Module 2 Study Guide 01Industrialization Changes America 02. 01 Regions Chart and Written Response

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Module 2 Study Guide

2.01Industrialization Changes America

02.01 Regions Chart and Written Response

The Second Industrial Revolution affected the regions of the United States differently. Use this chart to compare the effects of the revolution on the North, South, West, and Midwest. In the chart, you will identify the political, social, economic, population, and transportation changes that the revolution brought to each region.

Part 1 – Complete the following chart using information from the lesson.

Regions Chart
















Economic or Type of Economy





Population Change










Part 2 – Respond to the following prompt in a well-developed paragraph of your own words. Be sure to include social, political and economic factors in your response and fully address all parts of the prompt.

Explain how the Second Industrial Revolution affected the North, South, West, and Midwest. Which region would you have preferred to live in during this period? Why

The Big Ideas

What is the difference between the First Industrial Revolution and the Second Industrial Revolution?

How did the development of railroads affect the country?


Andrew Carnegie- (How did he, and other entrepreneurs affect the country?)

Newly-freed African Americans and Immigrants – (What part did they play in the Industrial Revolution?)

Events (Describe the event, its causes and effects)
Completion of Transcontinental Railroad

Growth of Cities

Invention of the Bessemer Process

Vocabulary (fill in effects from the lesson where possible or put the definition in your own words)

Bessemer Process – a method of removing impurities from pig iron to produce molten steel


First Industrial Revolution – period of late 18th century and early 19th century industrialization mostly in Great Britain that began revolutionizing the coal, iron, and textile industries


Second Industrial Revolution – period of great economic, social, and political change that accompanied industrialization and urbanization in the United States following the Civil War


2.02 Innovation Nation

The Big Ideas

How did new inventions affect the economy?

What changes took place in Florida during this time and who was responsible for them?

What is the difference between vertical and horizontal integration?

How did business leaders work to increase their control over the economy using things like trusts, pools and holding companies?


**Please complete the “Inventors Chart” provided in the lesson.

Henry Flagler – (What did he do in Florida?)

Hamilton Disston – (What was made possible by his actions in Florida?)

Events (Describe the event, its causes and effects)

Creation of Standard Oil Company Trust in 1882

Break up of Standard Oil Company trust in 1889

Taylor comes up with the idea of scientific management

Vocabulary (fill in examples from the lesson where possible or put the definition in your own words)

Corporation – a jointly owned company that issues shares of stock


Holding company – a company that buys up enough stock to control various other companies


Horizontal integration – a system of related businesses in which a company owns its competitors


Innovation – a new idea or a method of doing something


Patent – official document giving the right to make or sell an invention for a period of time


Pool – a group of companies that agree to set prices and business practices together


Scientific management – an industrial business theory suggesting that efficiency can be increased by eliminating wasted time and motion


Trust – a group of companies that turn control of their stock over to a common board of trustees who then run all of the companies as a single business


Vertical integration – a system of related businesses in which a parent company owns its suppliers


2.03 Populism

The Big Ideas

Why did farmers have a hard time making money?

What organizations worked to improve life for farmers and how did they help?

Why did most farmers support the Free Silver Movement?

What people and issues were involved in the Election of 1896?


Oliver Hudson Kelley – (What organization did he form and why?)

William Jennings Bryan – (Why did Populists support him? What famous speech did he give?)

Events (Describe the event, its causes and effects)

Homestead Act of 1862

Morrill Land Grant Acts are passed (1862 and 1890)

Panic of 1893

Vocabulary (fill in examples or effects from the lesson where possible or put the definition in your own words)

Bimetallism – monetary standard that is based on two metals, rather than one

Demagogue – a political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular desires and prejudices rather than by using rational argument

Farmers’ Alliances – organization of farmers that developed during the late 1800s to work on policies that addressed agricultural concerns


Free Silver Movement – late 1800s movement that advocated the unlimited coinage of silver in response to the establishment of the U.S. gold standard in 1873


Granges – a local chapter of the organization known as the National Grange, which was organized in 1867 for the education and benefit of farmers


Homestead Act (1862) – act of 1862 that opened up western lands by giving individual settlers 160 acres with the requirement that they live on the land for a period of time and make minimal improvements


Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) – the nation's first regulatory agency; established by Congress in 1887 to regulate the nation's railroads


Monopoly – in business, when one company or group of companies controls most or all of the business in an industry


Morrill Land Grant Acts – act of 1890 in which the U.S. government gave states grants of land to sell in exchange for the establishment of colleges with an agricultural and mechanical focus


National Grange – Organization established in 1867 by Oliver Hudson Kelley and other members of the Department of Agriculture for the benefit and education of farmers; official name: the Order of Patrons of Husbandry


Panic of 1893 – financial panic caused by a drop in the U.S. gold reserves during which investors cashed in their investments for gold, the stock market fell, and people lost their jobs; initiated a financial depression that lasted for more than three years


Populist Party – political party created in 1892 by members of the Farmers' Alliance; supported free, unlimited coinage of silver, establishment of a federal income tax, and government ownership of the railroads


Sherman Silver Purchase Act – 1890 legislation that raised the amount of silver purchased each month by 50 percent from what had been established in the Bland-Allison Act


Tariff – taxes, often placed on imported goods to protect domestic industries


2.04 Coming to America

The Big Ideas

What are the differences between “old immigration wave” and the “new immigration wave”?

Why did immigrants come to the United States?

What was the immigrant experience like? How did it differ depending on where the immigrants were from?

How were immigrants viewed by the U.S. government and American citizens?


Chinese immigrants – (How did they affect the U.S.?)

Nativists – (How did they respond to immigration?)

Events (Describe the event, its causes and effects)

California Gold Rush of 1848

Passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

Passage of the Immigration Act of 1924

Gentleman’s Agreement with Japan

Vocabulary (fill in effects from the lesson where possible or put the definition in your own words)

California Gold Rush – rush of migration to California following the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in 1848

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 – law passed by Congress that denied U.S. citizenship to people born in China and banned immigration from China for 10 years

Gentlemen’s Agreement – agreement made between the U.S. government and Japan in which Japan agreed to limit unskilled workers from immigrating to the United States, and the United States agreed to end the separation of white and Japanese students in San Francisco schools

Immigration – the act of moving to a new country to live there permanently

Immigration Act of 1924 – federal law reducing the annual immigration quota for each nationality to two percent of the 1890 census figures


Laissez-faire – means "allow to do" in French; refers to economic policies that stress the idea that business should be allowed to operate without heavy government regulation

Nativists – people who favored the interests of native-born Americans over those of immigrants and supported anti-immigration legislation


Push-pull factors – conditions which drive people from their own homes and/or pull them towards a new area

Social Darwinism – view of society based on Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection; supporters believed that humans were unequal and that government should not help the weakest; only the "fittest" would survive


Steerage – the area on a ship below deck where the steering mechanisms were located; often used as a passenger area for people who could only afford inexpensive tickets

2.05 Rise of the Political Machines

The Big Ideas

How did political machines work?

Who was “Boss” Tweed and how did he use his power?

Why did the idea of socialism become more popular during this period?

Who was fighting for the rights of women and African Americans during this period and what methods did they use?


Thomas Nast – (What part did he play in Tweed’s downfall?)

Washington Gladden – (What was his philosophy?)

Booker T. Washington – (How did he think African Americans could gain rights?)

W.E.B. DuBois – (How were his ideas different from Washington?)

Events (Describe the event, its causes and effects)

“Muckrakers” start to expose corruption and dangers

The Jungle is published

The Temperance Movement gains followers

Vocabulary (fill in effects from the lesson where possible or put the definition in your own words)

Bribes – money offered to a people to do something they think is wrong

Caricatured – make an exaggerated representation of someone or something, usually for comic effect

Corruption – wickedness; dishonesty in business or politics

Insurgents – a rebel within a political party

Muckrakers – journalists who investigate and publish truthful reports on a variety of social issues, such as corrupt politicians and dishonest businesspeople


Niagara Movement – led by W.E.B. DuBois, it intended to end racial discrimination by promoting the most talented African Americans to positions of influence

Political Machines – a party organization, headed by a single boss or small autocratic group, that commands enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of a city, county, or state.


Progressives – a person who favors improvement and reform


Socialism – an economic system characterized by ownership of the means of production by the people

Wards – city council district in some U.S. cities

2.06 Labor Movements

The Big Ideas

Why did workers need labor unions? What were their goals?

How were the Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor similar and different?

Who fought against the unions? Why?

Why did some Americans turn to socialism and communism during this period?

What was the status of unions at the end of the 19th Century?


Eugene V. Debs – (What role did he play in the formation of unions and the Pullman Strike?)

President Grover Cleveland – (What was his reaction to the Pullman Strike?)

Events (Describe the event, its causes and effects)

Haymarket Riot –

Homestead Strike –

Pullman Strike –

Vocabulary (fill in effects from the lesson where possible or put the definition in your own words)

American Federation of Labor (AFL) – an alliance of trade and craft unions created by Samuel Gompers

Anarchy – system of government in which the state is seen as undesirable and unnecessary; it opposes capitalism, which enriches one part of society while impoverishing another, and values the will of individuals over that of the state

Capitalism – an economic system in which the means of production are controlled by individuals rather than the state

Collective bargaining – negotiations between an employer and representatives of groups of employees to reach agreement on working conditions

Communism – an economic and political system in which the state owns and controls all property

Free Market Economy– an economy in which market forces determine prices and allocation of resources

Haymarket Riot – a worker protest in 1866 in Chicago that turned violent after a bomb exploded, killing several policemen and striking workers

Homestead Strike – act of 1862 that opened up western lands by giving individual settlers 160 acres with the requirement that they live on the land for a period of time and make minimal improvements

Knights of Labor (KOL) – labor union led by Uriah Stephens that offered membership to skilled and unskilled workers, as well as blacks and women

Labor union – a group of workers united in their goals and who act collectively

Market Economy – an economy in which market forces determine prices and allocation of resources

Mixed economy – an economy in which both market forces and the state determine prices and allocation of resources

Planned economy – an economy in which the state determines prices and allocates resources

Pullman Strike – a work stoppage in 1894 that was the result of the Pullman Company lowering worker wages

2.07 Social Change

The Big Ideas

How were immigration, industrialization and urbanization connected?

What inventions led to the upward and outward spread of cities?

Describe the three social classes that emerged during this period.

Why was child labor so common? How did social reformers work to protect children?

What were the goals of the Social Gospel Movement?


Mary Harris “Mother” Jones – (What is she known for?)

Washington Gladden – (How did he help bring about the Social Gospel Movement?)

Jane Addams – (How did she introduce the field of social work?)

Events (Describe the event, its causes and effects)

Cities experience rapid growth (urbanization) –

Tenements are created –

Settlement houses come to the U.S. -

Vocabulary (fill in effects from the lesson where possible or put the definition in your own words)

Settlement house – a community center providing support to residents of poor, urban neighborhoods

Social Gospel movement – social movement wherein Christians were urged to improve social conditions for those less fortunate

Tenements – poorly constructed apartment buildings that housed many impoverished residents in the late 1800s and early 1900s

Urbanization – the process by which cities grow as more people move to urban areas in search of better jobs or a higher standard of living

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