Millions of immigrants arrive

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Chapter 14.1 “Immigrants and Urban Challenges” KEY


  1. When did the immigrants come to the United States? Mid-1800s (1840-1860)

  2. How many were there? More than 4 million

  3. Where did they come from? Mostly from Europe—especially Ireland and Germany

  4. Why did they come? Fleeing economic and/or political troubles


  1. When and why did the Irish immigrants leave Ireland? They left in the mid-1840 due to starvation and disease

  2. Where did the Irish settle in the U.S.? cities in Mass., N.J., N.Y., and Penn.

  3. What types of occupations did they commonly adopt? Unskilled jobs

    1. Men - built canals and railroads

    2. Women - Domestic servants for wealthy families

  4. What were their lives like in the US? Low wages and poor housing, but they had a feeling of equality and respect


  1. What were the two main reasons for Germans immigrating to the U.S.?

    1. Escape persecution for political activities --freedom from government control

    2. Economic opportunities

  2. What were the religions of German Immigrants? Catholic, Jewish, Protestant

  3. What religion were most Irish Immigrants? Catholic

  4. Where did most immigrating Germans settle? Rural areas of Midwestern states

  5. What were the main occupations of German immigrants? Farmers, tailors, seamstresses, bricklayers, servants, clerks, cabinet makers, bakers, food merchants


  1. What two factors greatly changed the American labor force? Industrialization and immigration

  2. What need did some immigrants fulfill? Cheap labor in towns and cities

  3. What attracted many immigrants to the Northeast? Industrial jobs

  4. What did many native-born Americans fear? Losing jobs to immigrants willing to work for low wages

  5. What organization did the nativists found and when? Know-Nothing Party -- 1849

  6. What were the goals of this organization? To support measures making it difficult for foreigners to become citizens or hold offices. They wanted to keep Catholics out of public office and make immigrants live in the US 21 years before granting citizenship.

  7. What issue split the KNP? Slavery


  1. Two trends contributed to the rapid growth of American cities. What were they?

    1. New jobs in cities drew immigrants from other nations and people from rural areas in US

    2. Transportation revolution helped connect cities and made it easier for people to move to cities

  2. Cities located in which two geographic regions grew the most? North East & Middle Atlantic states

  3. What was significant about these locations in the mid-1800’s? home of ¾ of the manufacturing jobs

  4. What two factors “changed American life?” rise of industry and growth of cities

  5. Who benefited the most from those changes? Those who owned businesses and skilled workers

  6. What people made up the new middle class? Merchants, manufacturers, master craftspeople

  7. What did cities offer that rural areas did not? Entertainment, and cultural life like libraries, clubs, concerts, bowling, boxing, etc.

  8. Why were cities at this time compact and crowded? People had to live close to the jobs so they could walk to work.


  1. What did cities lack? Public or private transportation, safe, affordable housing, clean water, public health regulations, human and animal waste disposal,

  2. What were the tenements like? Poorly designed, dirty, overcrowded, and unsafe

  3. What resulted from the filthy living conditions in the cities? Diseases spread quickly, Epidemics

  4. What three organized services were lacking in the cities, which resulted in health and safety issues?

    1. Police force to fight crime

    2. Fire protection

    3. Sanitation and road maintanence

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