3. Describe and analyze the issues and ideas in the debate (between conservatives, liberals, and socialists) in Europe between 1750 and 1846 over the proper rule of a government in the economy. Give specific examples.
The question is asking to address which current events and concerns in 18th and 19th century Europe created disagreements between the major powers of the time. This was a period when various nations within Europe were experimenting with different forms of government and when they inevitably clashed with contradictory ideas of how to operate an economy and the citizens of a country. We must address which nations were the conservative nations, which reforms were liberal reforms, and which leaders were socialist leaders. We must address how these changes were interrelated with one another and how the issues of the time shaped European countries into what they are today.
Between 1750 and 1846 there were social, political, and economic conflicts between conservatives, liberals, and socialists in Europe over the proper rule of government in the economy. Social conflicts involving the way people should live (utopias), political conflicts like different political parties ruling the citizens (socialism), and economic conflicts involving how the government should control its money (Wealth of Nations/ Capitalism) were all clashing ideas that caused problems between top ruling European countries.
1. Conservative countries like Austria, with influence from Metternich, and the Congress of Vienna had their own conservatist ideas that led to conflicts with liberals and socialists over social, political, and economic issues in the state.
2. Liberal countries like France, had their own liberal ideas like The Wealth of Nations that led to conflicts with conservatists and socialists over social, political, and economic issues on how to rule a government.
3. Socialist countries like Germany, under the influential ideas of great thinkers like Karl Marx, and Robert Owen, brought on ideas like utopian socialism, which clashed socially, economically, and politically with liberals and conservatists.
1. Austria’s conservative ideas conflicted with the ideas of Hungarian and Bohemian nationalist. They caused revolts that had to be shut down by the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Empire also had to deal with Greece, which eventually lead to Greece gaining its’ independence in 1832.
2.In an attempt to a stop the spread of nationalism Austria established the Congress of Vienna. This governing body was created in order to preserve the Old Regime.
3. Karl Marx was a german philosopher who wrote The Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels, a political piece about the Communist political party
4. The Wealth of Nations was a guideline for the French government, the idea that an economy would self regulate came from the ideas of Adam Smith. These ideas would eventually form the French “laissez-faire” (hands off) economy in France. These new and radical ideas conflicted with the Old Regime and initially were not accepted by many French nobles.
5. Utopian socialism was a socialist idea of an ideal society, created by Karl Marx "The father of communism" and Robert Owen, a welsh social reformer.
6. Karl Marx’s new radical ideas favored the Old Regime much more than the ideas of philosophers like Adam Smith. His idea of a totalitarian government supported many of the ideas of the Old Regime. It was because of this that many liberals did not support the ideas of Marx.
7. The Reform Bill was passed in 1832 in Great Britain, it was a revolutionary Bill passed in Parliament that changed the electoral system of Britain, letting eligible voters decide who would run the government.
8.The Industrial Revolution industrialized the West with new technologies and modernization, it acted against the Old Regime and did not follow conservatist ideas, which caused conflict.