Ministry of agriculture and ministry of public works smallholder tree crop revitalization support project

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Government of Liberia




Credit No: IDA Q 7490 Project No: P113273


Environmental & Social Management Framework for the Implementation of Smallholder Tree Crop Revitalization Support Project

Draft Final


swollen shoot and black pod infectioned tree

agrer color new

Draft FINAL ESIA and ESMP for the Liberian Smallholder Tree Crops

Revitalisation Support Project

Environmental & Social Management Framework for the Implementation of Smallholder Tree Crop Revitalization Support Project 1

Table 1:Summary of Environmental and Social Impacts and Mitigation Measures 7

Introduction 12

Introduction 12

background 12

The proposed project description 12

Objectives 12

Project Scope 13

Proposed Project Components 13

Need for an ESMF 16

approach and methodology 16

approach and methodology 16

Policy, legal and administrative framework 17

Policy, legal and administrative framework 17

World Bank safeguard policy 17

Table 2:Environmental Assessment (OP 4.01) 17

Table 3:Natural Habitats (OP 4.04 17

Table 4:Pest Management (OP4.09) 18

Table 5:Indigenous Peoples (OP4.10) 18

Table 6:Physical and Cultural Resources (OP4.11) 18

Table 7:Involuntary Resettlement (OP4.12) 18

Table 8:Forests (OP4.36) 18

Table 9:Safety of Dams (4.37) 18

Table 10:Projects on International Waterways (OP 7.50) 18

Table 11:Projects in Disputed Areas (7.60) 18

Environmental Assessment (OP 4.01) 18

Pest Management (OP 4.09) 18

Natural Habitats (OP 4.04) 19

Forests (OP 4.36) 19

Physical and Cultural Resources (OP4.11) 20

Involuntary Resettlement (OP 4.12) 20

Liberian Government Policy and Legislation 21

Environmental Protection Act 21

Forestry Legislation and Policy 24

Liberia Land Commission Act of 2009 25

Other Environmental Legislation and Policy 25

Liberia Social Legislation 25

Other Relevant International Best Practice Standards 26

Liberian Environmental Framework 26

Liberian Social Framework 28

Assessment of potential environmental and social impacts 30

Assessment of potential environmental and social impacts 30

Assessment of Physical Environment 30

Physical Features 30

Table 12:Map of Liberia showing Counties and Neighboring Countries 30

Table 12:Map of Liberia showing Counties and Neighboring Countries 30

Climate 31

Soils 31

Table 13:Monthly and annual rainfall totals (mm) for Buchanan 32

Hydrology 32

Natural Resources 32

Table 14:Monthly and annual rainfall totals (mm) for the Nimba Geologist’s Camp 33

Assessment of Biological Environment 33

Introduction 34

Protected and Sensitive Habitats 34

Table 15:Map of Liberian Forest Cover 34

Table 15:Map of Liberian Forest Cover 34

Assessment of the human environment 35

Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) 35

Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) 35

potential Environmental impacts 36

Sub-sector Assessment 36

Component Assessment 38

Other Risks 40

potential social impacts 41

Management of Environmental Impacts 47

Table 16:Example Factory Effluent Treatment Flow Diagram 50

Table 16:Example Factory Effluent Treatment Flow Diagram 50

management of social impacts 51

Table 17:Functions of Key Groups and Stakeholders: 54

Table 18:Institutional Tasks and Responsibilities in Management of Project Impacts 55

implementation of the impact management plan 56

Environmental and Social Impact Management 56

procedure for Sub-project Screening 59

Table 19:Verification of Safeguards Policies triggered by Subprojects 59



Table 20:Example Environmental Management Improvement Cycle 61

Table 20:Example Environmental Management Improvement Cycle 61

Monitoring 61

Table 21:Project Implementation Monitoring Plan 62

Evaluation 63

esmf Budget 63

esmf Budget 63

Table 22:ESMF Implementation Budget Estimate (US$) 63

conclusion 65

conclusion 65


List of Tables

Table 1:Summary of Environmental and Social Impacts and Mitigation Measures 7

Table 13:Monthly and annual rainfall totals (mm) for Buchanan 32

Table 14:Monthly and annual rainfall totals (mm) for the Nimba Geologist’s Camp 33

Table 17:Functions of Key Groups and Stakeholders: 54

Table 18:Institutional Tasks and Responsibilities in Management of Project Impacts 55

Table 19:Verification of Safeguards Policies triggered by Subprojects 59

Table 21:Project Implementation Monitoring Plan 62

Table 22:ESMF Implementation Budget Estimate (US$) 63

List of Figures
Figure 1: Map Of Liberia Showing Counties And Neighboring Countries 30

Figure 2: Map Of Liberian Forest Cover 34

Figure 3: Example Factory Effluent Treatment Flow Diagram 50

Figure 4: Example Environmental Management Improvement Cycle 61
List of Abbreviations




Above Mean Sea Level


Alternative Enterprise International


African Development Bank


Abbreviated Resettlement Action Plan


Agricultural Sector Rehabilitation Project


Business and Biodiversity Offset Program


Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program


County Agricultural Offices


Cooperative Development Agency


Carbon dioxide


District Agricultural Officers


District Development Committees


Environmental Impact Assessment


Environmental Management Committee


Environmental Management Plan


Environmental Officer


Environmental Protection Agency


Environmental Protection and Management Law of the Republic of Liberia


Equatorial Oil Palm


Environmental and Social Impact Assessment


Environmental and Social Management Framework


Environmental and Social Management (Mitigation) Plan


Environment and Social Management Team


European Union


Forestry Development Authority


Fauna and Flora International


Farmer Organizations


Finding of No Significant Impact


Geographical Information Systems


Government of Liberia






International Association of Impact Assessment


International Finance Corporation


International Labor Organization


International Standards 4000




Liberia Agriculture Sector Rehabilitation Program




Morris American Rubber Company


Millennium Development Goals


Ministry of Lands, Mines and Energy


Monitoring and Evaluation,


Ministry of Agriculture


Ministry of Finance


Ministry of Gender and Development


Ministry of Health and Social Welfare


Ministry of Public Works


Ministry of Youth


Non-Governmental Organization


Project Coordination Unit


Project Financial Management Unit


Project Implementation Unit


Program Management Unit


Rapid Appraisal Program


Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil


Social Impact Assessment


Small and Medium Enterprises


Salala Rubber Company


Smallholder Tree Crop Revitalization Support Project


Terms of Reference


Training of Trainers


United Nations Children Educational Fund


United Nations Development Program


United States Aid for International Development


United States Environmental Protection Agency

Executive Summary

The Government of Liberia is exploring the feasibility of a World Bank supported agricultural development project, in which the principal objective is improving the income opportunities of poor farmers by a combination of rehabilitating unproductive farms, undertaking replanting and new planting programs, facilitating future replanting and development programs, and improved financing mechanisms and institutional arrangements. The proposed Smallholder Tree Crop Revitalization Support Project (STCRSP) has been identified in response to this request.
The main characteristics of the Liberian tree crop sector at present are the old age of plantations and their low productivity. There have been no significant replanting activities for the last twenty five years due to the war, and a large proportion of the country’s tree crop plantations are now at the end of their productive life, necessitating replanting. The main constraint to the implementation of a large scale replanting program, particularly for smallholders, is the lack of long term credit. This situation is consistent with the experience in other tree crop producing countries in Asia or Africa, where commercial banks are generally reluctant to provide long term credits to farmers for tree crops mainly due to the crops’ long gestation period (up to 7 years for rubber, 3-4 years for oil palm and cocoa), the perceived high credit risk and the lack of collateral.
The proposed project will be the first, preparatory stage of a long term pro-poor growth program focused on developing the tree crop sector. Specifically, it will be aimed at preparing future large scale tree crop replanting and development programs by testing different replanting and new planting models and associated financing and implementation mechanisms, and strengthening the capacity of key public and private sector/civil society institutions involved in tree crop development. At the same time, the proposed project will seek to have a short term impact on farmers’ revenues by supporting the rehabilitation of both immature and mature smallholder tree crop farms, which will generate additional revenues that farmers could subsequently use towards financing of replanting, thereby at least partially alleviating financing constraints.
The proposed project objective is “to increase poor tree crop farmers’ income opportunities by rehabilitating unproductive farms and supporting tree crop replanting and new planting and by supporting preparation activities toward the future development of the tree crop sector and effective smallholder participation”. The target group of the proposed project will be poor smallholders (those owning less than the economic threshold of four hectares (10 acres) of tree crop) in the country’s main tree crop producing counties, with particular attention given to the participation of women and youth. The intent is that this group will receive support to rehabilitate at least two hectares (5 acres) of their current holding.
The proposed project will contribute to national and local revenues through increased foreign exchange from tree crop exports and directly benefit smallholder households through increased incomes from the rehabilitation of their tree crop farms. It will directly support Government of Liberia (GoL)’s policy for economic revitalization, based on the promotion of export oriented economic growth, through consolidating the role of the private sector, while also facilitating rural development, increasing rural incomes, and contributing to poverty reduction. Furthermore, the proposed project is aligned with Ministry of Agriculture’s (MoA) priority of achieving a viable and sustainable Tree Crop Sector within the Liberia Agriculture Sector Rehabilitation Program (LASIP) under the framework of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP).
The objective of this report is to present an environmental and social management framework (ESMF) aimed at ensuring that adverse environmental and social impacts of the project will be avoided or, where unavoidable, will be mitigated or offset, in response to the five World Bank safeguards policies triggered by the proposed project as well as the laws, regulations and procedures of the Government of Liberia.
The proposed project (see detail of components in Chapter1.2.3) will follow a two pronged approach:

rehabilitating existing mature and immature small tree crop farms, which will have a short-term impact by generating additional revenues that farmers could subsequently use towards financing of replanting; and

supporting tree crop replanting and new plantings, using different models and associated financing and implementation mechanisms, while strengthening the capacity of key public and private sector/civil society institutions involved in tree crop development, with the aim of laying out the foundations for future smallholder tree crop development programs. It will be implemented over a period of four years in several districts of the country’s main tree crop producing counties.
Thus, this report was prepared on the basis of:

A comprehensive review of documents and reports to the proposed STCRSP

Analysis of relevant studies and reports on the Liberian Tree Crop Sector as relates to the STCRSP.

Engagement of key stakeholders through formal county level and informal village meetings, field visits to small holder farms, concession plantations and one on one interviews with individuals and groups in Liberia who see themselves potentially affected by, or who can impact on the tree crop sector operations at the local, national or international scale.

Due to the delay in mobilization of the Consultancy and the need to have the report available for the World Bank Review team in early August, the stakeholder consultation was not as comprehensive as the Terms of Reference envisaged. Nevertheless a good stakeholder view has been achieved, which with on farm/plantation field visits, allowed the ESMF team to make a realistic assessment of potential beneficial and adverse impacts of the proposed project on the Physical, Biological and Human Environments in and adjacent to the target communities.
The ESMF team worked without the benefit of two studies: a) the identification of the specific target communities and b) the detailed socio-economic assessment of those communities. These two studies were envisaged in the ToR to have been completed by the time of the ESMF team visited, but had yet to commence, thus the field visit and workshop reports are representative of the broad target areas rather than specific to the likely first communities to participate. This will not unduly reduce the value of this report, as adequate information has been gathered to give a realistic assessment of what might be expected. It does mean though that there may be need for further assessment in some of the future subproject selection process.
Potential Environmental and Social Impacts
The proposed project impacts will be largely beneficial, or at least neutral, though will also be potential adverse impacts. . Where the later occur, they can be avoided by careful management which includes full awareness of the potential for the adverse impact and ‘best practice’ implementation of all activities. This will require all stakeholders to be fully trained and supported as envisaged in the proposed program. The ESMF outlines some possible actions to address minor potential negative impacts. The potential environmental and social impacts are summarized below:
The target group will be poor smallholders - those owning less that 5 hectares (10 acres) of rubber, Oil Palm, Cocoa and/or Coffee – in the main country’s tree crop producing counties, with particular attention given to the participation of women.
Positive Impacts

The current levels of incomes are likely to improve when farmers start gaining from abandoned tree crops (especially older cocoa and coffee farms) and invest in the replanting of new and resilient tree crops. These benefits as clearly articulated in the project objectives, will improve the quality of life of rural farmers and limit their over dependence of subsistence farming. This follows directly from the government’s effort at reducing poverty among the rural poor as articulated in the PRS.

The development of social capital through capacity building of local community groups and associations will positively equip them to dialogue and participate in decision making on their livelihood options and increase their decision-making roles at community and national levels. Increase in capacity building opportunities including training and skills development will enhance not only local communities and farmers in tree crop production for improved rehabilitation and expansion of the sector, but also the Ministry of Agriculture and participating Line and Other Agencies;

Infrastructural developments are likely to take place during and after the implementation of the project components, improving access not only to markets but also to services and facilities.

Smallholders will have developed new husbandry skills and increased farm incomes, and rural labor opportunity will have been enhanced and the country as a whole should be better off;

Improvement in access to land and tenure security as cash crop farmers and communities register their lands and farms;

Creation of opportunities for sustainable income-generation in agriculture through diversification and improvement in tree crop production for rural communities;

Improve local farmers capacities in the production of quality cash crops;

Provision of opportunity in small-scale infrastructure in a planned and organized fashion that would facilitate more efficient uses of economic resources in project counties and communities;

Empowerment of local communities to mobilize and build capacities in sustainable community development through effective delivery of extension services, improved technologies in cash crop farming and agricultural inputs;

Inclusion of women, the youth and migrants to participate in the cash crop sector through the creation of sustainable agricultural sector employment opportunities;

Provision of basic infrastructure including access roads in tree crop production areas which would further improve and facilitate distribution of food crops to market centers; and

Provision of sustainable productivity through input supply and improved access to needed cash crop seeds and technologies.
Potential Negative Social Impacts

Soil Erosion and downstream pollution as a result of land clearing for planting/replanting and improvements to farm access roads;

Increased competition over lands to invest in cash crops within the current dualistic land ownership system in Liberia could create local conflicts over land;

Women’s (and youth’s) access to land and land ownership may limit their direct involvement in the project, though this may differ from one project area to the other, the project could have negative social impacts, in particular on women and youth, if the participatory processes to sensitize communities on the project objectives are not consistently followed.

Food insecurity may occur if project implementation does not fully comply with current food security strategies and link up with ongoing projects to increase food security;

Competitive labor demand for cash crops cultivation may affect the contribution of household labor for food crop farming;

Farmer associations may face elite capture, the vulnerable, powerless and/or marginalized groups especially if women and the youth do not actively participate and benefit from the project;

Social tension and agitation due to lack of adequate flow of accurate project information in a timely manner and dialogue among different segments of society: leaders, youth, women and political associations.

Emissions to air and water as a result of increased processing and value-added initiatives;

Potential health hazards as a result of improper handling, storage and use of agro-chemicals used for pest management;

This Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) has been prepared to address any adverse impacts that may occur as a result of the project. This document covers the most obvious possibilities, but also makes provision for ‘chance finds”. The following table summarizes the potential averse impacts, mitigation measures and indicates the implementing and monitoring agencies.
Table 1:Summary of Environmental and Social Impacts and Mitigation Measures

Project Activities

Potential Adverse Impacts

Mitigation Measures

Responsible Implementers (RI)/Monitoring Agency (MA)

Land Clearing and Replanting

Soil Erosion and consequent pollution of adjacent water bodies

Minimize removal of low ground cover during clearing

Establish new ground cover as quickly as possible

Windrow woody vegetation along the contour to act as barrier to down slope sheet erosion

Maximize new planting along contour

Remove excess wood waste from field – do not remove by burning - to be recycled to other uses (e.g. household fuel, local crafts)

RE - Farmers, Contractors (if any)


Loss of biodiversity habitat

Biodiversity habit is weak and disturbed in existing plantations but expansion area selection will need to adhere to EPA and FDA laws and regulations as well as OP 4.04 and 4.36.

RE - Farmers,


Loss of farm income during reestablishment of tree crop

Consider intercropping until new tree crop closes canopy

RE - Farmers, Contractors (if any)


Crop Processing

Emissions or air and water

Concession factories and community mills to adhere to EPA laws and regulations

New value added industry to adhere to EPA laws and regulations

RE – Concession/ Industry Managers


Liquid effluent

Containment and treatment prior to discharge to existing water body – maximize recycling of treated water

Solid waste

Maximize the spreading of organic waste in plantations as substitute for inorganic plant nutrients

Use of resources (e.g. petroleum products, water)

Crop Husbandry

Under-brushing, pruning

RE - Farmers,


Removal of shade trees in coffee & cocoa

Check with FDA before removal as an indigenous species may be rare and endangered

Pest management

Adhere to PMP re type of chemicals used, and safeguards for storage, handling and applying

Introduce and maximize use non-chemical alternatives


Minimize use of chemical fertilizer and maximize use of organic mulch by returning solid processing waste to fields

Plant Nurseries (large scale District – not individual small-farmer plots )

Loss of biodiversity habitat as result of land clearing

RI – Nursery Implementer


Water for irrigation

Adhere to GoL regulations re extraction from streams and rivers

Guard against pollution of water body and downstream impacts

Emissions to air and water

Locate water pump with surrounding bund to prevent petroleum leakage to water source

Pest management

Adhere to PMP re type of chemicals used, and safeguards for storage, handling and applying

Introduce and maximize use non-chemical alternatives


Minimize use of chemical fertilizer and maximize use of organic mulch

Feeder Roads

Pollution of streams/rivers

PIU guidelines to be part of contract document. These to include:

Minimize removal of roadside vegetation

Replant quick growing ground cover during or immediately after construction

Install erosion barriers during construction to prevent stream sedimentation

RI – Contractor


Community access hindrance during rehabilitation/construction

Work to be done in collaboration with community leaders and members

Crop Handling and Storage

Dust/noise disruption during construction of Warehouses and ancillary facilities (e.g. Increased traffic and movement of heavy equipment)

Temporary disturbance during construction mitigated by location of facility at perimeter of town/village

Liaise through community leaders to respond promptly to complaints

Maintain all work equipment within the facility at optimal operating condition

Monitor noise levels at sensitive receptors (residential areas, schools, clinics)

Use periodic sprinkling to control dust

RI – MoA

MO - MoA

Health and Safety


Minimized by training and experience – PIU to conduct periodic training and continual safety reminders to all project participants

RI– Farmers


Land Tenure

Lack of comprehensive land registry

Land Commission to focus on finalizing Land Sector Policy and rationalize current constraints relating to customary and state land ownership

RI – Lands Commission


Food Security

Focus on Tree Crop at expense of Food Crop production during rehabilitation period

Mitigated by encouraging intercropping food crops with tree crops (at least until tree crop reaches maturity)

RI – MoA

MO - MoA

Community Expectation Level

High, unrealistic expectation of project support

Maintain effective two-way dialogue through transparency and disclosure, full and frequent information to the public and established arrangement for community liaison and for handling complaints and grievances

Sensitize and create awareness for farmers and all community members to understand the goal, objectives, activities and farmers role


MO – MoA - CAC

Adverse Farmer/Implementing Agency Relationship

Labor and Employment

Labor Issues including possibility of migrant and child Labor issues

Address community norms and customs relating to gender, land and ownership rights to improved ability of women and youth to have secure access to land

Inclusion of advanced husbandry practices and value added initiatives should provide additional employment opportunity

Inclusion of labor and child rights protocols



Gender, Youth and Vulnerability inclusion

Male adult bias at expense of female and youth

Develop and mainstream gender, and youth and vulnerability inclusion strategies

Encourage communities to expand opportunities for females and youth



ESMP/ESMF Implementation Structure

In order to ensure successful delivery of the project, including the mitigation and improvement measures, it will be necessary for the PMU to put in place appropriate processes and mechanisms, and strengthen the capacity of the implementing agencies and the participating communities to achieve the project objectives in an efficient and sustainable manner. Involvement of the stakeholders at key stages in the development and operation will be a key factor in avoiding challenges and conflicts. There is a requirement to be accountable which necessitates appropriate dissemination of information and transparent policies.
The PIU will need to appoint an Environmental Manager to take responsibility for the implementation of the ESMP. This could be a shared (with another responsibility) position within the PIU, but for clarity and focus it would be best if responsibility was invested in a single position. This appointee would be the point of contact for all issues related to environmental and social impact management of project initiatives and activities. The Environmental Manager would be responsible for liaising with the EPA and participating Line and Other Agencies. Similarly, an Environmental Officer should be designated in each of the target counties with responsibility for day to day issues arising from project implementation, to assist with farmer training and awareness programs and to monitor compliance and progress. The person designated would most probably be one of the County or District Agricultural Offices but as these offices are currently understaffed, it may be necessary to recruit specialists to fill these posts. In addition, each section within the PIU structure should designate a person to be the point of contact with regard to any environmental issues relating to that sections activities. Collectively these officials will be the project’s Environmental and Social Management Team (ESMT).
Initially, at least, the PIU should appoint a Rural Sociologist to assist with the preparation of the social monitoring program and to build social impact management skills within the County/District level staff who will be responsible for impact monitoring.
Each member of the project management team will be responsible guiding conformity with applicable laws and regulations, and for conducting their work responsibilities in accordance with permit requirements and the ESMP. The environmental management controls that should be used at each of the project development locations to assist in meeting the overall environmental management objectives for the project should include, but not be limited to:

Environmental Awareness Training;

Environmental Compliance Reviews and Co-ordination Meetings; and

Environmental Compliance Inspections and Documentation.

It is important that the ESMT meet regularly and as frequently as necessary to coordinate prompt reaction to arising issues, evaluate data from the monitoring program and assure efficient implementation of the ESMP. A representative of the EPA should be invited to attend these meetings as well as representatives of other supporting agencies when appropriate (e.g. when specific expertise is required).
Capacity Building
Capacity within the MoA and the other line agencies is generally weak both in terms of personnel and hands on experience in environmental and social impact management and the laws and regulations in place to control/mitigate adverse impacts. As a result, the PIU will need for focus initially on capacity building.
Members of the PIU Environmental and Social Management Team should be the first to receive training in identifying and managing adverse environmental and social impacts with the intent that they will act as trainers in environmental and social awareness to all management staff, and monitor and support local implementation of project initiatives. This may be provided by:

sending employees to specific training courses in Monrovia or elsewhere,

employing consultants to hold training courses at the PIU premises, or assisting individuals to register for Distance Learning Courses from Credited Institutions
Annual refresher courses should be available for members of the committee and specialist training provided when new issues arise.
The PIU Environmental Manager will be responsible for organizing and assisting in training of personnel in all aspects of the EMP creating a general awareness of environmental management throughout the participating organizations, partner organizations and the beneficiary communities. One of the objectives of the program will be to encourage communities to safeguard their own environment and the value of conserving their natural heritage for their present use and the use of future generations. There may be a requirement to continue some aspects of capacity building, in particular of the communities and smallholders, after project completion,
With the assistance of the ESMT, the PIU Environmental Manager will be responsible for identifying and selecting suitable local training resource persons, preparation of standard and specific relevant training modules, liaising with providing agencies and stakeholders to plan training implementation and preparation of training progress reports.
Institutional Arrangements
Annual work plans should be developed in consultation with the relevant participating agencies and stakeholders to indicate institutions and networks that will be required to provide research and development support. The principal actors will include a number of local institutions directly involved in project implementation while other agencies (partners) will include international and national institutions to provide technical and other support for implementation of the plan.
The PIU will need to collaborate with relevant line agencies (e.g. MoA, EPA), NGO’s and International Agencies to:

Provide expertise in planning, training and field implementation of IPM, and contribute field staff to be trained as Trainers;

Utilize members of participating FOs to facilitate extension and farmer training;

Prepare and produce field guides and other relevant information materials;

review current policies and adjust/develop policy guidance/oversight to support the implementation of the project;

Serve as technical reviewers for subprojects submitted by FOs for funding under STCRSP;

Monitoring and Evaluation
The key focal areas for monitoring during implementation will be of necessity larger than will be required later when the revitalization process has been completed. During project implementation monitoring in each of the target communities may need to be focused on all of the following:

Activities that lead to soil erosion and water run-off leading to downstream contamination of land and water (e.g. land clearing, replanting, road/bridge rehabilitation, irrigation dams)

Measuring compliance regarding noise, air and the quality of effluent discharge to water bodies in and around the factories and other processing plants

Measuring noise and water pollution as result of project activity

Implementation of the capacity building plans within the communities and the support institutions

Compliance with Government/World Bank policies and regulations

Compliance with mitigation measures

Livelihood Impacts

Public Consultations and dialogue

Land use and management plans and systems including Land Tenure arrangements

Conflict resolution mechanisms and procedures

Gender, youth and vulnerability involvement and or mainstreaming strategies

Community/FO governance and institutional framework

Other as become necessary as a result of project implementation evaluation.

The level of monitoring should continue after sub-project completion to confirm sustainability of the processes, but with fewer observations. Perhaps crop husbandry and processing, Livelihood Impacts and innovations based on Capacity Building (e.g. farmers continuing to train other farmers
Table 7 in Chapter 6 sets out the project implementation monitoring plan.
All data collected and observations made during the monitoring program should be evaluated at least annually and measured against project policy and objectives to ascertain whether experience over the preceding period suggest that adjustments to policy, guidelines, standards or procedure (even governing legislation) should be incorporated to improve the effectiveness and the environmental and social sustainability of smallholder tree farms. To this effect each monitoring report should contained a section for observations of data collected (i.e. whether it is as expected or unusual, changes in conditions at monitoring site). Points to be addressed in the annual review will include:

Assessment of the progress in the attainment of the project objectives

Assessment of the effectiveness of adverse impact mitigation measures

Verification of compliance with environmental legislation and regulations

Verification of compliance with social mitigation measures

Assessment of gender and youth inclusion

Recommendations for changes in implementation policy and practices as necessary for their continued effectiveness or relevance

Determination of the capital investment and operating budgets necessary to ensure achievement of environmental management objectives

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