  • Did voters show support for President Lincoln’s handling of the war by ___________him?

  • Or did they favor the Democratic nominee, __________________, who proposed a very different plan of action.

08.05 and 8.06 Reconstruction

  • The period following the Civil War is known as_____________– a period of rebuilding.

  • The country had three basic goals during this period;

  1. Southern cities and _______________ had to be rebuilt.

  2. ____________, southern state governments needed to be created and_________________ in the national government reestablished.

  3. Former slaves (now called _______________) needed help adjusting to their new life.

Lincoln Assassinated

  • April of 1865 - President Abraham Lincoln wanted to speed up _______________ and reunite the nation painlessly and quickly. Lincoln was still extremely worried about the nation's _____________. The president and his wife went to ___________ Theatre to see a play. As the president sat in his box an actor named ______________ entered and shot him in his head. He was ______________ wounded.

13th Amendment

  • December of 1865 – The ____________ is ratified, officially ended slavery in the United States. It established the _____________ for a country where people of different races and ethnicities could live _____________.

Andrew Johnson Becomes the 17th President

  • Andrew Johnson, Lincoln’s Vice President, became President when Lincoln _________. President Andrew Johnson thought it best to make it _________ for Southern states to ________ the Union. A Democrat and former governor of _____________, he outraged Congressional leaders known as _____________ with his pardons of Southern rebels and by ____________ land back to white owners.

Radical Republicans

  • The Radical Republicans____________ Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan. Led by ____________ & _______________. They were ____________ Congressman that believed _________ states should be forced to undergo great changes to prove their loyalty. President Johnson and the Radical Republican had __________ ideas on what should take place during Reconstruction and how the __________ of Reconstruction should be accomplished.

The Freedman’s Bureau

  • The Freedmen’s Bureau: 1st established by Congress on March 3, 1865. The bureau was set up by RRs to provide relief for _________ and _____________ in the South. It helped them find new jobs, created _________ and hospitals, and helped with land ____________. In 1866, Congress passed a bill to extend the powers of the bureau. President Johnson ___________ the bill. He felt the bureau was too __________ and unconstitutional. Congress, under the control of the Radical Republicans, __________ the veto, and the Freedmen’s Bureau continued.

Black Codes

  • After the 13th Amendment was ratified, many Southern states quickly passed __________ called the Black Codes. The Black Codes________ black people from gaining equal jobs and education. President Johnson ___________ the Southern states’ right to have the Black Codes.

  • Black Codes limited the rights of Freedmen

  • Could not ___________; Could not own a gun; Could not serve on a ___________; Some states ___________Freedmen to sign work contracts which lasted one year. Freedmen without a _____________ could be arrested and sentenced to work on a ____________.

The Civil Rights Act of 1866

  • The Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave ________ people living in the United States the full rights of citizenship. President Johnson and many other____________ fought against the bill. Johnson vetoed the bill. Republican-controlled Congress overrode the veto.

14th Amendment to the Constitution

  • Passed in 1866; Granted US ___________ to all people_________ in the United States; It also stated that it was__________ for states to deny rights to any and all citizens; President Johnson encouraged Southern states not to ________ the 14th Amendment. Republican-controlled Congress overrode the veto.

  • A person can become a U.S. citizen through a process called ______________. Once someone has been a ____________ resident for at least 5 years they can fill out an application for citizenship.

  • Applicants must:

  • Pay a fee for their ____________

  • Be_____________ for a background check

  • Complete an _____________that includes __________in civics and English

  • A person is not officially a U.S. citizen until they take an ______________________________, which is usually done in front of a judge

Reconstruction Acts

  • The Reconstruction Acts passed in March 1867 forced the Southern states to _________ the 14th Amendment. They were also required to follow the new __________granting African Americans citizenship and equal rights. African Americans were allowed to _________ in new elections. After each state ratified the 14th Amendment, that state was allowed_________ into the United States. Congress passed ___________other Reconstruction Acts as well. The South was divided into five _____________districts as a result of these laws. Each district was run by a ______________, who was charged with protecting the rights and property of all citizens, including African Americans. President Johnson vetoed these laws, but Congress overrode his veto.

Andrew Johnson is Impeached

  • Impeachment is when an elected official is found _________of breaking the law. The Republican-controlled Congress ___________to impeach President Johnson. Johnson was found ____________of violating the Office of Tenure Act when he fired Secretary of War _____________. The House of Representatives _____________ Johnson. The Senate voted ___________ to remove Johnson from office by __________ vote.

Grant Becomes the 18th President

  • In 1868, Ulysses S. Grant narrowly won the presidential election. He had received a number of votes from ___________ in the South. ____________ giving African Americans the right to vote did not exist in most ___________ states. As a result, Grant received ____________votes in the North.

15th Amendment to the Constitution

  • To get rid of these ___________differences, Congress passed the _______________ to ensure voting rights for all male citizens. It was ratified by the states in 1870. African American men _____________ in the election process. African American candidates____________ to many state and national positions.

Life for African Americans in the South

_________ white men and women struggled to accept the changes that were happening. African Americans were not only voting, some like ____________ of Mississippi were running for and being elected to national office (U.S. Senate).

Ku Klux Klan

  • Led by former___________ soldiers. Did not recognize African Americans as their political or social ___________. Used _____________ to prevent African Americans from exercising their new rights.


  • To support their families, the former slaves entered into _________ with land owners (former slave owners). Sharecropping became a common work ______________ in the South. The freedman would ___________a portion of the landowners land in return for a _______________of the crop. The contracts usually _____________ the landowner and put former slaves in _____________. However, returning the land to productive use helped the region begin to recover.

End of Reconstruction

The election of 1876 ended in controversy.____________ (Democrat) won the election. Accusations sprang up that the South ___________ out African American vote. The Republicans contest the election. There’s a __________ and they give it to Hayes. Democrats ___________to accept the results of the recount. The federal government established a ____________to decide the issue.

The Compromise of 1877

The Compromise of 1877 settled the election:

The South ___________ Hayes as President in return for ending _____________ (US military pulled out of their southern __________districts). Former Confederate _____________ were allowed back into positions of power. Required troops to be ___________ from the South. With power back in the hands of Southern governments, life ___________ again for African Americans.


  • This led to a new era of ___________. Southern states established ______________ laws that mandated the _______________of black and white facilities, such as schools, public transportation, and public rest rooms. Business owners made___________ that said “White Only” or “Colored Only.” Jim Crow laws stayed in effect well into the ___________century. Limitations like these helped ___________civil rights reform in the 1950s and 1960s.

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