Middle Ages: Study Guide

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Middle Ages: Study Guide

Key Words:

  • Urban decline

  • Clovis

  • Charlemagne

  • Treaty of Verdun

  • Vikings

  • Feudalism

  • Manorialism

  • fief

  • Jousting

  • Clergy

  • Pope

  • Excommunication

  • Interdict

  • Canon law

  • Heresy

  • Tithe

  • secular

  • Monastery

  • Benedictine Rule

  • Agricultural revolution

  • Commercial revolution

  • charter

  • capital

  • partnership

  • bill of exchange

  • tenant farmer

  • guild

  • usury

  • William the Conqueror

  • Salisbury Oath

  • Domesday book

  • Primogeniture

  • Due process of law

  • Philip IV

  • Louis IX

  • Lay investiture

  • Concordat of Worms

  • Pope Urban II

  • Schism

  • levy

  • Saladin

  • Cordova

  • Reconquista

  • Scholasticism

  • Thomas Aquinas

  • Dante Alighieri

  • Geoffrey Chaucer

  • Flying buttress

  • Illumination

  • John Wycliffe

  • Joan of Arc

  • Hundred Years War

Key Questions:

  • What was Europe like after the Fall of Rome? What time period does the Middle Ages cover?

  • How might European “landscape” post Rome create problems both WITHIN different groups and BETWEEN different groups?

  • How are the fragmented sections of Europe able to initially unify (i.e. What factor unifies them the FASTEST)? How does Clovis relate to this?

  • How was Charlemagne able to strengthen the territories?

  • What factors lead to the rise of Feudalism?

  • What is the difference between Feudalism and Manorialism?

  • How is Feudalism a system of mutual obligation?

  • How did the Roman Catholic Church dominate life in the Middle Ages?

  • Know the hierarchy of the church

  • How was the Church both a positive/negative influence on the people? What powers did the Church have and how did that affect people?

  • How did monks help to positively reinforce the Church?

  • According to Benedictine rule, what vow did monks/nuns have to take?

  • What was daily life like for the king? Lords? Knights? Serfs? What were some of the challenges faced by each?

  • What types of new technology came about in the High Middle Ages? How did this impact society?

  • What types of new business practices came about in the High Middle Ages? How did those impact society?

  • How did guilds function and impact society?

  • How did early kings strengthen their power in England?

  • What groups of people had problems with the powers of the monarchy growing?

  • What types of rights did the Magna Carta protect? Why would King John ever agree to sign this document?

  • What issue did King Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII disagree over? What was the argument for each side? Who “won?”

  • What conflict sparked the Crusades? Why were western Christians (the Pope/Church, nobles, knights, serfs) motivated to become involved?

  • Why was Jerusalem an important to have control over? (i.e. Why were the religions even fighting over it?)

  • What were the results of the Crusades?

  • How did the Crusades impact Western Europe? What were some negative and positive outcomes of the Crusades? (i.e think about the impact on society, economy, culture, etc).

  • What new focuses in learning took place in the High Middle Ages? What types of learning were promoted? What types of learning were people hesitant to study. Why?

  • How did literature change in the High Middle Ages? How did it still reflect Christian values?

  • What are the differences between Romanesque and Gothic architecture? How did this new architecture impact religion?

  • What is the Black Death? How did it spread to Europe/across Europe?

  • What were the social, religious, and economic effects of the Black Death?

  • How did Spain achieve political and religious unity?

  • Why did reformers start to criticize the church? How did the church respond?

  • How did new technology affect fighting during the Hundred Years’ War? What were the results?

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