Module #10 Race Unity



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Module #10
Race Unity
“Freedom from racial prejudice, in any of its forms, should, at such a time as this when an increasingly large section of the human race is falling a victim to its devastating ferocity, be adopted as the watchword of the entire body of American believers, in whichever state they reside, in whatever circles they move, whatever their age, traditions, tastes and habits. It should be consistently demonstrated in every phase of their activity and life, whether in the Bahá'í community or outside it, in public or in private, formally as well as informally, individually as well as in their official capacity as organized groups, committees and Assemblies. It should be deliberately cultivated through the various and everyday opportunities, no matter how insignificant, that present themselves, whether in their homes, their business offices, their schools and colleges, their social parties and recreation grounds, their Bahá'í meetings, conferences, conventions, summer schools and Assemblies.”

{Shoghi Effendi, The Advent of Divine Justice, p.30}




OBJECTIVES :
1) The writings of Bahá’u’lláh are universal - how do they apply specifically to people of African descent?
2) How do we measure human intelligence, capacity and worth? {not with racial criteria}
3) What is the danger of prejudice and disunity?
4) What is the “most vital and challenging issue” posed by Shoghi Effendi

in “Advent of Divine Justice?”


5) Diversity: what is its value and how do we maintain it?
6) What is the history of race relations in the U.S.A. Bahá’í Community? (see video by Richard Thomas)
7) What are the responsibilities of Bahá’ís of non-African descent?
8) What is justice - in principle and application?


DEFINITIONS: (Basic Bahá’í Dictionary, Editor Wendi Momen, George Ronald Press, 1989)
Most Vital and Challenging Issue :

“As to racial prejudice, the corrosion of which, for well-nigh a century, has bitten into the fiber, and attacked the whole social structure of American society, it should be regarded as constituting the most vital and challenging issue confronting the Bahá’í community at the present stage of its evolution. The ceaseless exertions which this issue of paramount importance calls for, the sacrifices it must impose, the care and vigilance it demands, the moral courage and fortitude it requires, the tact and sympathy it necessitates, invest this problem, which the American believers are still far from having satisfactorily resolved, with an urgency and importance that cannot be overestimated. White and Negro, high and low, young and old, whether newly converted to the Faith or not, all who stand identified with it must participate in, and lend their assistance, each according to his or her capacity, experience, and opportunities, to the common task of fulfilling the instructions, realizing the hopes, and following the example, of Abdu'l-Baha. Whether colored or noncolored, neither race has the right, or can conscientiously claim, to be regarded as absolved from such an obligation, as having realized such hopes, or having faithfully followed such an example. A long and thorny road, beset with pitfalls, still remains untraveled, both by the white and the Negro exponents of the redeeming Faith of Bahá’u’lláh. On the distance they cover, and the manner in which they travel that road, must depend, to an extent which few among them can imagine, the operation of those intangible influences which are indispensable to the spiritual triumph of the American believers and the material success of their newly launched enterprise.


“Let them call to mind, fearlessly and determinedly, the example and conduct of Abdu'l-Baha while in their midst. Let them remember His courage, His genuine love, His informal and indiscriminating fellowship, His contempt for and impatience of criticism, tempered by His tact and wisdom. Let them revive and perpetuate the memory of those unforgettable and historic episodes and occasions on which He so strikingly demonstrated His keen sense of justice, His spontaneous sympathy for the downtrodden, His ever-abiding sense of the oneness of the human race, His overflowing love for its members, and His displeasure with those who dared to flout His wishes, to deride His methods, to challenge His principles, or to nullify His acts.
“To discriminate against any race, on the ground of its being socially backward, politically immature, and numerically in a minority, is a flagrant violation of the spirit that animates the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh. The consciousness of any division or cleavage in its ranks is alien to its very purpose, principles, and ideals. Once its members have fully recognized the claim of its Author, and, by identifying themselves with its Administrative Order, accepted unreservedly the principles and laws embodied in its teachings, every differentiation of class, creed, or color must automatically be obliterated, and never be allowed, under any pretext, and however great the pressure of events or of public opinion, to reassert itself. If any discrimination is at all to be tolerated, it should be a discrimination not against, but rather in favor of the minority, be it racial or otherwise. Unlike the nations and peoples of the earth, be they of the East or of the West, democratic or authoritarian, communist or capitalist, whether belonging to the Old World or the New, who either ignore, trample upon, or extirpate, the racial, religious, or political minorities within the sphere of their jurisdiction, every organized community enlisted under the banner of Bahá’u’lláh should feel it to be its first and inescapable obligation to nurture, encourage, and safeguard every minority belonging to any faith, race, class, or nation within it. So great and vital is this principle that in such circumstances, as when an equal number of ballots have been cast in an election, or where the qualifications for any office are balanced as between the various races, faiths or nationalities within the community, priority should unhesitatingly be accorded the party representing the minority, and this for no other reason except to stimulate and encourage it, and afford it an opportunity to further the interests of the community. In the light of this principle, and bearing in mind the extreme desirability of having the minority elements participate and share responsibility in the conduct of Bahá’í activity, it should be the duty of every Bahá’í community so to arrange its affairs that in cases where individuals belonging to the divers minority elements within it are already qualified and fulfill the necessary requirements, Bahá’í representative institutions, be they Assemblies, conventions, conferences, or committees, may have represented on them as many of these divers elements, racial or otherwise, as possible. The adoption of such a course, and faithful adherence to it, would not only be a source of inspiration and encouragement to those elements that are numerically small and inadequately represented, but would demonstrate to the world at large the universality and representative character of the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh, and the freedom of His followers from the taint of those prejudices which have already wrought such havoc in the domestic affairs, as well as the foreign relationships, of the nations.”

{Shoghi Effendi, Advent of Divine Justice, p. 33-36}


=====================================================================
Justice :

Equity, fairness, righteousness.


Justice is the virtue which characterizes the Dispensation of Bahá’u’lláh. “The best beloved of all things in My sight is Justice.” {Bahá’u’lláh, the Hidden Words, Arabic #2}“Justice is a powerful force. It is, above all else, the conqueror of the citadels of the hearts and souls of men, and the revealer of the secrets of the world of being, and standard-bearer of love and bounty.” {Bahá’u’lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf p. 32}
At the global level, justice is the guarantor for the establishment in the future of a world community based on the principle of the oneness of mankind. “No light can compare with the light of justice. The establishment of order in the world and the tranquillity of the nations depend upon it.” {Bahá’u’lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 30} To uphold the standard of justice, Bahá’u’lláh has decreed that, “The structure of world stability and order hath been reared upon, and will continue to be sustained by, the twin pillars of reward and punishment.” {Bahá’u’lláh, Tablets, p. 164} Further, He states, “That which traineth the world is Justice, for it is upheld by two pillars, reward and punishment. These two pillars are the sources of life to the world.” {Bahá’u’lláh, Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 128}
At the individual level, Bahá’u’lláh states, “If thine eyes be turned towards justice, choose thou for thy neighbour what thou chooses for thyself.” {Bahá’u’lláh, Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 64} He further states: “Be fair to yourselves and to others, that the evidences of justice may be revealed, through your deeds, among Our faithful servants.” {Bahá’u’lláh, Gleanings, CXXVIII} “Whoso cleaveth to justice, can, under no circumstances, transgress the limits of moderation. He discerneth the truth in all things, through the guidance of Him Who is the All-Seeing.” {Bahá’u’lláh, Gleanings, CLXIII}
The Bahá’í Houses of Justice, the present-day spiritual assemblies, are to act with justice: “The administrators of the Faith of God must be like unto shepherds. Their aim should be to dispel all the doubts, misunderstandings and harmful differences which may arise in the community of the believers. And this they can adequately achieve provided they are motivated by a true sense of love for their fellow brethren, coupled with the firm determination to act with justice in all the cases which are submitted to them for their consideration.”

{Local Spiritual Assemblies Compilation, p. 14}


=====================================================================
Prejudice:

(1) a preconceived judgment or opinion.

(2) an opinion or leaning adverse to anything without just ground or before sufficient knowledge.

(3) an irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual, a group, a race, or their supposed characteristics.


=====================================================================
Race:

(1) a family, tribe, people or nation belonging to the same stock.

(2) a division of mankind possessing traits that are transmissible by descent and sufficient to characterize it as a distinct human type.

(3) distinctive flaws, tastes, or strengths.


=====================================================================
Racism:

(1) a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.

(2) racial prejudice or discrimination.
=====================================================================
Vision of Race Unity - America’s Most Challenging Issue:

“Racism is the most challenging issue confronting America. A nation whose ancestry includes every people on earth, whose motto is E pluribus unum, whose ideals of freedom under law have inspired millions throughout the world, cannot continue to harbor prejudice against any racial or ethnic group. without betraying itself. Racism is an affront to human dignity, a cause of hatred and division, a disease that devastates society.


Notwithstanding the efforts already expended for its elimination, racism continues to work its evil upon this nation. Progress toward tolerance, mutual respect, and unity has been painfully slow and marked with repeated setbacks. The recent resurgence of divisive racial attitudes, the increased number of racial incidents, and the deepening despair of minorities and the poor make the need for solutions ever more pressing and urgent. To ignore the problem is to expose the country to physical, moral, and spiritual danger.
Aware of the magnitude and the urgency of the issue, we, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States, speaking for the entire U.S. Baha'i community, appeal to all people of goodwill to arise without further delay to resolve the fundamental social problem of this country. We do so because of our feeling of shared responsibility, because of the global experience of the Baha'i community in effecting racial harmony within itself, and because of the vision that the sacred scriptures of our Faith convey of the destiny of America.”

{Statement by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States}


=====================================================================
Gregory, Louis:

Hand of the Cause born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA, in 1874, the son of a freed slave. He attended Fisk University and later studied law at Howard University. He practiced law until 1906 when he took a position in the United States Treasury Department. Louis Gregory first heard about the Bahá’í Faith in 1908. He visited ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in Egypt and later in Haifa and 'Akka. He travelled extensively throughout the United States teaching the Bahá’í Faith and was for thirty-five years the mainspring behind the work for Race Amity. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States for many years. Louis Gregory passed away in 1951 and was designated by Shoghi Effendi as the first Hand of the Cause of his race.




QUOTES:
“O CHILDREN OF MEN! Know ye not why We created you all from the same dust? That no one should exalt himself over the other. Ponder at all times in your hearts how ye were created. Since We have created you all from one same substance it is incumbent on you to be even as one soul, to walk with the same feet, eat with the same mouth and dwell in the same land, that from your inmost being, by your deeds and actions, the signs of oneness and the essence of detachment may be made manifest. Such is My counsel to you, O concourse of light! Heed ye this counsel that ye may obtain the fruit of holiness from the tree of wondrous glory.”

{Bahá’u’lláh, Hidden Words, # 68}


“The oneness of humanity is the pivot round which revolve all the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith. It is at once a statement of principle and an assertion of the ultimate goal of human experience on the planet. More than a century ago Bahá’u’lláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Bahá’í Faith, wrote: "The well-being of mankind, its peace and security, are unattainable unless and until its unity is firmly established." It is a principle that issues naturally from the genesis and purpose of human existence.”

{The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’í’s of the United States, Vision of Race Unity}


“O thou who hast an illumined heart! Thou art even as the pupil of the eye, the very wellspring of the light, for God's love hath cast its rays upon thine inmost being and thou hast turned thy face toward the Kingdom of thy Lord.
“Intense is the hatred, in America, between black and white, but my hope is that the power of the Kingdom will bind these two in friendship, and serve them as a healing balm.
“Let them look not upon a man's colour but upon his heart. If the heart be filled with light, that man is nigh unto the threshold of his Lord; but if not, that man is careless of his Lord, be he white or be he black.”

{‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Selections of the Writings of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá}




RECOMMENDED READINGS :

“The Pupil of the Eye” compiled by Bonnie Taylor

“The Advent of Divine Justice” by Shoghi Effendi

"Racial Unity: An imperative for Social Progress", by Richard W. Thomas.

Crisis and Victory - compilation

Lights of Guidance

Living the Life - compilation

The Power of Unity - compilation

Developing Distinct Bahá’í Communities - by the USA National Spiritual Assembly

The Vision of Race Unity - a statement by the National Spiritual Assembly of the USA

Brilliant Star Magazine

TIMELINE:

Race Relations in the North American Bahá’í Community
1894 Thornton Chase, later recognized by 'Abdu’l-Bahá as the first American believer, embraces the Faith. Mr. Chase, a white man, commanded a company of black infantry during the Civil War.
1898 Robert Turner becomes the first African-American believer.
1905 African-Americans begin to enroll in the Faith in increasing numbers, especially in Washington, D.C., where by 1908 they number 15 of the approximately 75 believers.
1909 Louis G. Gregory, an African-American lawyer in Washington, D.C., accepts the Bahá’í Faith. In 1911 he is elected to Washington's "Working Committee," making him the first African-American to serve on a Bahá’í administrative body. In 1912 he is elected to the Bahá’í Temple Unity Executive Committee, which coordinates Bahá’í activities throughout the country. Later, he serves for many years on the National Spiritual Assembly of the U.S. and Canada.
1912 Abdu'l-Bahá visits North America, making race unity a major theme of His formal and informal talks. Among the highlights is His address to the fourth annual convention of the NAACP. Before leaving the country He presides at the wedding of Louis Gregory and Louisa Matthews, a white believer, the first interracial marriage in the Bahá’í community.
1921 The National Spiritual Assembly of the U.S. and Canada sponsors a series of race amity conferences around the country.
1938 Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith, writes The Advent of Divine Justice, which revolutionizes the American Bahá’í community's understanding of the race issue, and guides and inspires its activities, even today.
1957 The National Spiritual Assembly establishes Race Unity Day as a time for celebrating diversity and promoting racial harmony in America.
1967 The National Spiritual Assemblies of the U.S., Canada, Alaska and Hawaii issue the statement "Human Rights Are God-Given Rights," in which it is announced that an office is to be established to promote International Human Rights Year and to disseminate information to combat misconceptions and superstitions about race.
1968 The North American Bahá’í Office for Human Rights (NABOHR) is founded, and serves for several years as a vehicle for furthering the cause of human rights.

1955- During the Civil Rights Era, Bahá’í involvement in the cause of equality is stepped up

1968 even further. Individual believers become involved in the major events of the time; meanwhile, the administrative institutions of the Faith as well as individuals promote the Bahá’í concept of racial equality.
1985 The Universal House of Justice releases "The Promise of World Peace," its statement on peace to the peoples of the world, in which it cites racial prejudice as one of the most significant impediments to world peace.
1991 The U.S. National Spiritual Assembly publishes "The Vision of Race Unity: America's Most Challenging Issue," its own statement on race prejudice.
1992 "Models of Unity: Racial, Ethnic and Religious" is published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the U.S. and the Chicago Human Relations Commission. The result of a year-long study, the report draws on real life examples of intergroup. cooperation to present factors that lead to harmony.
Today About one-third of the Bahá’ís in the U.S. are African-American; in the last three decades two or three of the nine seats on the National Assembly have consistently been occupied by blacks; and two of the National Assembly's executive secretaries have been black. The National Spiritual Assembly has become involved with the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Non-Violent Social Change, as well as with other organizations; and communities across the country have increasingly supported Bahá’í events promoting the oneness of mankind, such as Race Unity Day.
Expanded Race Unity Reading List
Allport, Gordon: THE NATURE OF PREJUDICE - the study of the origin and nature of prejudice.
Angelou, Maya:

I KNOW WHY THE CAGED BIRD SINGS

GATHER TOGETHER IN MY NAME

SINGIN' AND SWINGIN' AND GETTIN' MERRY

THE HEART OF A WOMAN

ALL GOD'S CHILDREN NEED TRAVELIN' SHOES

MAYA ANGELOU, POEMS

NOW SHEBA SINGS THE SONG


Ashmore, Harry S.: HEARTS AND MINDS, THE ANATOMY OF RACISM FROM ROOSEVELT TO REAGAN
Baines, Rae: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. - a children's book on MLK's life.
Baldwin, James:

THE EVIDENCE OF THINGS NOT SEEN

NOTES OF A NATIVE SON

NOBODY KNOWS MY NAME

NO NAME IN THE STREET
Benedict, Ruth and Weltfish, Gene: THE RACES OF MANKIND - Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 85 includes 20 pages of information from two distinguished anthropologists who relay data confirming the oneness of humankind and the erroneous assumptions which foster or perpetuate racial disharmony.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr.: BEFORE THE MAYFLOWER - A history of the Negro in America 1619-1964.
Biko, Steven: edited by Millard Arnold: STEVE BIKO-BLACK CONSCIOUSNESS IN SOUTH AFRICA - Biko's last public statement and political testament.
Billingsley, Andrew: BLACK FAMILIES IN WHITE AMERICA - Black social scientist's research.
Blaustein, Albert P. and Zangrando, Robert L.: CIVIL RIGHTS AND THE BLACK AMERICAN.
Blockson, Charles L.: THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD -

First person narratives of escapes to freedom from the South to the North.


Bond, Julian and Dorsen, Norman, Rembar, Chaarles and Seale, Bobby:

THE TRIAL OF BOBBY SEALE - Is injustice colorblind?


Boorstin, Daniel J.: PORTRAITS FROM THE AMERICAN- THE DEMOCRATIC EXPERIENCES -

Biographies include Allain B. Locke, a Bahá’í who was a genius in the Harlem Renaissance period.


Boyle, Sarah Patton: THE DESEGRATED HEART - a Southern white woman's growth toward awareness.
Branch, Taylor: PARTING THE WATERS - AMERICA IN THE KING YEARS 1954-63.
Brown, Claude: MANCHILD IN THE PROMISED LAND
Clayton, Ed: MARTIN LUTHER KING, THE PEACEFUL WARRIOR
Cleaver, Eldridge: SOUL ON ICE - autobiography of a black militant.
Cohen, Robert, Heyman, Ken and Comas, Dr. Juan: THE COLOR OF MAN - physical and social origins of color of skin and eyes.
Cosby, Bill: FATHERHOOD FAMILY FUNNY MAN
Crawford, Curtis: CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE - past leaders such as Gandhi and King
Davis, Allison and Dollard, John: CHILDREN OF BONDAGE -

Personality development of Negro youth in urban South transforming potential productivity into shattered beings.


Dean, John P. and Rosen, Alex: A MANUAL OF INTERGROUP RELATIONS
Douglass, Frederick: NARRATIVE ON THE LIFE OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS BY HIMSELF
Dubois, William E.B.: THE SOULS OF BLACK FOLK -

the racial stife and conflict of blacks in America.


Dykeman, William and Stokely, James: NEITHER BLACK NOR WHITE -

losing stereotypes - the dilemna of the South?


Ebony Editors: August, 1965: THE WHITE PROBLEMS IN AMERICA -

articles by renowned black spkesmen expressing pain, struggle and needs of blacks in America with good suggestions to whites on growth into positive attitudes and actions.


Empak "Black History" Publication Series:

a one page biography of approximately 20 individuals in each volume listed below.

VOL I - A SALUTE TO HISTORIC BLACK WOMEN

VOL II - A SALUTE TO BLACK SCIENTISTS AND INVENTORS

VOL III - A SALUTE TO BLACK PIONEERS

VOL IV - A SALUTE TO BLACK CIVIL RIGHTS LEADERS

VOL V - A SALUTE TO HISTORIC BLACK ABOLITIONISTS

VOL VI - A SALUTE TO HISTORIC AFRICAN KINGS AND QUEENS

VOL VII - A SALUTE TO HISTORIC BLACK FIRSTS

VOL VIII - A SALUTE TO HISTORIC BLACKS IN THE ARTS

VOL IX - A SALUTE TO BLACKS IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
Fanon, Franz: THE WRETCHED OF THE EARTH - an examination of the role of violence in social change.
Fischer, Louis: GANDHI - HIS LIFE AND MESSAGE FOR THE WORLD.
Franklin, John Hope and Starr, Isidore: THE NEGRO IN 20TH CENTURY AMERICA - the civil rights struggle.
Franklin, John Hope: RECONSTRUCTION AFTER THE CIVIL WAR.
Fried, Morton H.: EXPLORATIONS IN ANTHROPOLOGY -

excellent chapter on race or the lack thereof and prejudice. Pp. 75-78


Garrow, David J.: BEARING THE CROSS - MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. AND THE SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP. CONFERENCE. - civil rights movement.
Glazer, Nathan and Moynihan, Daniel Patrick:BEYOND THE MELTING POT -

cultural inhibitions, achievements, politics and struggles in New York City of Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians and Irish.


Goldwin, Robert A.: 100 YEARS OF EMANCIPATION - essays by black authors.
Gordon, Milton M.: ASSIMILATION IN AMERICAN LIFE - role of race, religion, and national origins.
Gould, Stephen Jay: THE MISMEASUREMENT OF MAN -

anthropologist's studyof the historical inconsistencies of racism and misuse of scientific data.


Grant, Joanne: BLACK PROTEST - 1619 to present history, documentation and analyses.
Gregory, Dick: NIGGER - autobiography of Dick Gregory, civil rights activists and comedian.
Gregory, Susan: HEY, WHITE GIRL - a white girl in an all black school.

Grier, William H. and Cobb, Price M.; BLACK RAGE - two black psychiatrists tell it like it is!


Griffin, John H.: BLACK LIKE ME - a white journalist's trip in to the 50s world of the black man in the south by darkening his skin and "passing".
Haley, Alex:

ROOTS - a black man's search for his history.

QUEENIE - more history of author's family.
Halsell, Grace: SOUL SISTERS -

a white woman's trip. into the world ofa black woman by darkening her skin and "passing".


Handlin, Oscar: RACE AND NATIONALITY IN AMERICAN LIFE -

Pullitzer prize winner and professor at Harvard.


Harris, Joseph E.: AFRICANS AND THEIR HISTORY.
Heyer, Robert: AM I A RACIST? thought provoking questions and ideas.
Higgenbotham, A. Leon, Jr.: IN THE MATTER OF COLOR - laws concerning race.
Hobson, Laura: GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT - novel on anti-semitism.
Holliday, Billie: LADY SINGS THE BLUES - autobiography of singer Billie Holliday.
Huggins, Nathan Irvin: BLACK ODYSSEY - THE AFRO-AMERICAN ORDEAL IN SLAVERY.
Isaacs, Harold R.: EMERGENT AMERICAN - A REPORT ON CROSSROADS AFRICA -

500 American students went to Africa to live and study in summer camps.

This is a report on their awareness and growth.
Johnson, James Weldon: THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF AN EX-COLORED MAN - a story of pain and genius.
Joseph, Gloria and Lewis, Jill: COMMON DIFFERENCES:CONFLICTS IN BLACK AND WHITE FEMINIS PERSPECTIVES - an unprecedent and unparalleled examination and analysis of an alarming schism in the women's movement.
King, Dr. Charles H.: FIRE IN MY BONES - a life and a plan dedicated to making a difference.
King, Martin Luther, Jr.:

WHY WE CAN'T WAIT.

WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? - brilliant and moving accounts of struggles of blacks and suggestions to all of positive ways to grow into brotherhood.

Kozal, Jonathan: DEATH AT AN EARLY AGE -

destruction of the hearts and minds of Negro children in the Boston public schools.
Knopf, Alfred and Scientific American : CITIES - destruction by urbanization.
Kugelmass J. Alvin: RALPH BUNCHE - biography of the first black Nobel Peace Prize winner.
Lacey, Leslie Alexander: THE RISE AND FALL OF A PROPER NEGRO - the making of a black revolutionary.
Lauber, Patricia: THE CONGO RIVER INTO CENTRAL AFRICA -

the history, geography and social studies of one of the major rivers of the world. (for young people)


Lincoln, C. Eric: MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. - A PROFILE - Essays on King.
Logan, Frenise A.: THE NEGRO IN NORTH CAROLINA
Logan, Rayford W.: THE NEGRO IN THE UNITED STATES
Luthuli, Albert: LET MY PEOPLE GO - an autobiography of Nobel PeacePrize winner of South Africa.
MacGowan, Kenneth and Hester, Joseph A., Jr.: EARLY MAN IN THE NEW WORLD -

early American Indian history.


McWilliams, Carry: BROTHERS UNDER THE SKIN -

each chapter deals with a different color or ethnic group. and its discrimination by whites in America - Indians, Japanese, Chinese, Puerto Ricans,India-natives, Islanders and Negroes.


Malcolm X: THE AUTOBIGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X - in collaboration with Alex Haley.
Mathabane, Mark:

KAFFIR BOY - autobiography of a South African youth who grew up. under the apartheid system then escaped to America.

KAFFIR BOY IN AMERICA - life in America after life under the apartheid system in South Africa

LOVE IN BLACK AND WHITE - interracial marriage in a positive light


McFreely, William S.: FREDERICK DOUGLASS -

biography of ex-slave who became an abolitionist and famed orator.


McKern, Sharon S.: THE MANY FACES OF MAN -

anthropologist and science writer on racial differences and similarities.


Mead, Margaret:

THE CHANGING CULTURE OF AN INDIAN TRIBE.

CULTURAL PATTERNS AND TECHNICAL CHANGE - old methods give way to modern techniques and their impact on traditional life in old societies.
Meier, August and Rudwick, Elliott: FROM PLANTATION TO GHETTO.
Meltzer, Milton (Editor): IN THEIR OWN WORDS -

three volume history of blacks in America in their own words from 1619 to 1966.


Miller, Bradfor,: RETURNING TO SSENECA FALLS- THE FIRST WOMEN'S RIGHTS CONVENTION AND ITS MEANING FOR MEN AND WOMEN TODAY -

1848 - Frederick Douglass was the only man to speak favor of Elizabeth Cody Stanton's resolution for women's right to vote.


Montague, Ashley: MAN'S MOST DANGEROUS MYTH - THE FALLACY OF RACE -

research conducted world wide documenting the oneness of mankind.


Moody, Anne: COMING OF AGE IN MISSISSIPPI - the struggles of a black girl growing up. in the South.
Oliver, Roland and Fage, J. D.: A SHORT HISTORY OF AFRICA.
Peck, Ira: THE LIFE AND WORKS OF MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.
Russell, Bill and Branch, Taylor: SECOND WIND - autobiography of a black, professional basketball player.
Rutstein, Nathan:

TO BE ONE - a trip. to awareness and a battle against racism.

HEALING RACISM - a life story and a textbook on setting up. a workshop. on Healing Racism.
Schultz, David A.: COMING UP BLACK - patterns of ghetto socialization. activist for civil rights.
Shaw, Arnold: BELAFONTE - unauthorized biography of a singer and civil rights activist.
Silberman, Charles E.: CRISIS IN BLACK AND WHITE - gutsy, revealing inner fears and hatreds which stand in way of real friendship. between blacks and whites, also institutional paranoia.
Smith, Lillian:

OUR FACES, OUR WORDS - white awakening to effects of racism and growth to help.

KILLERS OF THE DREAM - white woman's gradually dawning awareness of horror of prejudice and insightful sharing of insidiousness of brain-washing of children into prejudice.
Steele, Shelby: THE CONTENT OF OUR CHARACTER:

a new vision of race in America, a collection of essays, a look beyond victimization.


Styron, William: WILLIAM STYRON'S NAT TURNER - ten writers respond. Edited by John Clark.
Teague, Bob: LETTERS TO A BLACK BOY - advice from a father to a son.
Terry, Robert W.: FOR WHITES ONLY -

insightful, painful, revealing accounts of damage done by prejudice and ways to grow out of it.


Turner, Mary: WE, TOO, BELONG - anthology by blacks.
United States Riot Commission:

REPORT OF THE NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON CIVIL DISORDERS -

STUDY OF 1967-8 RIOTS What happened? Why did it happen? What can be done?
Washington, Booker T.: UP. FROM SLAVERY - an autobiography.
Washington, Booker T., Dubois, W.E.B. and Johnson, James Weldon: THREE NEGRO CLASSICS
Weinstein, Allen and Gatell, Frank Otto: THE SEGREGATION ERA-1863-1954
Williams, Juan and Hampton, Henry: EYES ON THE PRIZE - textbook on civil rights 1954-65.
Woodard, C. Vann: THE STRANGE CAREER OF JIM CROW - tracing social interrelationships from slavery, through reconstruction, to segregation, to beginnings of intergration.
Woods, Donald:

FILMING WITH ATTENBOROUGH, THE MAKING OF CRY FREEDOM -

Woods work with Richard Attenborough while filming the movie about Steven Biko.

BIKO - South African hero-martyr and his white journalist friend.



SOUTH AFRICAN DISPATCHES - newspaper articles on freedom.
Young, Whitney M. Jr.: BEYOND RACISM, BUILDING A NEW SOCIETY.


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