Ministry of agriculture and ministry of public works smallholder tree crop revitalization support project


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The objective of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is to provide management with a tool to measure the effectiveness of an intervention and/or its sub-components, providing an early warning of limitations in a given action or policy and a basis for fine tuning future management decisions. Planned and focused monitoring can be an effective project management tool only if it is accompanied by focused and regular evaluation of the data collected. Thus it must be seen as an integrate component of the overall project management plan. Thus it is imperative that the number of initiatives monitored and the quantity of data collected does not overwhelm the capacity to continuously evaluate the data collected. Equally important is the current and on-going institutional capacity of the M&E office. It is recommended that an annual review of the M&E process be carried out. In the first three years, or until the process if operating effectively and efficiently, it is recommended that external advisors be invited to assist with the evaluation and planning process as part of the capacity building initiative. Suggested advisers will be specialists in IPM, Soil Conservation, Social Science, or any other specialization where expert knowledge will enhance M&E efficiency and effectiveness..

As shown in Figure 4, there are two aspects to the Project Management Cycle - the management cycle itself and the capacity building cycle within project/program management. For monitoring to be successful it is important to see this activity as a continuous cycle of input, review, and redesign procedure.
Table 20:Example Environmental Management Improvement Cycle

The level of monitoring should continue after sub-project completion to confirm sustainability of the processes, but with fewer observations. Perhaps crop husbandry and processing, Livelihood Impacts and innovations based on Capacity Building (e.g. farmers continuing to train other farmers


The key focal areas for monitoring during implementation will be of necessity larger than will be required later when the revitalization process has been completed. During project implementation monitoring in each of the target communities may need to be focused on all of the following:

Activities that lead to soil erosion and water run-off leading to downstream contamination of land and water (e.g. land clearing, replanting, road/bridge rehabilitation, irrigation dams)

Measuring compliance regarding noise, air and the quality of effluent discharge to water bodies in and around the factories and other processing plants

Measuring noise and water pollution as result of project activity

Implementation of the capacity building plans within the communities and the support institutions

Compliance with Government/World Bank policies and regulations

Compliance with mitigation measures

Livelihood Impacts

Public Consultations and dialogue

Land use and management plans and systems including Land Tenure arrangements

Conflict resolution mechanisms and procedures

Gender, youth and vulnerability involvement and or mainstreaming strategies

Community/FO governance and institutional framework

Other as become necessary as a result of project implementation evaluation.

Table 21:Project Implementation Monitoring Plan


Impact to be





Physical Environment

Land Clearing for Replanting

Run-off to streams & water bodies

Monthly during the wet season and after rain in dry season/ report with regular water samples 16

County Environmental Officer PIU/EPA

Road Rehabilitation

Run-off to streams & water bodies

Weekly site visits/report with regular water samples

County Environmental Officer PIU/EPA

Irrigation Dam Construction

Land Selected for New Plantations

Compliance with EPA laws/regulations

Daily during land clearing and until good vegetative ground cover established/report with regular water samples


Waste Management Plan

Handling and Disposal of solid and liquid waste

Monthly Spot Checks/report

Country Health and Safety Officer

Biological Environment

Revegetation Program

Review of past and present plantings

At least annually with full report

County Environmental Officer


Awareness Program Effectiveness

Month Spot visits/report

Community Liaison Office

Illegal activity

Timber extraction, Hunting, Buying/Selling of Bush-meat

Irregular patrols and reported activity

Community with FDA/EPA

Human Environment

Project Development Program

Social Impact of Program Implementation

Monthly visit/report

PIU Community liaison Office

Health and Safety

Potable Water Quality,

Work and road accidents involving project property

Monthly/report with water samples as necessary

PIU /County

Environmental Officer

Social Environment

Land ownership rights

Land registration guidelines, Process of land titling and availability of deeds

Quarterly report

PIU Community liaison Office

Labor Issues

Functionality of kuu's, assessment of family roles and responsibility, availability of hired laborers

Quarterly report

PIU Community liaison Office

Farmer Organizations

Review of group formation guidelines

Quarterly report

PIU Community Liaison Office

Food Security

Food security surveys


County Agricultural Office

Gender Equality Promotion

Collection of gender disaggregated data and Gender Analysis of project activities

Quarterly report

PIU Community Liaison Officer

County and District Gender Officer

Farm Management/ Production

Crop improvement


Annual report

County Agriculture Dept

Environmental management

Compliance with EPA regulations

Annual report

County EPA Officer

Follow up Issues

e.g. Land Tenure program

Impact of Project Initiatives

Annual report

PIU with relevant County Line Officer

Guidelines for Water Sampling
Water samples should be taken in all streams and water bodies adjacent to, and leading away from the planned rehabilitation (e.g. land clearing is on current farms/plantations or new land development, road rehabilitation or any other activity which leaves the soil bare of vegetation for even a short period of time. Such samples should be taken immediately downstream of the site prior to commencement of activity to establish the baseline water quality, and then during and following completion of the rehabilitation activity. Simple sediment load analysis should be all that is necessary and this can be done in the field simply by filling ordinary water-bottles, leaving them to set undisturbed for 24 hours, then measuring and recording the depth of settled sediment in the bottle.

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