Michigan ap wake forest 2012 neg speeches round 2 neg v george washington bs 1nc Off

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2nc dod fails

Even if the DOD is effective, using the verb “acquire” jeopardizes these benefits

Sarewitz and Thernstrom 2012 – *Co-Director, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes, Arizona State University, **Senior Climate Policy Advisor, Clean Air Task Force (March, Daniel and Samuel, “Energy Innovation at the Department of Defense: Assessing the Opportunities”, http://bipartisanpolicy.org/sites/default/files/Energy%20Innovation%20at%20DoD.pdf)
DoD’s Modernization Dilemma: Moving Innovations through the Acquisition System

In the 2009 Defense Authorization Act, Congress instructedDoD to consider the fully burdened costs of energy in futureacquisition decisions (i.e., life-cycle costs attributable to energy ¶ consumption). As yet, no information on fully burdened energy ¶ costs calculated under DoD’s implementing regulations appears ¶ to be publicly available. More to the point, acquisition programstake years to complete, and systems then remain in service fordecades. The major programs under way today will dominateDoD energy consumption for the next half century. These ¶ programs, such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, reflect decisions ¶ made when DoD considered energy consumption primarily ¶ as it affected platform range (and carbon footprint was of no ¶ concern at all). The F-35 program began in the mid-1990s, when ¶ oil sold for around $20 per barrel; low-rate production began in ¶ 2005, testing and engineering development will continue until ¶ at least 2018, and current plans call for cumulative deliveries of ¶ 2,456 aircraft through 2035. Ongoing incremental changes to the ¶ F-35’s engine, airframe, and flight controls will at best reduce fuel ¶ consumption a little.

Major systems invariably cost too much for frequent ¶ replacement, and consequently remain in service for lengthy ¶ periods. Acquisition costs for the F-35, DoD’s most expensive ¶ program, are expected to exceed $385 billion.¶ 17¶ Each Littoral ¶ Combat Ship, exclusive of weapons modules, will cost some ¶ $500 million (in 2011 dollars); the Navy hopes to buy 55.¶ 18¶ DoD ¶ has purchased nearly 28,000 MRAPs for some $44 billion.¶ 19¶ Modifications or retrofitting to reduce the energy consumption ¶ of existing systems, while frequently suggested, has almost ¶ always been rejected as too costly, as for the Abrams. For the ¶ B-52, designed in the early 1950s and still an Air Force mainstay, ¶ “numerous re-engining studies over the years (at least nine ¶ studies since 1984)” have reached the same conclusion: almost ¶ regardless of future oil prices, total costs will rise.

Although the F-35’s 40-year acquisition cycle is extreme, ¶ even low-cost, straightforward programs take so long to ¶ complete that equipment may be obsolete by the time it reaches the field. More than four-fifths of the 125,000 diesel ¶ generators in DoD’s inventory are decades old, based on ¶ designs laid down in the 1960s.¶ 20¶ They burn more fuel than ¶ up-to-date equipment—in Iraq and Afghanistan consuming ¶ greater quantities than armored vehicles, helicopters, or trucks ¶ (including transport convoys that haul in the fuel)—and make ¶ more noise, which can alert the enemy.¶ 21

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