The Monarchy William the Conqueror took full control of England after The Battle of Hastings (1066). He ruled England with authority, down to the smallest detail. Many of the English people resented innovations such as the ________________________________, which was an extraordinary tax record of every bit of property owned, down to the tiniest detail.
In the decades after William’s death, England was left in a state of near-__________________ until 1154, when his great-grandson, Henry _____________________ took the throne as ___________________. He was considered one of medieval England’s most memorable rulers and reformed the _________________ system. He set up Royal courts throughout England, establishing a system of __________________ and began to form English common law.
____________________ (Henry’s son), who was known as
Richard the _____________________________, spent most of his ten-year reign fighting wars abroad (during The Crusades). While he was away fighting, his brother, John plotted against him. This is the same John of the _______________________ legends. ________________________was treacherous and bad-tempered, constantly quarreling with nobles and raising taxes until the threat of rebellion. In _____________, he was forced to sign the ______________________, which limited royal authority by granting more power to the barons. This was an early step on the road to democracy.
War and Plague
As the medieval period drew to a close, the English were faced with war constantly. ____________________________________________ War between England and _______________ began in ___________, during the reign of Henry III. During this time, England went through several domestic crises. One was the ______________________, which was a terrible plague that killed a third of the population.
The war ended in _____________. Two rival families claimed the throne. The house of ______________, symbolized by the white rose and the house of _______________________ (symbolized by the red rose). The two houses fought for the crown and this was known as ______________________________________. This ended in ______________, when Henry Tudor (a Lancaster) killed the Yorkist King _____________________ at Bosworth Filed and took the throne as __________________________II. This event marked the end of the Middle Ages in England.