Your mid-term exam will take place during class on Friday, March 14, 2008. You will have to identify four out of six quotes for the exam (selected from the quotations submitted by you and redistributed in class by me). You will need to give the title of the piece, the author of the piece, and give two or three thoughtful sentences on the quote explaining its importance in the context of the course. In addition, you will need to prepare an essay exam prep card using the following specifications:
The card may be no bigger than 5" x 8".
Your name must appear in the upper right corner of the card (with a horizontal orientation so that the longest side is at top).
A clear space at the top left corner should be left blank for stapling.
You may record quotes on the card, but each quote on the card needs to appear in the essay. Listing other quotes in an attempt to have the answers to the ID section. Quotes are expected in the essay since you can prepare ahead of time.
You may not write out the essay on the card, but you may outline the key points.
Failure to follow these directions will result in the card not being allowed during the exam.
I will inspect the card before the exam starts. You may wish to show up early to get my approval.
You may choose from one of the following questions for your essay:
Essay Option 1:
Early American Literature is often described as “first contact” literature: descriptions of what happens when two cultures meet for the very first time. Pick a particular first contact experience and analyze how one side of the encounter attempts to deal with the other group. What cultural knowledge or standards do they use to evaluate the behavior or cultural position of the other? How do they attempt to interact with the other group? What justifications do they use to explain this kind of interactions? What does this suggest about that particular colonial encounter? You may use several texts or focus on one text closely.
Essay Option 2:
We’ve read a lot of the traditional “founding literature” of the United States—and a lot that you may never have heard of. Using several key texts, I would like for you to engage in an activity that is as old as the United States itself: attempt to describe the American character as envisioned by the founding fathers and mothers. What qualities do our earliest writers idealize—and how do those ideas agree with or differ from their actions? What do these observations suggest about the American character?
Essay Option 3:
Many of the repressed groups we’ve read about attempt to argue against the colonial power’s dominance by using the colonial power’s own ideology against it. Pick two examples of oppressed people’s attempts to argue their way out of repression (or to at the very least subvert their political or cultural dominance) and show how these arguments work. What does this suggest about colonial powers?
Essay Option 4:
The role of religion in the development of the American character is one of the timeless debates that various factions argue, even today. Given the scope of the readings in the course, how religious philosophies helped shape American culture.
On the exam, I will give 13 quotes. You will need to identify 7 of the quotes, giving the author, title, and several sentences detailing the significance of the quotes. Below are the quotes you submitted as a class for consideration. The exam quotes will come from this list.
QUOTE: In short, at the frontier the environment is at first too strong for the man. He must accept the conditions which it furnishes, or perish, and so he fits himself into the Indian clearings and follows the Indian trials. Little by little he transforms the wilderness, but the outcome is not the old Europe…The fact is that here is a new product that is America.
SOURCE: Frederick Jackson Turner. from The Significance of the Frontier in American History. (135)
In the attempt to suggest a dialectic and historicized approach to travel writing, I have manufactured some terms and concepts along the way. One coinage that recurs throughout the book is the term “contact zone,” which I use to refer to the space of colonial encounters, the space in which people geographically and historically separated come into contact with each other and establish ongoing relations, usually involving conditions of coercion, radical inequality, and intractable conflict. I borrow the term “contact” here from its use in linguistics, where the term contact language refers to improvised languages that develop among speakers of different native languages who need to communicate with each other consistently, usually in the context of trade. Such languages begin as pidgins, and are called creoles when they come to have native speakers of their own. Like the societies of the contact zone, such languages are commonly regarded as chaotic, barbarous, lacking in structure…. (Page 137)
Source: Mary Louise Pratt from Imperial Eyes: Travel writing and Transcultration (p.136-7)
QUOTE: In the frontier literary history I have projected here, there can be no Ur-landscape because there are so many borderlands, and over time, even the same site may serve for seriatim first encounters.
SOURCE: Annette Kolodny. Letting Go Our Grand Obsessions: Notes Toward a New Literary History of the American Frontiers. Pg. 136
But if so be that the multitude throughout the whole iland pass and exceed the due number, then they chews out of every city certain citizens, and build up a town under their own laws in the next land where the inhabitants have much waste and unoccupied ground, receiving also the inhabitants to them if they will join and dwell together. They, thus joining and dwelling together, do easily agree in one fashion of living, and that to the great wealth of both the peoples. For they so bring the matter about by their laws in that the ground which before was neither good nor profitable for the one nor the other is no sufficient and fruitful enough for them both. But if they inhabitants of that land will not dwell with them, to be ordered by their laws, then they drive them out of those bounds which they have limited and appointed out for themselves. And if they resist, then they make war against them. For they count this the most just cause of war. For they count this the most just cause of war, when any people, holdeth a piece of ground void and vacant, to no good or profitable use, keeping others from the use and possession of it, which notwithstanding by the law of nature ought thereof to be nourished and relieved…
Source: Thomas More's Utopia (Page 109)
QUOTE: In the youth of a State, arms do flourish; in the middle age of a State, learning; and the both of then together for a time; and in the declining age of a State, mechanical arts and merchandise.
SOURCE: Francis Bacon. New Atlantis. Vol. A. Pg112
It was out upon the ocean. Some sea-foam formed against a big log floating there. Then a person emerged from the sea-foam and crawled out upon the log. He was seen sitting there. Another white person crawled up, on the other side of the log. It was a woman. They were whites. Soon the Indian saw them, and at first thought that they were sea-gulls, and they said among themselves, “Are they not white people?” Then they made a boat and went out to look at the strangers more closely. (Page 65)
Native American Oral Narrative
QUOTE:Now the man who had appeared in the gold palace was the devil and when afterward he saw what his words had done he said that he had made a great mistake and even he lamented that his evil had been so enormous
SOURCE: Handsome Lake. How America was Discovered. Vol.A. Pg. 804
QUOTE: They should be good and intelligent servants, for I see that they say very quickly everything that is said to them; and I believe that they would become Christians very easily, for it seemed to me that they had no religion.
SOURCE: Christopher Columbus - The Diario of Christopher Columbus’s First Voyage to America, p. 1492-1493 (hand out)
Quote: The Indians we had so far seen in Florida are all archers. They go naked, are large of body, and appear at a distance like giants. They are of admirable proportions, very spare and of great activity and strength. The bows they use are as thick as the arm, of eleven or twelve palms in length, which they will discharge at two hundred paces with so great precision that they miss nothing
SOURCE: Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca. Relation of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca. Vol A. (Page 143)
QUOTE: Two hours after our arrival at Apalacllen, the Indians who had fled from there came in peace to us, asking for their women and children, whom we released; but the detention of cacique by the Governor produced great excitement, in consequence of which they returned for battle early the next day[ June 26], and attacked us with such promptness and alacrity that they succeeded in setting fire to the houses in which we were.
SOURCE: Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca. Relation of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca. Vol A. (Page 142)
QUOTE: Our countrymen became jealous at this, and caused their interpreter to tell the Indians that we were of them, and for a long time we had been lost; that they were the lords of the land who must be obeyed and served, while we were persons of mean condition and small force.
SOURCE: Cabeza de Vaca. Relation. Vol. A. Pg. 151
QUOTE: So he thought out how the water from different springs or rivers would taste and he was always sending some man to these springs to get water for him to drink, but it was noticed that he always chose the men who had pretty wives.
Source: Hopi. The Coming of the Spanish and the Pueblo Revolt. ( p.205)
QUOTATION: “All this time the priest, who had great power, wanted all the young girls to be brought to him when they were about thirteen or fourteen years old. They had to live with the priest. He told the people they would become better women if they lived with him for about three years.”
SOURCE: Hopi. The Coming of the Spanish and the Pueblo Revolt (Hopi) (206).
Quote: It is a thing to be admired, and indeed made a president, that a Nation yet uncivilized should more respect age then some nations civilized, since there are so many precepts both of divine and humane writers extant to instruct more Civill Nations: in that particular, wherein they excel, the younger are allwayes obedient unto the elder people, and at their commaunds in every without grumbling; in all councels,(as therein they are circumspect to do their acciones by advise and councell, and not rashly or inconsiderately,) the younger mens opinion shall be heard, but the old mens opinion and councell imbraced and followed: besides, as elder feede and provide for the younger in infancy, so doe the younger, after being growne to years of manhood, provide for those that be aged: and in distribution of Acctes the elder men are first served by their dispensator; and their councels (especially if they be powahs) are esteemed as oracles amongst the younger Natives.
Source: Thomas Morton. New England Canaan. Vol A. Pg 297A
Quote: Cloaths are the badge of sinne; and the more variety of fashions is but the greater abuse of the Creature: the beasts of the forrest there doe serve to furnish them at any time when they please: fish and flesh they have in greate abundance, which they both roast and boyle.
Source: Thomas Morton from New English Canaan (p.298)
QUOTE: Although these Salvages are found to be without Religion, Law, and King (as Sir William Alexander hath well observed,) yet are they not altogether without the knowledge of God (historically); for they have it amongst them by tradition that God made one man and one woman, and bad them live together and get children, kill deare, beasts, birds, fish and fowle, and what they would at their pleasure; and that their posterity was full of evill, and made God so angry that hee let in the Sea upon them, and drowned the greatest part of them, that were naughty men, (the Lord destroyed so;) and they went to Sanaconquam, who feeds upon them (pointing to the Center of the Earth, where they imagine is the habitation of the Devill) the other, (which were not destroyed,) increased the world and when they died (because they were good) went to the howse of Kytan, pointing to the setting of the sonne; where they eate all manner of dainties, and never take paines (as now) to provide it.
SOURCE: Thomas Morton. New English Canaan: Book I: Containing the originall of the Natives, their manners & Customes, with their tractable nature and love towards the English: Chapter XVI – Of their acknowledgement of the Creation, and immortality of the Soule. Pg 297-298
QUOTE: According to humane reason, guided onely by the light of nature, these people leads the more happy and freer life, being voyde of care, which torments the minds of so many Christians: They are not delighted in baubles, but in usefull things.
SOURCE: Thomas Morton. New English Canaan.. Pg. 299
QUOTE:This they knew, (in the eye of the Salvages,) would add to their glory and diminish the reputation of mine honest Host; whome they practised to be ridd of upon an termes as willingly as if hee had bin the very Hidra of the times.
SOURCE: Thomas Morton. New English Canaan. Vol.A. Pg. 306.
QUOTE:[T]he Plimmouth men...came in the meane time to Wessaguscus, and there pretended to feast the Salvages of those partes, bringing with them Porke and thinges for the purpose , which they sett before the Salvages. They eate thereof without suspition of any mischeife, who were taken upon a watchword given, and with their owne knives (hanging about their neckes,) were by the Plimmouth planters stabd and slaine: one of which were hanged up there, after the slaughter....
SOURCE: Thomas Morton. New English Canaan. Vol. A. Pg. 300
Quote: “The nine worthies comming before the Denne of this supposed Monster… and began… to beate a parly, and to offer quarter, if mine Host would yeald; for they resolved to send him for England; and bad him lay by his armes. But hee… having taken up armes in his just defence, replyed that hee would not lay by those armes, because they were so needefull at Sea, if hee had been sent over.”
Source: Thomas Morton. New English Canaan. Vol. A. Pg. 305
QUOTE: So many, therefore, of these professors as saw the evil of these things in these parts, and whose hearts the Lord had touched with heavenly zeal for His truth, they shook off this yoke of antichristian bondage, and as the Lord’s free people joined themselves (by covenant of the Lord) into a church estate, in the fellowship of the gospel, to walk in all His ways made known, or to be made known unto them, according to their best endeavors, whatsoever it should cost them, the Lord assisting them.
SOURCE: William Bradford. from Of the Plymouth Plantation. (327)
QUOTE: …they shook off this yoke of antichristian bondage, and as the Lord’s free people joined themselves (by a covenant of the Lord) into a church estate, in the fellowship of the gospel, to walk in all His ways made known, or to be made known unto them, according to their best endeavours, whatsoever it should cost them, the Lord assisting them.
SOURCE: William Bradford. Of Plymouth Plantation. Vol. A. Pg. 327.
QUOTE: But here I cannot but stay and make a pause, and stand half amazed at this poor people’s present condition.
SOURCE William Bradford: Of Plymouth Plantation Vol. A, pg. 328
QUOTE: After these things he returned to his place called Sowams, some 40 miles from this place, but Squanto continued with them and was their interpreter and was a special instrument sent of God for their good beyond their experience
SOURCE: William Bradford of Plymouth Plantation. (Pg.332)
Quote: “They summoned him to yield, but he kept his house and they could get nothing but scoffs and scorns from him. But at length, fearing they would do some violence to the house, he and some of his crew came out, but not to yield but to shoot; but they were so steeled with drink as their pieces were too heavy for them.”
Source: William Bradford. Of Plymouth Plantation. Vol. A. Pg. 337
QUOTE: But alas, this remedy proved worse than the diease for within a few years those that had thus got footing there rent themselves away, partly by force and partly wearing the rest with importunity and pleas of necessity, so as they must rather sufferr them to go or live in opposition and contention.
Source: William Bradford. Of Plymouth Plantation. Vol. A Pg 339
Quote: I say it may justly be marveled at and cause us to fear and tremble at the consideration of our corrupt natures, which are so hardly bridled, subdued and mortified; nay, cannot by any other means but the powerful work and grace of God’s Spirit.
Source: William Bradford. Of Plymouth Plantation. Vol. A. Pg 341A
QUOTE: And yet this could not suppress the breaking out of sundry notorious sins (as this year, besides other, gives us too many sad precedents and instances), especially drunkenness and uncleanness. Not only in incontinency between persons unmarried, for which many both men and women have been punished sharply enough, but some married persons also. But that which is worse, even sodomy and buggery (things fearful to name) have broke forth in this land oftener than once. (341)
SOURCE: Of Plymouth Plantation- Chapter XXX II Anno Domini 1642 by William Bradford.
QUOTE: He was detected of buggery…… the one confessed he had long used it in old England; and this youth last spoke of said he was taught it by another that had heard of such things from some in England when he was there, and they kept cattle together. By which it appears how one wicked person may infect many, and what care all ought to have what servants they bring into their families.
Source: William Bradford - Of Plymouth Plantation p. 343
QUOTE: In the critic’s hands, beware thou dost not come;
And take thy way where yet thou art not known,
If for thy father asked, say thou had’st none:
And for thy mother, she alas is poor,
Which caus’d her thus to send thee out of door.
SOURCE: Anne Bradstreet. The Author to Her Book. Vol.A. Pg. 402
Thou hast an house on high erect,
Framed by that mighty Architect,
With glory richly furnished,
Stands permanent thought this be fled.
It’s purchased and paid for too
By Him who hate enough to do.
A price so vast as is unknown
Yet by His gift is made thine own;
There’s wealth enough, I need no more,
Farewell, my pelf, farewell my store.
The world no longer let me love,
My hope and treasure lies above. (Page 410)
SOURCE: "Upon the Burning of Our House" Anne Bradstreet
QUOTE: Three flowers, two scarcely blown, the last i’th’bud.
Cropt by th’Almighty’s hand; yet is He good.
With deadful awe before Him let’s he be mute,
Such was His will, but why, let’s not dispute,
SOURCE: Anne Bradstreet – Oh My Dear Godchild Simon Bradstreet, Who Died on 16 November, 1669, being but a Month, and One Day Old p. 408
Quote: “With dreadful awe before Him let’s be mute,
Such was His will, but why, let’s not dispute,
With humble hearts and mouths put in the dust,
Let’s say He’s merciful as well as just”
Source: Anne Bradstreet. On My Dear Grandchild Simon Bradstreet, Who Died on 16 November, 1669, being but a Month, and One Day Old. Vol. A. Pg. 408
SOURCE: Anne Bradstreet. The Prologue [To Her Book] Pg. 397
Quote: My love is such that rivers cannot quench
Nor ought but love from thee, give recompense…
Source (P 407) Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband
QUOTE: Spirit: Be still thou unregenerate part,
Disturb no more my settled heart,
For I have vowed (and so will do)
Thee as a foe still to pursue.
And combat with thee will and must,
Until I see thee laid in th’ dust.
SOURCE: Anne Bradstreet. “The Flesh and the Spirit.” Vol. A. Pg. 404.
Quote: I have often been perplexed that I have not found that constant joy in my pilgrimage and refreshing which I supposed most of the servants of God have, although He hath not left me altogether without witness of His holy spirit, who hath oft given me His word and set to His seal that it shall be well with me.
Source: Anne Bradstreet. To My Dear Children. Vol A. Pg 412 A
QUOTE: But as I grew up to be about 14 or 15, I found my heart more carnal, and sitting loose from God, vanity and the follies of youth take hold of me. About 16, the Lord laid His hand sore upon me and smote me with the smallpox.”
Source: Anne Bradstreet – To My Dear Children p. 411
About 16, the lord laid his hand sore upon me and smote me with the small pox. When I was in my affliction, I besought the lord and confessed my pride and vanity and he was entreated of me and again restored me. But it renaered not to him according to the benefit received.
Source: Anne Bradstreet . To my Dear children. Vol. A page 411
QUOTE: Among all my experiences of God’s gracious dealings with me, I have constantly observed this, that He hath never suffered me long to sit loose from Him, but by one affliction or other hath made me look home, and search what was amiss; so usually thus it hath been with me that I have no sooner felt my heart out of order, but I have expected correction for it, which most commonly hath been upon my own person in sickness, weakness, pains, sometimes on my soul, in doubts and fears of God’s displeasure and my sincerity towards Him; sometimes He hath smote a child with a sickness, sometimes chastened by losses in estate, and these times (through His great mercy) have been the times of my greatest getting and advantage; yeah, I have found them the times when the Lord hath manifested the most love to me.
SOURCE: Anne Bradstreet. To My Dear Children. Pg 411
QUOTE: Many times hath Satan troubled me concerning the variety of scriptures, many times by atheism hoe I could know whether there was a God; I never saw miracles to conform me, and those which I read of, how did I know but they were feigned? That there is a God my reason would soon tell me by the wondrous works that I see, the vast frame of heaven and earth, the order of all things, night and day, summer and winter, spring and autumn, the daily providing of this great household upon the earth, the preserving and directing of all to its proper end
Source: Anne Bradstreet . To my Dear children. Vol. A page 412
QUOTE: But when I have been in darkness and seen no light, yet have I desired to stay myself upon the Lord, and when I have been in sickness and pain, I have thought if the Lord would but lift up the light of His countenance upon me, although He ground me to powder, it would be light to me; yea, oft have I thought were I in hell itself and could there find the love of God toward me, it would be a heaven.
SOURCE: Anne Bradstreet. To My Dear Children. (412)
When I have got over this block, then have I put in my way, that admit this be the true God whom we worship, and that be his word, yet why may not be the Popish religion be right? They have the same God, the same Christ, the same word. They only enterpret it one way, we another.
SOURCE: Anne Bradstreet. To My Dear Children. (412)
wee shall finde that the God of Israell is among us, when tenn of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies, when hee shall make us a prayse and glory, that men shall say of succeeding plantacions: the lord make it like that of New England: for wee must Consider that wee shall be as a Citty upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are upon us; ; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to withdrawe his help from us
SOURCE: John Winthrop. A Modell of Christian Charity. Vol. A. Pg. 317.
Quote: The New Englanders are a people of God settled in those, which were once the devil’s territories; and it may easily be supposed that the devil was exceedingly disturbed, when he perceived such a people here accomplishing the promise of old made unto our blessed Jesus, that He should have the upmost parts of the earth for His possessions.
Source: Cotton Mathers. The Wonders of the Invisible World. Vol A. Pg 509A
QUOTE: We have been advised by some credible Christians yet alive, that a malefactor, accused of witchcraft as well as murder, and executed in this place more than forty years ago, did then give notice of an horrible plot against the country by witchcraft, and a foundation of witchcraft then laid, which if it were not seasonably discovered, would probably blow up, and pull down all the churches in the country.
SOURCE: Cotton Mather. from The Wonders of the Invisible World. Pg. 510
QUOTE: It bred into a sore, which was lanced by Doctor Prescot, and several gallons of corruption ran out of it. For six weeks it continued very bad, and then another sore bred in the groin, which was also lanced by Doctor Prescot. Another sore then bred in his groin, which was likewise cut, and put him to very great misery: he was brought unto death’s door, and so remained until Carrier was taken, and carried away by the constable, from which very day he began to mend, and so grew better every day, and is well ever since.
SOURCE: Cotton Mather The Wonders of the Invisible World. (Pg.512)
QUOTE: It has been caviled, by some, that it is questionable Whether the Negroes have Rational Souls, or no. But let that Bruitish insinuation be never Whispered anymore.
Source: Cotton Mather The Negro Christianized (p. 529)
Quote: Wherefore, Masters, As it is Just & Equal, that your servants be not Over-wrought and that while they work for you, you should Feed them, and Cloath them, and afford convenient Rest unto them and make their lives comfortable; So it is just and equal, that you should Acquaint them, as far as you can, with the way to Salvation by JESUS CHRIST.
Source: Cotton Mather. The Negro Christianized. Vol. A Pg 528
QUOTE: Who can tell but that this Poor Creature may belong to the Election of God! Who can tell, but that God may have sent this Poor Creature into my Hands, that so One of the Elect may by my means be Called; & by my Instruction be made Wise unto Salvation! The glorious God will put an unspeakable Glory upon me, if it may be so!
SOURCE: Cotton Mather. The Negro Christianized. Vol. A. Pg. 527.
QUOTE: It has been observed, that those Masters, who have used their Negros with most of Humanity, in allowing them all Comforts of Life, that are necessary and Convenient for them, (Who have remembered, that by the Law of God, even an Ass was to be relieved, When Sinking under his Burden, and an Ox might not be Muzzled when Treading out the Corn; and that if a Just man will regard the Life of his Beast, he will much more allow the comforts of life to and not hide himself from his own Flesh:) have been better Serv’d, had more work done for them, and better done, than those Inhumane Masters, who have used their Negroes worse than their Horses.
SOURCE: Cotton Mather. The Negro Christianized Pg. 529
QUOTE: You take them into your families; you look on them as part of your possessions; and you expect from their service, a support, and perhaps an Increase, of your other possessions. How agreeable would it be, if a Religious Master or Mistress thus attended, would now think with themselves!
SOURCE: Cotton Mather. The Negro Christianized. Vol A. (Page 527)
QUOTE: Truly, to Raise a Soul, from a dark State of Ignorance and Wickedness, to Knowledge of GOD, and the Belief of CHRIST, and the practice of our Holy and Lovely RELIGION; ‘Tis the noblest Work, that ever was undertaken among the Children of men.
SOURCE: Cotton Mather. from The Negro Christianized. (527)
QUOTE: But you are now to attend unto the Commands of your more Absolute Master; and they are His Commands concerning your Negroes too.
SOURCE: Cotton Mather. The Negro Christianized Pg. 528
QUOTATION: “The Baptized then are not thereby entitled unto their Liberty. Howbeit, if they have arrived unto such a measure of Christianity, that some are forbid Water for the Baptising of them, it is fit, that they should enjoy those comfortable circumstances with us, which are due to them, not only as the Children of Adam, but also as our Brethren, on the same level with us in the expectations of a blessed Immortality.”
SOURCE: Cotton Mather. The Negro Christianized (531).
QUOTE: Virtuous men of diverse qualities and persuasions, became the members of the societies: persons high and low, Con[forming] and Nonecon[forming], united; the union became formidable to the Kingdom of Darkness.
SOURCE: Cotton Mather. from Bonifacius…With Humble Proposals…to Do Good in the World. (532)
QUOTE: But if anyone comes and kills the serpent, the animal immediately escapes. So the way in which poor souls are delivered from the snare of the devil is by Christ’s coming and bruising the serpents’ head. (648)
SOURCE: Images of Divine Things by Jonathan Edwards.
QUOTE: Here is a lively representation of the way in which true and sincere saints (which are often in Scripture represented as God’s instruments or, utensils) answer God’s end, and serve and glorify him in it: by enduring temptation, going through hard upon nature and self.
SOURCE: John Edwards. Images of Divine Things. Vol A. (Page 649)
QUOTE: The old serpent is gaping for them; hell opens it mouth wide to receive them; and if God should permit it, they would be hastily swallowed up and lost.
SOURCE: Jonathan Edwards: Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Vol. A, pg 668
QUOTE: Your wickedness makes you as it were heavy as lead, and to tend downwards with great weight and pressure towards hell; and is God should let you go, you would immediately sink and swiftly descend and plunge into the bottomless gulf, and your healthy constitution, and your own care and prudence, and best contrivance, and all your righteousness, would have no more influence to uphold you and keep you out of hell, than a spider’s web would have to stop a fallen rock.
SOURCE: Jonathan Edwards. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, Application. Vol. A. Pg. 671
QUOTE: The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider or some loathsome insect over the fire, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked: His wrath towards you burns like fire; He looks upon you as worthy of nothing else but to be cast into the fire; He is of purer eyes than to bear to have you in His sight; you are ten thousand times more abominable in His eyes than the most hateful venomous serpent is in ours.
SOURCE: Jonathan Edwards. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Vol. A. Pg. 672
QUOTE: He will crush you under his feet without mercy; He will crush out your blood, and make it fly and it shall be sprinkled on his garments, so as to stain all his raiment
SOURCE: Jonathan Edwards. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Vol. A. Pg. 673
You shall be tormented in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb; and when you shall be in this state of suffering, the glorious inhabitants of heaven shall go forth and look on the awful spectacle, that they may see what the wrath of fierceness of the Almighty is; and when they have seen it, they will fall down and adore that great power and majesty.
SOURCE: Jonathan Edwards. Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God Pg. 675
QUOTE: There is reason to think that there are many in this congregation now hearing this discourse that will actually be the subjects of this very misery to all eternity. We know not who they are, or in what seats they sit, or what thoughts they have. It may be they are not at ease, and hear all these things without much disturbance, and are now flattering themselves that they are not the persons, promising themselves that they shall escape.
SOURCE: Jonathan Edwards. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Pg 675
Quote: The corruption of the heart of man is immorderate and boundless in its fury; and while wicked men live here, it is like fire pent up by God’s restraints, whereas if it were let loose, it would set on fire the course of nature; and as the heart is now a sink of sin, so if sin was not restrained, it would immediately turn the soul into a fiery oven, or a furnace of fire and brimstone.
Source: Johnathan Edwards. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Vol A. Pg 669A