Media and Society1

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Christians, C, Glasser, T., McQuail, D., Nordenstreng, K. and White, R. (forthcoming 2009) Normative Theories of the Media: Journalism in Democratic Societies. Urbana, IL: Illinois University Press.

Christians, C. and Nordenstreng, K. ‘Media Responsibility Worldwide’. (2004) Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 1/2004, 3-28.

Cohler, A., Miller, B. and Stone, H. (eds.) (1989) Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Galtung, J. (1999) ‘State, Capital, and the Civil Society: The Problem of Communication’. In R. Vincent, K. Nordenstreng and M. Traber (eds.), Towards Equity in Global Communication: MacBride Update. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, pp. 3-21.

Habermas, J. (2006) ‘Political Communication in Media Society: Does Democracy Still Enjoy an Epistemic Dimension? The Impact of Normative Theory on Empirical Research’. Communication Theory, 4/2006, 411-426.

Hallin, D. and Mancini, P. (2004) Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hamelink, C. (1994) The Politics of World Communication: A Human Rights Perspective. London: Sage, 225-240.

Hamelink, C. and Nordenstreng, K. (2007) ‘Towards Democratic Media Governance’. In E. de Bens (ed.), Media Between Culture and Commerce. Bristol: Intellect.

McQuail, D. (2005) McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory. Fifth Edition. London: Sage.

Nordenstreng, K. (1997a) ‘The Citizen Moves from the Audience to the Arena’. Nordicom Review, 2/1997, 13-20.

Nordenstreng, K. (1997b) ‘Beyond the Four Theories of the Press’. In J. Servaes and R. Lee (eds.), Media & Politics in Transition: Cultural Identity in the Age of Globalization, Leuven: Acco, 97-109.

Nordenstreng, K. (2000) ‘Media and Democracy: What is Really Required?’ In J. van Cuilenburg and R. van der Wurff (eds.), Media & Open Societies: Cultural, Economic and Policy Foundations for Media Openness and Diversity in East and West, Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, pp 29-47.

Nordenstreng, K. (2001) ‘Epilogue’. In N. Morris and S. Waisbord (eds.), Media and Globalization. Why the State Matters, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, pp. 155-160. (

Nordenstreng, K. (2004) ‘Afterword. Media Monitoring: Watching the Watchdogs’. In Berenger, R.D. (ed.), Global Media Go to War: Role of News and Entertainment Media During the 2003 Iraq War, Spokane, WA: Marquette Books, pp. 343-352. (

Nordenstreng, K. (2006) ‘Media and Society: In Search of Models’ [in Russian "SMI i obshchestvo: Modeli vzaimodeistvii"]. In Y.N.  Zassoursky and O.M. Zdravomyslova (eds.), Glasnost i zhurnalistika 1985-2005 [Glasnost and Journalism 1985-2005], Moscow: Gorbachev Foundation & Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, 2006, pp. 168-177. (

Nordenstreng, K. (2007) ‘Myths About Press Freedom’. Brazilian Journalism Research, 1/2007, 15-30. (

Nordenstreng, K. and Heinonen, A. (2006) ‘Finland: High Season for Self-regulation’. In O. Pettersson (ed.), Medieetik under debatt, Stockholm: SNS Förlag, pp. 277-288. (

Nordenstreng, K., Vartanova, E. and Zassoursky, Y. (eds.) (2001) Russian Media Challenge. Helsinki: Aleksanteri Institute. (Second printing 2002.)

Pasti, S. (2007) The Changing Profession of a Journalist in Russia. Tampere: Tampere University Press. (

Ramonet, I. (2003) ‘Set the Media Free‘. Le Monde diplomatique, October 2003. English edition online at

Richter, A. (2007) Post-Soviet Perspective on Censorship and Freedom of the Media. Moscow: UNESCO.

Ylönen, O., Nordenstreng, K. and Heinonen, A. (2005a) Media System of Finland. Hamburg: Hans-Bredow-Institut.

Ylönen, O., Nordenstreng, K. and Heinonen, A. (2005b) Co-operative Regulatory Systems in the Media Sector of Finland. Hamburg: Hans-Bredow-Institut.

1 Excerpted mainly from the following two publications:

Cees Hamelink and Kaarle Nordenstreng: ‘Towards Democratic Media Governance’. In Els De Bens (editor), Media Between Culture and Commerce. Changing Media – Changing Europe Series, Volume 4. Bristol, UK: Intellect, 2007, 225-240.

Kaarle Nordenstreng: ‘Media and Society: In Serach of Models’ [in Russian ‘SMI i obshchestvo: Modeli vzaimodeistvii’]. In Y.N.  Zassoursky & O.M. Zdravomyslova (eds.), Glasnost i zhurnalistika 1985-2005  [Glasnost and Journalism 1985-2005], Moscow: Gorbachev Foundation & Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, 2006, 168-177. In English ‘Mapping out Media Models: Gorbachev's Challenge’. In Elena Vartanova (ed.) Media and Change, Moscow: MediaMir, 2007, 95-102.

2 This proposal was made by Ignacio Ramonet, the editor and director of Le Monde diplomatique, at the Social Summit in Porto Alegre in 2002 and at the World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva in 2003 (Ramonet 2003). The same idea is behind initiatives to set up a system of international media monitoring (Nordenstreng 2004).

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