Ming Dynasty [or Empire of the Great Ming]
4. It opens with a list of people who taught the author important lessons, and notes that “very little is needed to make a happy life” and “The things we want in life are empty.” For 10 points each:
 Name this guide for self-improvement which the author “addressed to himself,” a work of ancient philosophy largely written on a military campaign.
ANSWER: Meditations [or “Ta eis heauton”]
 Meditations was a work by this Roman philosopher who succeeded Antoninus Pius as the last of the Five Good Emperors.
ANSWER: Marcus AureliusAntoninus Augustus
 Marcus Aurelius belonged to this school of philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium. It focused on using reason to overcome destructive emotions.
ANSWER: Stoicism [or word forms such as “stoics”]
5. The Ulam spiral depicts patterns in the distribution of these numbers, and the sieve of Eratosthenes finds all of these numbers below a given value. For 10 points each:
 Name this class of integers whose members are divisible only by one and themselves.
 Cantor used his diagonal argument to prove the uncountability of the set of these numbers, which cannot be represented as a ratio of integers.