Minela Covic Andjela Bursac

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Minela Covic

Andjela Bursac

Christopher Primer

3. Describe and analyze the issues and ideas in the debate (between conservatives, liberals, and socialists) in Europe between 1750 and 1846 over the proper rule of a government in the economy. Give specific examples.

  • The question is asking to address which current events and concerns in 18th and 19th century Europe created disagreements between the major powers of the time. This was a period when various nations within Europe were experimenting with different forms of government and when they inevitably clashed with contradictory ideas of how to operate an economy and the citizens of a country. We must address which nations were the conservative nations, which reforms were liberal reforms, and which leaders were socialist leaders. We must address how these changes were interrelated with one another and how the issues of the time shaped European countries into what they are today.

  • Timeline:  

        -1775 Start of the American Revolution

        -1778 France declares war on England in support of the American colonies

        -1789 Tennis court oath

        -1789 Storming of the Bastille

        -1790 Reflections on the Revolution in France is published by Edmund Burke

-1792 First meeting of the National Convention

        -1793 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are executed

        -1804 Napoleon is crowned emperor of France

        -1804 Toussaint L'Ouverture leads a slave revolt in Haiti and gains liberty from France

-1814 Bourbon family regains the French throne with Louis XVIII

-1814 The Congress of Vienna is established to keep Europe conservative

-1821 Mexico gains their independence from Spain

        -1823 Simon Bolivar leads Venezuela to its independence

        -1825 Robert Owen creates the first Utopian Society in New Harmony, Indiana

-1830 Belgium wins its independence from The Netherlands

-1832 Reform Bill passed in Great Britain

-1832 Greece gains its independence from the Ottoman Empire

-1848 The Communist Manifesto is published

  • Thesis

Between 1750 and 1846 there were social, political, and economic conflicts between conservatives, liberals, and socialists in Europe over the proper rule of government in the economy. Social conflicts involving the way people should live (utopias), political conflicts like different political parties ruling the citizens (socialism), and economic conflicts involving how the government should control its money (Wealth of Nations/ Capitalism) were all clashing ideas that caused problems between top ruling European countries.  

  • Topic Sentences

1. Conservative countries like Austria, with influence from Metternich, and the Congress of Vienna had their own conservatist ideas that led to conflicts with liberals and socialists over social, political, and economic issues in the state.

2. Liberal countries like France, had their own liberal ideas like The Wealth of Nations that led to conflicts with conservatists and socialists over social, political, and economic issues on how to rule a government.

3. Socialist countries like Germany, under the influential ideas of great thinkers like Karl Marx, and Robert Owen, brought on ideas like utopian socialism, which clashed socially, economically, and politically with liberals and conservatists.


  • Specific Evidence

1. Austria’s conservative ideas conflicted with the ideas of Hungarian and Bohemian nationalist. They caused revolts that had to be shut down by the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Empire also had to deal with Greece, which eventually lead to Greece gaining its’ independence in 1832.

2.In an attempt to a stop the spread of nationalism Austria established the Congress of Vienna. This governing body was created in order to preserve the Old Regime.

3. Karl Marx was a german philosopher who wrote The Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels, a political piece about the Communist political party

4. The Wealth of Nations was a guideline for the French government, the idea that an economy would self regulate came from the ideas of Adam Smith. These ideas would eventually form the French “laissez-faire” (hands off) economy in France. These new and radical ideas conflicted with the Old Regime and initially were not accepted by many French nobles.

5. Utopian socialism was a socialist idea of an ideal society, created by Karl Marx "The father of communism" and Robert Owen, a welsh social reformer.

6. Karl Marx’s new radical ideas favored the Old Regime much more than the ideas of philosophers like Adam Smith. His idea of a totalitarian government supported many of the ideas of the Old Regime. It was because of this that many liberals did not support the ideas of Marx.

7. The Reform Bill was passed in 1832 in Great Britain, it was a revolutionary Bill passed in Parliament that changed the electoral system of Britain, letting eligible voters decide who would run the government.

8.The Industrial Revolution industrialized the West with new technologies and modernization, it acted against the Old Regime and did not follow conservatist ideas, which caused conflict.  

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