Draw the “imaginary line” across the U.S. representing the Missouri Compromise.
Answer these questions:
What was the purpose of the Missouri Compromise?
What were the three main parts of the Compromise of 1850?
What two states were admitted to the Union as part of the Missouri Compromise?
Where did the Missouri Compromise "imagery line" run?
Why did new problems about the spread of slavery come up after the Missouri Compromise?
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Take a blank map of the United States. Make a color key. Color the map according to the following regions in the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Draw in the Missouri Compromise Line of 1820. (Textbook pp. )
Free States, Free Territory, Decision on Slavery left to the People of the Territory, Slave State, Slave Territory
Answer these questions:
How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act change the Missouri Compromise?
Compare the map you made in Lesson 1 to this map. What differences do you see?
What slave states joined the Union between 1820 and 1854?
Why did Lincoln oppose the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
What territories did the Kansas-Nebraska Act open to slavery?
The Compromises of 1820 and 1850
In 1818 Missouri became a state. The settlers from Missouri wanted it to be a slave state. The Congressmen from the North did not want another slave state. That same year Maine also asked to be admitted to the Union.
In 1820 an agreement called the Missouri Compromise was reached. The compromise allowed Missouri to come into the Union as a slave state and Maine would be a free state.
Congress drew an imaginary line across the middle of the United States running from the east coast to the Pacific Ocean. This imaginary line separated the states into free and slave states. Any new state entering the Union that was south of the line would be a slave state. Any state north of the line would enter the Union as a free state.
Maine became a state in 1820. Missouri became a state in 1821. For the next 15 years no states entered the Union. From 1836 to 1850 six states were admitted:
In 1850 California asked to be admitted to the Union. The Missouri Compromise had cut California in half. Congressmen argued over whether California should enter the war as a free or slave state.
Henry Clay, the man who worked out the Missouri Compromise, came out of retirement to try to work out another compromise. The new agreement was called the Compromise of 1850. In this compromise Northern California entered the Union as a free state.
The Compromise of 1850 added some new laws. Buying and selling slaves in Washington, D.C. was outlawed. The people living in Washington, D.C. could still own slaves, but could not buy or sell new ones. In the South the land received from Mexico was broken up into two states, New Mexico and Utah. In these states the settlers could decide for themselves whether they wanted slavery or not (called popular sovereignty).
The South got a new law called the Fugitive Slave Law which said that any slaves escaping from the south to freedom in the north should be returned to their masters. Bounty hunters received a bounty for each slave they returned. Some free black people were captured by bounty hunters and sold as slaves. Any person who did not help a bounty hunter could be punished under the law.
In 1854 the argument over slavery became part of the American political scene. Franklin Pierce was President. Congress wanted to open up the area west of Missouri and Iowa so that a railroad could be built across America to California.
The land over which the railroad would run had to be settled first. Arguments came up over whether this area should be a slave or free area.
Senator Douglas from Illinois introduced a bill called the Kansas-Nebraska Act. This act created 2 new territories, the Kansas Territory and the Nebraska Territory out of the land that the railroad would travel through. It also repealed the Compromise of 1850. This bill gave the people of those two states the right to choose whether they wanted slavery or not. The Northerners became angry about the law. They were afraid there would be two more slave states is the Union. The Southerners were happy.
The Northern abolitionists formed the Emigrant Aid Society. This society found people who believed that Kansas should be a free state and gave those people money, wagons, guns, and supplies to move to Kansas.
The Southerners formed a group called the Blue Lodge. They paid many settlers to move from Missouri into Kansas.
This fight in Kansas became an open war in 1855. It was called Bleeding Kansas because there were so many bloody battles all over the state. Congress decided to wait for the new President to decide about slavery in Kansas. The Presidential election was due in 1856.
The Whig Party which was the strongest party split in two. One part was the Whigs which were for slavery. The other part became the Republican Party which was against slavery. The other major party was the Democrats.
The election was won by James Buchanan who was a Democrat. Buchanan said the question of slavery had to be left to the Supreme Court.
Dred Scott was a slave. His master took him from the slave state of Missouri to the free state of Illinois. Scott lived as a slave for four years in a free state. Then his master took him back to Missouri. Abolitionist thought it was a good case to test slavery. Abolitionists paid for a lawyer so Scott could sue his master for freedom. The case went to the Supreme Court. On March 6, 1857 the court decided Scott had no right to freedom because he was property and could be moved anywhere, not a person. It also said that any state which did anything against slavery was unconstitutional.
The Compromises of 1820 and 1850
1. A compromise is
a way to settle an argument when both sides give a little to get a part of what they want.
when a settlement can not be reached between two groups.
2. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 allowed ____________to enter the Union as a free state.
3. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 allowed ____________ to enter the Union as a slave state.
4. Which of the following states was NOT admitted to the Union between 1836 and 1850?
5. When California asked to be admitted to the Union, the Missouri Compromise was tested because __________.
half of California was in a free territory and the other half was in a slave territory