Sponsoring Faculty: Ellen G. Friedman, English and Women’s and Gender Studies; Lois Fichner-Rathus, Art; Cynthia Paces, History; Mort Winston, Philosophy and Religion
Sponsoring Department: English
Five courses, two from “Required” and three from “Options”
Required: The Required courses will introduce students to Holocaust and Comparative Genocide Studies. Although requirement #2 has 3 options, each of them with a different disciplinary approach, all of these courses deliver necessary historical background for the study of the Holocaust.
Genocide and Human Rights (Mort Winston, HGS 2xx)
Choose 1 from list below:
Representations of the Holocaust (Ellen Friedman, English, Lit 3xx)
Art and Literature of the Holocaust (Ellen Friedman and Lois Fichner Rathus, Honors 377)
Modern Germany (Cynthia Paces, History 324)
Holocaust: Historical and Religious Perspectives (David Rech, Religion 3xx)
Representations of the Holocaust (Ellen Friedman, English, Lit 3xx) Submitted_and_already_offered_as_topics_course.'>Submitted and already offered as topics course. Offered annually
Art and Literature of the Holocaust (Ellen Friedman and Lois Fichner Rathus, Honors 377) Offered every other year
Modern Germany (Cynthia Paces, History 324) Offered every other year
Gender and Violence (Mary Lynn Hopps WGS 235) Offered every other year
Modern Africa (Matt Bender, History 352) Annually
Genocide and Human Rights (Mort Winston, HGS 2xx) Submitted Offered annually
Holocaust: Historical and Religious Perspectives(David Rech, Religion 3xx) Submitted and already offered as topics course. Offered annually
Courses Ready to be Submitted for Approval in Current Academic Year:
9. Music and the Holocaust: Culture, Identity, and Ideology (Chris Hailey, Music 3xx) Offered annually
10. The Novel of the Holocaust (Jess Row, English) Offered every other year
11. Yiddishland: Introduction to the Language and Culture of the Eastern European Jews (David Stillman, Modern Languages) Offered every other year
12. Memoir, Biography, and Autobiography of Genocide (Jo Carney, English 2xx) Offered every other year
13. Peace and Justice Studies (Janet Gray, International Studies 2xx) Offered annually
Courses Planned for Development Beyond Spring 2010:
1. Film and Art of the Holocaust (Lois Fichner Rathus, Art 2xx)
2. Comparative African Genocides (Matt Bender, History 35x)
3. Pedagogy and the Holocaust (Education)
NOTE: Faculty sponsoring this Minor will be glad to add more courses to the group of optional courses as faculty from other departments propose them.
The minor in Holocaust and Genocide Studies provides a broad interdisciplinary education on the Holocaust and other genocides of the 20th and 21st centuries. This curriculum help students develop a grasp of the history of the Holocaust, as well as its precipitating factors and legacy. In addition, students will gain an understanding of other genocides and be able to compare them. Students will be challenged to think critically and to examine the assumptions concerning issues of the Holocaust, genocide and peace. They will learn how extreme prejudice leads to state killing policies and how such ideas become “naturalized” and rationalized in social programs. They will also have the opportunity to explore ways to resolve conflict peacefully and study ethical decision making. With a deeper understanding of prejudice, discrimination, racism, and anti-Semitism, students should be able to better analyze contemporary local, national, and global political situations and movements and to think critically about ethical responsibility.
III. Performance Goals and Outcomes
Students will learn the vital concepts, with the definition, scholarly debates, and theories relevant to the study of the Holocaust and other ethnic and political genocides.
Courses: 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12
Students will engage critically with how the Holocaust is situated in twentieth century history and will learn the main events. They will study the broader historical context of the Holocaust against the background of European anti-Semitism. 1,2,3,7,8,9,10,11.
Students will compare and analyze genocide and mass violence, including the Armenian genocide, the Holocaust, and the genocides Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia, and Darfur and develop an understanding of the preconditions, causes and warning signs of genocide andmass violence. 4, 5, 6, 11, 12,
Students will study policies of cultural and linguistic suppression as forms of cultural erasure that accompany genocide. 1,2,3,4,7,9,10,11, 12
Students will compare and analyze artistic and literary responses and memorials to the Holocaust, genocide and mass violence and develop an understanding of how cases of genocide and mass violence affect individuals, families, communities and nations. 1,2,8,9,11
Students will study the development of the idea of international human rights and humanitarian law and its relationship to the Holocaust and other cases of genocide and mass violence in the 20th century and develop an understanding of the nature and justification of human rights. 6, 12
Students will review the record of failure of states and the international community to effectively prevent and suppress genocide and consider the topics of humanitarian intervention, conflict prevention, and the responsibility to protect as possible means for preventing future cases of genocide and mass violence. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13
Possess analytical, reading, writing, and speaking skills in the context of the area of study. All courses in the minor meet this goal.
IV. Need for a Minor in Holocaust and Genocide Studies
This minor is consistent with the TCNJ mission’s emphasis on responsible citizenship. Education about holocaust, genocide, and peace and justice is a way to engage students to become advocates for change. This minor meets the need to raise awareness about the profound seriousness of habits of dehumanization, to suggest ways to interrupt the reproduction of genocide, and to study the fostering of global peace and justice. In addition, a state mandate concerning K-12 Holocaust education gives TCNJ, with its large population of students in teacher-training programs, a special responsibility to provide a rich curriculum in this area. The Minor in Holocaust and Genocide Studies is also interdisciplinary.
● Rosefeld, Alvin & Irving Greenberg. Confronting the Holocaust : The Impact of Elie Wiesel. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1978.
● Rosenfeld, Alvin. Imagining Hitler. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.
● Schlant, Ernestine. Language of Silence : West German Literature and the Holocaust. New York: Routledge, 1999.
● Shavit, Zohar. Past Without Shadow : Constructing the Past in German Books for Children. New York: Routledge, 2005.
● Sicher, Efraim. Breaking Crystal : Writing and Memory after Auschwitz. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
● Stenberg, Peter. Journey to Oblivion : The End of the East European Yiddish and German worlds in the Mirror of Literature. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991.
● Wiesel, Elie. Night. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2001.
Art ● Baigell, Matthew. Jewish-American Artists and the Holocaust. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. 1997.
● Blatter, Janet & Sybil Milton. Art of the Holocaust. New York: Rutledge Press, 1981.
● Braham, Randolph. Reflections of the Holocaust in Art and Literature. New York: Distributed by Columbia University Press, 1990.
● Costanza, Mary. Living Witness: Art in the Concentration Camps and Ghettos. New York: Free Press, 1982.
● Felstiner, Mary Lowenthal. To Paint her Life: Charlotte Salomon in the Nazi Era. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
● Fisch, Robert. Light from the Yellow Star: A Lesson of Love from the Holocaust. Minneapolis: Yellow Star Foundation, 1994.
● Godfrey, Mark. Abstraction and the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.
● Lasansky, Mauricio. Nazi Drawings. Iowa City: University of Iowa, 1966.
● Lissa, Andrea. Trespassing through Shadows: Memory, Photography, and the Holocaust.
Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.
● Rosen, Philip & Nina Apfelbaum. Bearing Witness [electronic resource]: A Resource Guide to Literature, Poetry, Art, Music, and Videos by Holocaust victims and Survivors. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002.
● Spiritual Resistance : Art from Concentration Camps, 1940-1945: A Selection of Drawings and Paintings from the Collection of Kibbutz Lochamei HaGhettaot. New York : Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1978.
● Toll, Nelly. When Memory Speaks: The Holocaust in Art. Westport: Praegar, 1998.
● Young, James. At Memory’s Edge: After-Images of the Holocaust in Contemporary Art and Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
Religion ● Bartov, Omer & Phyllis Mack. In God’s Name: Genocide and Religion in the Twentieth Century. New York : Berghahn Books, 2001.
● Bavier, Richard. Study of Judaism: Bibliographical Essays. New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1972.
● Hanebrink, Paul. In Defense of Christian Hungary: Religion, Nationalism, and Anti-Semitism, 1890-1944. Ithaca: Cornell University Press: 2006.
● Jamison, A. Leland. Tradition and Change in Jewish Experience. Syracuse: Syracuse University, 1977.
● McLaren, John & Harold Coward. Religious Conscience, the State, and the Law: Historical Contexts and Contemporary Significance. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.
● Payne, James. History of Force: Exploring the Worldwide Movement Against Habits of Coercion, Bloodshed, and Mayhem. Sandpoint: Lytton Publishing, 2004.
● Rawson, Claude. God, Gulliver, and Genocide: Barbarism and the European Imagination, 1492-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
● Rosenbaum, Alan. Is the Holocaust Unique?: Perspectives on Comparative Genocide. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.
● Sells, Michael. Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
● Twiss, Sumner & Bruce Grelle. Explorations in Global Ethics: Comparative Relgious Ethics and Interreligious Dialogue. Boulder: Westview Publishing, 2000.
● Wuthnow, Robert. Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion. Washington D.C.: CQ Press, 2007.
Pedagogy ● Burack, Jonathan & Lance Peroutka. “We Must Never Forget [videorecording]: The Story of the Holocaust”. Madison: Knowledge Unlimited, 1994.
● Danks, Carol & Leatrice B. Rabinsky. Teaching for a Tolerant World, Grades 9-12: Essays and Resources. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.
● Fab, Joe. “Paper Clips [videorecording] / One Clip At A Time HMA”. New York: Harp Sharp Video, 2005.
● Harkavy, Ira & Bill M. Donovan. Connecting Past and Present: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in History. Washington D.C.: American Association for Education, 2000.
● Henderson, Darwin. Exploring Culturally Diverse Literature for Children and Adolescents: Learning to Listen in New Ways. Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon, 2006.
●Hirsdh, Marianne & Irene Kacandes. Teaching the Representation of the Holocaust. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2006.
● Hohendahl, Peter Uwe. German Studies in the United States: A Historical Handbook. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2003.
● Littell, Marcia Sachs. Holocaust Education: A Resource Book fkor Teachers and Professional Leaders. New York: E. Mellon Press, 1987.
● Robbins, Mari Lu. Guide for using Anne Frank, The Diary of a Young Girl, in the Classroom. Westminster: Teacher Created Materials, 2002.
● Roskies, Diane. Teaching the Holocaust to Children: A Review and Bibliography 1975.
● Teaching about the Holocaust [electronic resource]: A Resource Book for Educators, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2001.
● Totten, Samuel. Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources. Greenwich: Information Age Publishers, 2004.
● Totten, Samuel. Teaching and Studying the Holocaust. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2000.
● Yudkin, Leon. Hebrew Literature in the Wake of the Holocaust. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickenson University Press, 2003.
Psychology ● Bulka, Rueven. Holocaust Aftermath: Continuing Impact on the Generations New York: Human Sciences Press, 2002.
● Cohen, Elia. Human Behaviour in the Concentration Camp. London: Free Association Books, 1998.
● Dutton, Donald. Psychology of Genocide, Massacres, and Extreme Violence [electronic resource]: Why "Normal" People Come to Commit Atrocities. New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, 2007.
● Friedlander, Saul. Probing the Limits of Representation : Nazism and the "Final Solution”. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.
● Gilman, Sander. Jewish Self-Hatred: Anti-Semitism and the Hidden Language of the Jews. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1990.
● Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler, A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947.
● Lifton, Robert Jay. Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide: With a New Preface by the Author. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
● Lockwood, Vic. “Insights into violence [videorecording]”. BBC: Open University,1999.
● Luel, Steven & Paul Marcus. Psychoanalytic Reflections on the Holocaust : Selected Essays. New York: Ktav Publishing Group, 1984.
● Sears, David. Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
● Tsesis, Alexander. Destructive Messages: How Hate Speech Paves the way for Harmful Social Movements. New York: New York University Press, 2002.
● Walker, James. Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
● Zimbardo, Philip, Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House, 2008.
Gender ● Baer, Elizabeth & Myrna Goldenberg. Experience and Expression: Women, the Nazis, and the Holocaust. 2003.
● Baskin, Judith. Women of the Word: Jewish Women and Jewish Writing. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1994.
● Brenner, Rachel. Writing as Resistance: Four Women Confronting the Holocaust. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003.
● Bridenthal, Renate & Atina Grossmann. When Biology Became Destiny: Women in Weimar Germany. New York: Monthly Review Pres, 1984.
VII. Equipment, Laboratory Support, Computer Support, and Facilities
The minor is well served by the college’s existing equipment and facilities.
VII. Course Descriptions
VII. Course Descriptions
Genocide and Human Rights (Mort Winston, HGS 2xx)
A blend of social science and humanities content, this course is designed to provide first year students with an intensive, multidisciplinary introduction to human rights theory and practice. We will examine the topic of human rights from philosophical, historical, legal, political, and multicultural perspectives. The special focus of this course will be on the most heinous of all human rights crimes – genocide. The course will also provide an introduction to genocide studies and will examine the debate over the prevention of genocide, ethnic cleansing, and other mass atrocities. We will begin the course with an examination of the historical development of the idea of human rights highlighting both the philosophical and the political and social roots of the human rights tradition. We will then proceed to a closer examination of the development of the idea universal human rights during the 20th century culminating in the adoption of the Genocide Convention and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. In this section of the course we will focus on the important role of the experience of the Holocaust in shaping the discourse of human rights in the latter half of the 20th century.
Music and the Holocaust: Culture, Identity, and Ideology (Chris Hailey, Music 3xx)
In early twentieth century Germany, musical culture was a central component of national pride and identity. For many of Germany's Jews, this classical music heritage was a core element of their own identification as German citizens. Indeed, many of Germany's leading singers, conductors, violinists, and pianists were of Jewish background, not to mention such prominent composers as Felix Mendelssohn and Gustav Mahler. Moreover, Jewish patrons were a mainstay of classical music audiences and key figures in music publishing, management, and journalism.
With the rise of religious and "racial" anti Semitism in the later nineteenth century and the institution of anti Semitic legislation by the Nazi regime of Adolf Hitler music became a principal battleground of cultural and "racial" ideology. In short order classical music became, for some, an arbiter of what it meant to be German, and, for others, pushed to the point of extinction, what it meant to be a human being.
This course begins by examining some of the controversies surrounding music as a means of commemorating the Holocaust before addressing the larger historical perspective of Jewish experience within German culture from the late eighteenth to the early twentieth centuries. There follows an examination of the nature of right wing music ideology and the means by which it was transformed into state policy after 1933. The central focus of the course rests upon the years of the Nazi regime from 1933 to 1945, during which Jews were first ejected from public musical life and finally either forced into emigration or hiding, or herded into concentration camps.
Representations of the Holocaust ((Ellen Friedman, English, Lit 3xx) Elie Wiesel wrote that only a text written by a witness or survivor can be about the Holocaust; otherwise, it is not about the Holocaust. Philosophers have argued that the only appropriate response to the phenomenon of the Holocaust is silence. Such views cast the Holocaust in a special category of representation. Is the Holocaust so sacred that its representation should be limited? What should the limits be? Who is to say what qualifies and what does not? How will it be remembered if it cannot be represented by each new generation? Should we think about authenticity in Holocaust representations? How do we regard the Nazi-created texts documenting the Holocaust, such as the iconic photograph in the Warsaw Ghetto of the boy with his hands raised? That is, is the particular gaze of the creator of the representation important?
To consider these issues, students will engage with theories of Holocaust representation by such figures as Berel Lang, Hayden White, Geoffrey Hartman, Marianne Hirsch, Janet Wolff and others. They will study a range of Holocaust representations in literature and film that test these theories
Art and Literature of the Holocaust (Ellen Friedman and Lois Fichner Rathus, Honors 344)
Study of the Nazi Holocaust against the Jews through the examination of art and literature by victims, survivors, and others including contemporary artists and writers who have used the Holocaust as a theme in their work. Interdisciplinary.
Film and Art of the Holocaust (Lois Fichner Rathus, Art 2xx)
An exploration of film as a medium for representing narratives of the Holocaust and Resistance from archival footage and documentary films to screen adaptations of literary works and original screenplays. Students will analyze the role of truth and the art of persuasion in a sampling of genres and consider the ways in which cinematic treatments shape awareness of the Holocaust and Resistance among an uninformed public: Has Hollywood adulterated the memory of the Holocaust? Can the history of the Holocaust and the genre of fiction be reconciled? Is it immoral to be entertained by a Holocaust film? Why does the making of films on the themes of Holocaust and Resistance persist?
Modern Germany (Cynthia Paces, History 325)
An examination of German history from Unification in 1871 through Reunification in 1990. Emphasis on the development of German nationalism and imperialism; the World Wars and the Holocaust; postwar division and reconstruction; and the cultural trends of each period.
The Novel of the Holocaust (Jess Row, LIT 4xx)
This course is a survey of prose fiction written in direct response to the Holocaust. For the purposes of our discussion, we will use a slightly wider definition of “the Holocaust” than is customary: instead of strictly referring to the murder of Jews in concentration camps and elsewhere, we will use the term to refer to all victims and circumstances of genocide committed by the Nazi regime, but more importantly, in a holistic sense, to the entire human, cultural, and political catastrophe that occurred in Europe during the years 1939-45. Only some of our texts are “about” the Holocaust in the narrow customary sense, but they are all about the Holocaust in this broader sense of a catastrophe, a disaster, a cataclysm, from which Western culture has not yet recovered and may never recover.
This course is specifically designed to use the end of Representations of the Holocaust as a starting point for further explorations of the effect the Holocaust had on the novelas a particular art form. Here we will be particularly interested in novels for which the struggle to represent the Holocaust also becomes a struggle with the form of the novel itself. One might criticize this attitude as translating the real human suffering of the Holocaust into a kind of purely aesthetic question, and we should be mindful, as the critic William H. Gass puts it, that no novel or artwork of any kind “means” more than “a pillowcase stuffed with human hair.” What we are interested in is exactly this problem, and this question: Can the Holocaust be represented authentically using the form of the novel at all?; if so, how?; and if so, is it morally acceptable to do so? Each of the writers we will encounter this semester has a different answer. Most of these writers, too, have come under attack at one time or another for being “wrong” or immoral or cowardly or treacherous. The stakes in writing fiction about the Holocaust are very, very high.
Gender and Violence (Mary Lynn Hopps WGS 235)
An exploration of the relationship between gender and violence. The course is comprised of theoretical perspectives as well as the study of specific forms of violence. Topics include: domestic and intimate partner violence; sexual violence; child abuse; socially institutionalized forms of violence against women; attitudes and reactions to violence; national and global contexts of violence, and men and violence. A substantial part of this course is devoted to gender violence during war and covers a number of genocides. The course also explores pertinent theories of gender violence.
Yiddishland: The Language and Culture of the Eastern European Jews (David Stillman, Modern Languages)
The Yiddish language in its interactions with Hebrew and the languages of Eastern Europe serves as a metaphor for the culture and civilization of the Eastern European Jews, a world that ended brutally in the Holocaust. This course will examine the evolution of the Yiddish language and the culture of its speakers including topics such as the origins of the Eastern European Jews, the changing relationship between the Jews and their host peoples, the economic and social structure of Jewish society, the religious world of the Jews, Jewish reactions and adaptations to the modern world and Jewish solutions to anti-Semitism and the anomalous situation of the Yiddish-speaking Jews, such as emigration, assimilation, socialism, Yiddishism, and Zionism. The course will also look at attempts to preserve the culture and language of the Yiddish-speaking Jews after World War II.
Holocaust: Historical and Religious Perspectives (David Rech, Religion 3xx)
This course will provide a background to the actual events and an introduction to the historiographic, philosophical, and religious dimensions of the holocaust. The main focus of the course will be interpreting the causes, events, and lessons in light of the historical, philosophical, and religious perspectives of those whom we examine. This course will concentrate on the larger issues (e.g., intentionalist versus functionalist, requirement for humane interpretations, presence of God), as well as the more detailed issues raised by thinkers like Levi and Browning.
Colonial and Modern Africa (Matt Bender, History 352)
This course explores African history from 1800 up to the present. Using case studies, it will examine how wide-ranging social, political, and economic processes, the slave trade, colonial rule, African nationalism, independence, and new understandings of women’s rights changed local people’s lives.
Peace and Justice Studies (Janet Gray, International Studies 2xx)
An introduction to the theory and practice of a growing interdisciplinary field with applications from the local community to international relations. Aimed at achieving social transformation through active nonviolence, peace studies promotes in-depth understanding of structures that promote and perpetuate violence and offers methods for transforming the terms of conflict. Peace studies pedagogy engages students in experiential learning activities drawn from current and historic sites of conflict.
Memoir and Autobiography of Genocide (Jo Carney, English 2xx)
This course will examine narratives of genocide from a literary and sociocultural perspective. We will consider issues of authorship and collaboration, genre and generic categories, and the relationship between retelling and recovery. Texts will include John Paul Dau’s God Grew Tired of Us, Luong Ung’s First They Killed My Father, Tracy Kidder’s Strength in What Remains, Dave Eggers’ What is the What, Jean Hatzfield’s Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak, and Grigoris Balakian’s American Golgotha.