Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra

más ‘more’, but a number of editions have assumed an error and changed it to mi

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s ‘more’, but a number of editions have assumed an error and changed it to mis ‘my’, since no formal mention had been made of the Inquisition of the Books (Chapter 6).

325 Gonzalo Hernández de Córdoba (Cordova) was a soldier (1453-1515) who participated in the battles leading to the fall of Granada (1492), among many other accomplishments.

326 Diego García de Paredes (1466-1530), fought in Granada with, and later accompanied, the Gran Capitán in Sicily. He died at age 64 in Bologna, having fallen from his horse at the coronation of Carlos V.

327 Hector was an ideal warrior of the Trojan army in Homer’s Iliad. He was killed by Achilles, the greatest soldier in Agamemnon’s army.

328 These “friars” are toys that children cut out of beanpods, the top of which resembled the hood of a priest.

329 The adventures described here didn’t happen in Cirongilio de Tracia.

330 These eight sheets were each folded in half, to make 32 pages in all.

331 I use Ormsby’s good version of the Spanish title.

332 The wise man is Solomon: “Who can find a virtuous woman? Her worth is far beyond rubies. Her husband’s whole trust is in her.” Proverbs 31:10-11.

333 “As far as the altar,” from The Moralia of Plutarch.

334 Luigi Tansillo (1510-1568) was an Italian poet who wrote Le Lacrime di San Pietro, translated into Spanish in 1587, seven years after its posthumous publication in Italy.

335 This is Robinson Smith’s good version.

336 This “test of the goblet” also comes from Orlando Furioso Canto 43. Our poet was, of course, the Italian Ariosto. In this story, there is an enchanted goblet from which no deceived husband has the power to drink. When it’s presented to Rinaldo, he does not take the test.

337 Danäe was imprisoned in a tower because an oracle said that her son would cause her father’s death. Zeus visited her in the form of a golden shower and she became the mother of Perseus (who, by the way, later did cause his grandfather’s death).

338 I use Robinson Smith’s translation for the first four lines and Ormsby’s for the remainder.

339 I use Starkie’s translation here.

340 Both this sonnet and the next one are Ormsby’s translations. This one is of interest to Cervantists since it was also used in one of Cervantes’ plays, beginning the third act of La casa de los celos.

341 These four ss were sabio ‘wise’, solo ‘faithful’, solicitous, and secretive.

342 The letters y and i were interchangeable, as were the x and j, and the u and v, accounting for no entries beginning with y or u. I’ve used Robinson Smith’s alphabet, in which he’s adapted the original to make the English words come out in alphabetical order.

343 Penelope was Ulysses’ wife, the model of the perfect spouse. During her husband’s twenty-year absence she had 108 (or was it 112?) suitors, all of whom she rejected.

344 Lucretia was already mentioned in chapter 25, but what wasn’t said then was that she killed herself with a knife. She’d been raped by Sextus Tarquinius, the son of the Etruscan king of Rome. Because of this, she killed herself, but not before her father and husband assured her that she would be avenged.

345 Portia (†43 b.c.) was was the wife of Brutus—Cæsar’s assassin. After his death, she killed herself by swallowing hot coals.

346 A slaughtered animal is put in salt to cure the flesh, therefore the giant must assuredly be dead.

347 That is, if the bulls are coming, the bullfight will take place—every­thing is as it should be.

348 Half a real.

349 The cuarto was worth four maravedís.

350 The Piazza San Giovanni in Florence was the site of the old cathedral until 1128 and is now the site of the baptistery of the same name.

351 Odet de Foix, Viscount of Lautrec (1485–1528), was a Frenchman who spent years fighting in Italy.

352 Latin, meaning ‘Let us rejoice’.

353 Rico says that in secret marriages, the husband typically signed a document in which his obligation was recorded. Don Fernando signed no such document in Chapter 28—at least that we know of.

354 Which deals where shows a false start, in imitation of the careless style of chapter titles in the old Spanish romances of chivalry.

355 That is, he doesn’t know anything.

356 This is a secondary Greek form for metamorphosis.

357 Dorotea probably means invulnerable arm.

358 Sanchuelo shows an added despective diminutive suffix.

359 Lela means something like Ms.

360 From Luke 2:14. The original has “Glory to God in the highest.”

361 Luke 10:5.

362 The first two are from John 14:27, the third is from John 20:19.

363 This is the old Spanish “table heater,” where red-hot coals in a metal tray are placed under the middle of a table and the heat rises to warm all those seated there.

364 Scylla and Charybdis were two irresistible monsters who haunted the Strait of Messina in the Odyssey. The terms now refer to the Rock of Scylla and the ever-changing, swirling currents (Charyb­dis) there, both things being hazards to navigation.

365 To destroy the walls of a fortress in those days, an enemy would tunnel to where the walls were overhead and then use explosives to make the walls crumble. To defend against this, the people being attacked would tunnel outward in the hopes of reaching the enemy’s tunnel and destroying it before they could do their damage to the walls. This is Rico’s good note.

366 Much of what is attributed to Alexander the Great (356-323 b.c.) is fanciful, as is his legendary generosity.

367 Seville was the major port from where ships left Spain for the New World.

368 Alicante is a major Mediterranean port in southeastern Spain.

369 Genoa is a major seaport in northwestern Italy.

370 Milan is a major manufacturing, commercial, and financial city 120 kms. north of Genoa.

371 Alessandria della Paglia was a fortress city about half way between Milan and Genoa.

372 This was, in real life, the third Duke of Alba, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, who did enter Brussels in 1567.

373 Flanders is roughly modern Belgium.

374 The Duke of Alba had the rebellious dukes of Egmont and Hoorn beheaded in June of 1568.

375 Diego de Urbina, in real life, fought in the battle of Lepanto (1571), as did Cervantes.

376 Pius V (1504-1572) was a great reformer who eliminated Protestantism in Italy, excommunicated Elizabeth I, and organized the battle of Lepanto.

377 Venice was a republic until 1797.

378 The Turks wanted to expand their empire by invading the Venetian island of Cyprus in 1570.

379 Don Juan de Austria (1545-1578) was indeed the bastard son of Carlos V and half-brother of Felipe II.

380 Don Juan de Austria did arrive in Genoa on July 26, 1571.

381 Troops were assembled in Messina, the Sicilian port nearest to mainland Italy, on August 24, 1571.

382 This glorious campaign was the Battle of Lepanto, October 7, 1571, where the Venetian and Spanish armadas defeated the Turks. “Lepanto” is in Greece at modern Náfpaktos, east of Patrás on the Gulf of Corinth. After four hours the Christian fleet won the battle and captured 117 enemy galleys. The victory boosted European morale greatly.

383 The Romans awarded a Naval Crown to the first soldier who jumped across to an enemy galley.

384 Uchalí had been an Italian renegade who converted to Islam and was viceroy of Algiers in 1570. In real life, he did take part in the battle of Lepanto.

385 Giovanni Andrea Doria commanded the right wing of the Christian armada.

386 Constantinople, capital of the Ottoman Empire, was the old name of Istanbul, Turkey’s largest city.

387 This is Selim II (1524-1574), son of Süleyman I, the Magnificent (1494-1566).

388 Navarinon (its old Greek name), officially known now as Pílos, is a port town in southwestern Greece about 175 kms. south of “Lepanto.”

389 The galley with the three lanterns was the admiral’s flagship.

390 Modón is the Venetian name for Methóni, which is not an island at all, and is 13 kms. south of Pílos.

391 In real life, the son of Barbarossa was not the captain, but rather a certain Mahamet Bey.

392 Muley Hassán was king of Tunis until 1542 when his son Muley Hamida blinded and dethroned him. He more or less ruled until 1573 when his brother Muley Hamet took over (on October 14) but within a year the Turks imprisoned him.

393 La Goleta (now a resort and residential area, as well as a port, now called Halq-al-Wadi, or its French name, La Goulette) was an island-fortress that protected Tunis. On July 14, 1535, Carlos V attacked La Goleta by sea with an immense force and later overran Tunis, releasing 20,000 Christian prisoners. After that, the Spanish occupied the fortress at La Goleta, which Muley Hassán was forced to allow. The Turks did conquer it in August of 1574.

394 Sixteen inches.

395 Juan Zanoguera and the next three people mentioned are historical.

396 The Order of San Juan, founded in the 11th century, is one of the Catholic military orders whose members are the knights of that order.

397 Tabarka was a small Genoese-owned port at the time of the Battle of Lepanto, formerly Spanish. It’s in Tunisia between the Algerian city of Bône and Tunis.

398 This sonnet and the next one are Ormsby’s versions.

399 El Fratín was an Italian architect, Giacome Paleazzo, who worked for Charles V and Philip II.

400 In real life, Uchalí died in June of 1587.

401 Annotators always point out these four names: Muhammat, Mustafá, Murad, and Alí.

402 The Ottoman Empire lasted from the fourteenth century until 1922.

403 Gaos points out that these “obscene means” refer to sodomy.

404 The highest ones are Grand Vizier (prime minister) and muftí (the highest judicial position in the empire).

405 Calabria is the region that forms the toe of the Italian boot.

406 Refers to handsome boys used for sodomy, as Gaos explains.

407 Hassán Bajá was a Venetian originally named Andreta (born in 1545). Cervantes was his slave and was pardoned three times by him for his three attempts to escape.

408 Algiers is only 340 kms. from the Spanish coast.

409 Comes from an Arabic word meaning ‘building’ banayya. It was a patio surrounded by small rooms, where the Moors kept their prisoners. Cervantes has a play called The baños of Algiers.

410 Almacén refers to the community, as the sentence goes on to explain.

411 This is, of course, Cervantes’ own maternal last name.

412 El-Batha was a fortress ten kilometers from Oran, which is 400 kms. west of Algiers.

413 A major city in southeastern Spain.

414 When renegades returned to Spain, they appeared before the Inquisition, and these affidavits were useful in obtaining their release without punishment.

415 Moorish territory along the northern African coast.

416 Zalá means prayer; doubtless the Hail Mary, says Rico.

417 Valencia is the Spanish city on the Mediterranean coast and Mallorca is the Spanish island fairly nearby, either would have been chosen because of their proximity to Algiers.

418 Tetuán is an important Moroccan city near the Mediterranean coast. Tangier, a few lines below, is a Moroccan seaport, a well-known tourist spot.

419 Cherchell was quite an active port in Cervantes’ time. Today it’s just a small fishing town.

420 That is, towards the west. Oran is an Algerian port, the second most important one after Algiers, directly south of Cartagena.

421 In the last chapter this man was said to be from Tangier, a tangerino. Now he is a tagarino, that is, a Moor from the old kingdom of Aragón, as the text goes on to say. Cervantes was perfectly aware of this contradiction, which he made on purpose.

422 The Kingdom of Fez is now a part of northern Morocco. The city of Fez is very ancient, and its university dates from 859.

423 This was a small galley, 16-20 rowers per side.

424 In real life, Arnaúte Mamí was the Albanian pirate who captured Cervantes when he was returning from Naples to Spain in 1575.

425 The doubloon was worth two escudos. Gaos says this amount came to more than 70,000 reales.

426 The zoltamí was worth, in gold, a Spanish crown.

427 My God.

428 “Wicked woman” refers to ‘prostitute’. According to the medieval tradition, La Cava, daughter of Conde Julián, was perhaps raped (the sex act is certain, the force involved is not) by Rodrigo, the last Visigothic king of Spain. Julián, her father, in the African town (formerly of Morocco, and now a province of Spain) of Ceuta, got his revenge by inducing the Moors to invade the Iberian Peninsula in 711. This motif is a commonplace in Spanish literature.

429 It would be about 240 kms. from the African coast to the nearest Spanish shore. At eight knots an hour they would be able to make it in a single day.

430 The lighted wicks were used to fire the muskets.

431 Bretons are the French who live in Brittany in Northwestern France.

432 La Rochelle is a port city in southwestern France, an independent republic at that time (until 1628), and a hangout for pirates.

433 A small city (now with 25,000 inhabitants) slightly inland and about 30 kms. east of Málaga.

434 The first edition reads “don Antonio,” who is not a character mentioned before, or after, in the inn. Most editors, including Schevill-Bonilla, change this to “Cardenio” since his name at least ends the same way. Gaos, along with Fitzmaurice-Kelly, opts for “don Fernando.” Rico lists both Cardenio and don Fernando. The mischievous Cervantes may have written “don Antonio,” of course.

435 That is, the galley slaves who were set free.

436 There is a pun here since oidor means both ‘judge’ (one line above) and ‘listener’ here.

437 New Spain was the Vice-Royalty of Mexico.

438 Palinurus was the helmsman of Æneas’ boat in the Æneid.

439 In Spanish, “bright” is clara, the girl’s name.

440 This is Ormsby’s translation.

441 Ormsby, once again. In Spanish there are lines of 7 and 11 syllables, a standard poetic form in Spanish.

442 This is the 29th of September, Cervantes’ own birthday.

443 This refers, of course, to the moon.

444 Refers to Daphne, a nymph of the plains of Thessaly, daughter of the river god Peneius. Don Quixote is making up Apollo’s jealousy, and that’s why he can’t remember what happens next.

445 Medusa, after her affair with Poseidon, had her hair turned into snakes. Anyone who looked at her head was turned to stone.

446 Lirgandeo is the chronicler, parallel with Cide Hamete, in the Caballero del Febo. Alquife was a magician in Amadís de Gaula.

447 Starkie and others point out that in Cervantes’ time, criminals were branded with a crown on their hand.

448 This is a torture just like the situation don Quixote is in: the victim is raised from the ground by a rope and then is made to fall from a height almost to the ground, stopping with a jerk.

449 In the first edition it does say XXXV instead of XLV. This is no typographer’s mistake since the two Roman numbers are so different in their formulation.

450 Laws go [where kings want them to] is the full proverb.

451 In Orlando Furioso, when Agramante is laying siege to Paris, Charlemagne manages to sow seeds of discord amongst Agramante’s men, who begin fighting among themselves for unclear reasons (Cantos 14 and 27).

452 The sword they were fighting for was Roland’s Durendal (heroes gave names to their swords), the horse was Frontino, the eagle was on a shield belonging to Hector—but the helmet here was don Quixote’s own “Mambrino’s helmet.”

453 These two kings pacified the battle.

454 The Pax Octaviana or Pax Romana refers to the period of relative tranquillity in ancient Rome between 27 b.c.-a.d. 180.

455 This seems to be a reference to Matthew 20:16: “For many are called and few are chosen.” This phrase is not in every version of the Bible.

456 In rough times, the pimp would have the prostitutes do other types of work, such as spinning, so that they all could be supported.

457 As it was in the beginning… from the Latin Gloria Patri.

458 In Spanish there is a pun: manchado means “spotted,” but here it obliquely hints at manchego “Manchegan.”

459 The fleeing nymph is Daphne and her follower is Apollo, the sun.

460 These bright images refer to the zodiac signs, thus all of this means “before two days go by.”

461 Mentir is the Spanish verb that means ‘to lie’.

462 Don Quixote may not have heard of it, but Cervantes doubtless did, since this episode reflects the way Lancelot was transported in the French epic Le Chevalier de la charrette.

463 The hippogriff was a clawed flying horse with the face of a griffin.

464 “Are not at all catholic” here means “sounds fishy.”

465 Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra) (628.–ca. 551 b.c.). A Persian priest who, in legend, is associated with occult knowledge and magic.

466 This novella was published as the third of Cervantes’ twelve Novelas ejemplares (1613). No one would have known in 1605 that Cervantes was its author.

467 Canons were staff priests in a cathedral.

468 Gaspar Cardillo de Villalpando was a professor of Theology at the University of Alcalá where his Summa summularum (colloquially the Súmulas), a treatise on logic, was required reading.

469 Brahmans are Indian priests; the gymnosophists referred to here are the chief priest caste of the ancient Ethiopians, mentioned in Heliodorus’ Ethiopian Story, Book 10.

470 The Greek Milesian tales were pure fiction with no moral to extract.

471 In contrast with the Milesian tales, the Phrygian apologues did have some moral teaching that could be derived.

472 This alludes to Belianís de Grecia who cut a giant in half at that same age (I,18).

473 You can read two such episodes in Lisuarte de Grecia, chapters 32 and 71, says Robinson Smith.

474 The first edition says discovered as it is here. Some editors, realizing that the Egyptian geographer Ptolemy (a.d. 127–145) was not a navigator but rather a writer of treatises, change this to described. I prefer to leave the error with the canon (particularly since Lombardy has no ports to receive the “huge tower” just mentioned). Ptolemy knew the earth was round, and thought it was the center of the universe. Marco Polo was the Venetian merchant (1254-1324) who traveled to China, where he spent 17 years.

475 A chimera in Greek mythology is a three-headed (lion, snake, goat) monster who breathed fire.

476 Most editors and translators change this to “describing,” as well.

477 Ulysses is the hero of Homer’s Odyssey. He is the master of cunning.

478 Sinon was the Greek spy who persuaded the Trojans to accept the wooden horse.

479 Euryalus was Æneas’ companion. He and his close friend Nisus died together at the hands of the Rut­uli.

480 Trajan was the Roman emperor who was famous for clemency. He was born in Italica, near Seville in a.d. 53, and lived until 117.

481 Zopirus was a Persian nobleman faithful to Darius I (550 – 486 b.c.). He helped Darius become king of Persia in 522. Too complicated a story for such a minor note.

482 These are Homer and Virgil.

483 A hundred sheets represents 200 pages, since each sheet was written on both sides.

484 Proverb: The tailor on the corner sewed for nothing and threw in the thread.

485 Lupercio Leonardo de Argensola (1559-1613). The three plays are mentioned below. He isn’t so famous anymore.

486 These plays so praised by the canon went a long time before they were published. The first and third came out in 1772 and the second had to wait until 1889—168 and 284 years respectively after Don Quixote was published.

487 These precepts of art are the three classical unities of drama: action, time, and place. In Cervantes’ own plays he didn’t ob­­serve all three unities.

488 Ingratitude Avenged (1587) is by Lope de Vega (1562–1635), Numantia is Cervantes’ tragedy about the Roman victory over the Numantians in what is now central Spain. The Merchant Lover, by Gaspar de Aguilar (1561–1623), respects the three unities. The Kind Enemy is by a canon named Francisco Agustín Tárrega (1554?–1602), which also observes the three unities. Students of Spanish literature generally have only heard of Lope de Vega and Cervantes.

489 Tully is Cicero. What the Roman orator really said, slightly different from what our priest attributed to him is: “imitation of life, mirror of customs, and image of the truth.”

490 Pippin, that is Pépin III, the Short, lived between 714–768 and Charlemagne lived between 742–814. Heraclius (575–641) was an emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. He claimed to have recovered the wood from Christ’s cross. Godefroy de Bouillon (ca. 1060–1100) was a leader in the First Crusade. The Holy Sepulcher is a church erected in Jerusalem where it’s traditionally thought Jesus was buried.

491 Reference to Lope de Vega (1562-1635), the most prolific playwright. He wrote about 2000 plays, many of them great classics.

492 As the story goes, Ariadne gave Theseus a thread, not a rope, so he could find his way out of the labyrinth of Crete.

493 Whereas something new is attractive in our times, in the Spain of Cervantes, something new was defined as “usually dangerous since it brings with it a change from old customs” (Covarrubias’ dictionary, 1611—article: “Novedad”). This was pointed out by Joseph Silverman.

494 Viriathus was a Celtic leader in Lusitania (modern Portugal) who fought to prevent the Romans from entering his country (he was assassinated in 140 b.c.). Hannibal (247– c. 181 b.c.) was a great Carthaginian general who led his forces against Rome in the Second Punic War (218–201 b.c.). Fernán González (died 970) united various counties to form a unified Castile. Spain’s national hero, the Cid, is here credited to Valencia (which he conquered) rather than Burgos (where he was born). Andalusia’s Gonzalo Fernández was already mentioned as the Gran Capitán, Gonzalo Hernández de Córdoba. The Garcilaso de le Vega mentioned here is not the Spanish poet, but rather the soldier of the same name who participated in the conquest of Granada with Ferdinand and Isabella. Manuel Ponce de León (= lion) was a contemporary of Garcilaso—after he went into an arena with lions to retrieve his lady’s glove, she slapped him with it.

495 Don Quixote is recalling two sections from the same popular book of fiction, History of the Emperor Charlemagne and the Twelve Peers of France (Seville, 1525), printed ten times before 1605. Floripes (the sister of the giant Saracen Fierabrás) married Gui of Burgundy. Those who wanted to pass over the marble bridge of Mantible had to pay an enormous tribute: 100 each of maidens, horses, falcons and dogs.

496 Chronicle of the Very Noble Knight Guarino Mezquino (Seville, 1512, with two more editions), translated from the Italian (Padua, 1473). Juan de Valdés in his Dialogue of the Language says it’s an exceptionally untruthful book and is poorly written to boot.

497 The Holy Grail is the cup Christ used at the Last Supper. The Quest for the Holy Grail (Toledo, 1515) in which King Arthur and Lancelot go looking for it is pure fiction.

498 The story of Tristan and Iseult came from a Celtic legend and became a well-known Old French poem. It first appeared in Spain in 1501.

499 Dueña Quintañona—as explained in note 1 to Chapter 13 above—is pure fiction, doubly so since she doesn’t appear in the British legend—only the Spanish.

500 History of the Beautiful Magalona, daughter of the King of Naples, and of Pierres, Son of the Count of Provence (Seville, 1519, and five more editions before 1605), a very popular work of fiction of Provençal origin (12th century).

501 Pierres rode no flying wooden horse in the book about Magalona. The episode derives from The History of the very Valiant and Strong Clamades… (Burgos, 1521). In the Royal Armory you won’t see the peg next to Babieca’s saddle. You won’t see Babieca’s saddle there either, anymore. (Babieca was the Cid’s horse.)

502 Roland’s horn, the oliphant, was made from an elephant’s tusk. Visitors who go to Roncesvalles in Spain, near the French border, will not see Roland’s horn there.

503 A variant of these verses is found at the beginning of Chapter 9.

504 All of the people mentioned here are historic. Juan de Merlo fought with Juan II of Castile (1406-1454). Arras is the capital of the French department of Pas-de-Calais. Clemencín has astonishing notes about these people starting on p. 1474 of the Castilla edition.

505 Both of these are mentioned in the Crónica de Juan II.

506 Also mentioned in the chronicle just cited.

507 This Paso is the paso honroso. In 1434 Suero de Quiñones defended a bridge on the river Órbigo near León (this was his paso honroso). He fought and defeated 68 knights there from Spain, Portugal, Britain, Italy, and France.

508 Two more knights from the same chronicle.

509 These are Spanish religious-military orders of knights dating from the late twelfth century.

510 “Clean in blood,” you recall, meant that you had no Jewish blood in your ancestry.

511 Since Garcilaso and Diego García de Paredes are mentioned in the same sentence in Chapter 49 above, some editors and translators have assumed that Gante y Luna is a compositor’s misreading for Garcilaso and have changed the name to Garcilaso.

512 This singular vos, meaning you, was generally reserved for inferiors.

513 Rasgueado is a Spanish strumming technique involving from one finger to all five, typical of flamenco playing.

514 Romance is the typical Spanish narrative poetic form, verses eight syllables long, and every other line rhymes with vowels only.

515 The first two mentions of his name were “Rosa.” The first edition has “Roca” here (folio 306v), which was a typical effort by Cervantes to confuse names on purpose. Most editions and translations change this instance to “Rosa”; those that don’t, homogenize them all to “Roca.”

516 Don Quixote contrasts empty with full. Full, in Spanish, is also used to mean pregnant, but only for animals, thus the insult to Eugenio’s mother is increased.

517 Translator’s note: This is clearly not Wonder Bread. I know from experience that Manchegan bread can be heavy, hard crusted, and with jagged points on the top, a weapon to be feared in close combat.

518 What these people are wearing is very similar to what the Ku Klux Klan wear today.

519 As in this case, Spanish statues of the Virgin frequently have tears running down their cheeks.

520 A major Spanish city on the Ebro River, 280 kms. west of Barcelona.

521 There is some dispute as to what Gothic letters are. The writing used, for example, in Alfonso el Sabio’s court (13th century), is said to be in Gothic letters. In any case, the parchments are old, given how they were found.

522 I am again using Ormsby’s verses, slightly modified.

523 Argamasilla is a village 70 kms. east of Ciudad Real and 48 kms. southwest of El Toboso. Today there are 6,300 inhabitants there, mostly dealing in agriculture. There was no Academy there in real life.

524 “They wrote this,” in Latin.

525 This is the old name for the Congo (modern République Démocratique du Congo, formerly Zaire). In those days, academicians would take literary pseudonyms. The burlesque names seen here would have been amusing in that light.

526 Jason is a mythological hero who was sent on a suicide mission to find the Golden Fleece, which led to the successful expedition of the Argonauts. Since Jason had no connection with Crete, you should be immediately suspicious about the quality of these academicians.

527 In… in praise of Dulcinea del Doboso. The first edition did say “Doboso.” It looks like an amusing error-on-purpose by Cervantes. Virtually all editors and translators “correct” this, mostly without saying so. Thanks to Eduardo Urbina’s “Electronic Variorum Edition of the Quixote” at http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/cervantes/english/index.html all eight copies of the first edition showed “Doboso,” seemingly indicating that this wasn’t a typographical error. (While books were printed in those days, proofreading continued and corrections were made.)

528 Aranjuez is a city 60 kms. south of Madrid. Don Quixote never got near that place.

529 The 17-verse sonnet is not a mistake. Adding three lines was common. You’ll see that Ormsby, whose versions are used here, needed an eighteenth line.

530 Bellona was the Roman goddess of war, the sister, friend, or wife of Mars.

531 These were the horses respectively of Orlando (Furioso) and Reinaldos de Montalbán.

532 This is an ill-remembered verse from Orlando Furioso (XXX,16): Forsi altri canterà con miglior plettro. After having stated that don Quixote made a third sally that took him to Zaragoza the rather cocky narrator dares anyone to take his pen and continue the story. The quote means: “Perhaps another will sing with a better pick,” the pick being analogical with a pen.

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