Michigan ap wake forest 2012 neg speeches round 2 neg v george washington bs 1nc Off



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2nc overview


The question of authenticity comes prior to how we understand the world and thus prior to all other impacts – only an ontology that makes our lives authentic through war should be accepted

Gelven prof phil @ NIU 1994 (Michael, War and Existence)

In his description of what he calls the ‘existential analytic,’ that is, the analysis of the ways we exist, Heidegger argues that there are certain categories of explanation that are a priori and that apply only to the question of our existence. He calls these existentials, and among them are being-in-the-world and being-with. To say that being-in-the-world is an a priori existential is to claim that one does not first know oneself privately and then later discover an “external” world that somehow provides a landscape for the individual; rather one understands oneself already (a priori) within the world, so that the notion of “world” is not the result of external experience at all but is a precondition for making any sense of existence whatsoever. In characterizing this mode of existence, being-in-the- world, we see that one way in which being-in-the-world happens is to be with. Again, we must see that being-with is a priori; it is a necessary way we think about ourselves: it predates any particular experience.


In order to grasp the nature of this being-with, it must be contrasted with being-next-to. I can only be with another person; I can be next to a thing. However, I can also be next to another person, but I cannot be with a thing. An example of how we use ordinary language may show what this means. Suppose I visit a movie theater and I enter the auditorium alone. I sit down next to another person. We would not say I am “with” that person. However, if I enter the theater with a friend and we sit down together, we would say that I am with that person. What this shows is that there is a simple but profound difference in the way we think about being-with and being- next-to. Should I enter a theater and sit next to a post, there would be no existential difference between that and my sitting next to another person. I may indeed even be physically closer to the person I am next to than the person I am with (my friend’s chair may be several inches further away from me than the chair of the stranger). Indeed, I may even be next to a friend and with a nonfriend, so that how I feel about the person next to me cannot be said to determine the existential meaning. There is nothing spectacular about this; it is manifested in the way we use language, and as soon as we see the point of the distinctions, the mind grasps the difference as meaningful and important. But I cannot adequately account for the distinction between being-with and being-next-to merely by appealing to physical predicates; the difference concerns how we think and, specifically, how we think about the meaning of our existence.
Recognizing that being-with, therefore, is an a priori existential, not a mere accidental property of physical objects, we can now see that being- with is one of the ways we can be said to be-in-the-world (also an existential a priori). Thus, being-with is an essential part of how I understand myself. If we allow ourselves to leap ahead in Heidegger’s analysis, we will also see that in his description of our temporality, he shows that our historicality is also an existential a priori and, further, that an essential dimension of our historicality is our heritage, fate, and destiny. If we put together the notion of our heritage and our being-with, we have the basis for communal existence. It is not merely that as a matter of fact we happen to live with others who share our heritage; it is rather that being-with-others and sharing a heritage are essential to our self-understanding.
Heidegger develops a simple expedient for making sense out of the various modalities of our existence. We are either authentic or inauthentic in our modalities. Authenticity is the way in which our meaning is manifest in the ways in which we exist; inauthenticity is the way in which that meaning does not occur. To put it simply, each and every one of the various a priori existentials, such as being-in-the-world and being-with, can be either authentic or inauthentic.
Authentic being-with and authentic heritage require that one’s historical and one’s communal existence be made meaningful. In other words, I cannot remain indifferent to who I am or what my history is and remain true to myself. Who I am is determined in part by who I am with. Thus, my American historicality and my American being-with provide their inevitable destiny. It is on the basis of this that we recognize the primordial right of every man and woman to his and her own meaningfulness. Since this meaningfulness is necessarily historical and communal, it explains why war is accepted as a grim but undeniable right. Not to sacrifice on behalf of what is mine is to discredit the very authenticity of being at all.



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