Measuring Innovation in the Public Sector: a literature review



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Conclusion


International research has indicated it is feasible to develop a Public Sector Innovation Index. It suggests development of an index for the Australian public sector would be best served by consideration of the following:

The Index should comprise of a summary index and several diagnostic indicators to measure innovation performance and capacity of individual agencies, both overall and in other key areas such as: innovation performance; implementation; openness; innovative culture; demand and user involvement; innovation procurement; and ICT and innovation.

A conceptual and methodological framework should be developed as a basis for the development and implementation of the Index. It will focus on defining the survey methodology and the methodology to construct the Index.

An Australian Public Sector Innovation Survey should be designed to collect new data on public sector innovation. The survey instruments (questionnaire and guidelines) should be developed in line with recent international efforts in the UK, Nordic countries, EU and OECD. Their survey instruments can be adjusted for measuring public sector innovation in Australia.

Using the survey results and data from other existing sources will allow assessment of innovation in individual agencies and benchmarking on a global scale.

Aggregative results from the survey may provide an analysis of innovation performance and capacity of public agencies, including by key area, by level of government, and by sector of services.

An Innovation Reporting Card or Current Performance Profile could be provided to individual agencies, providing an analysis of the agency’s scores compared to the average and top performers in the relevant comparable group, and across years (once data is available), as well as its strengths and weaknesses in selected areas. Agencies could use it as a diagnostic and management tool for innovation.

An International Comparison Report could provide an international comparison of Australia’s performance compared to European Union member countries on public sector innovation.

The top management of the organisation seems to be the most appropriate addressee for any questionnaire. Sending the questionnaire to the top of the administrative hierarchy will mean that it can then be sent down to the right person or unit.

These key findings, as well as the more detailed findings from the international efforts outlined in the body of this paper, will inform the ASPII Project at the Australian government Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research (DIISR).


The ASPII project


These ideas provide the basis for our project proposal to develop an Australian Public Sector Innovation Sector. The index, once developed, can:

  • Provide a self-assessment tool for public sector agencies to assess their innovation performance and capacity;

  • Make comparisons among public agencies and agency groups by level of government, and by sector of services;

  • Benchmark public sector innovation in Australia against other countries; and

  • Improve awareness, understanding and promotion of innovation in public agencies.

  • The Report could be similar in nature to the APSC’s State of the Service Report.

The index will provide all the data and metrics necessary to measure and report annually on innovation performance by public agencies and Australia’s progress against the national innovation priority for public sector innovation.

Further information on the APSII project is available in Working towards a measurement framework for public sector innovation in Australia: A draft discussion paper for the Australian Public Sector Innovation Indicators Project (2011).11



References

Annerstedt, P and Björkbacka, R (Statistics Sweden) (2010), Feasibility study of public sector organizations, Measuring Public Innovation (MEPIN) project, February 2010.

Australian Government (2009), Powering Ideas: An Innovation Agenda for the 21st century.

Australian Government (2010), Empowering Change: Fostering Innovation in the Australian Public Service.

Australian Government (2010), Australian Innovation System Report 2010.

APSC (Australian Public Service Commission). State of Service reports http://www.apsc.gov.au/stateoftheservice/index.html

Bloch, C (2009), Measuring Public Innovation: Toward a common statistical approach, Nordic project on the development of Public Innovation Metrics, presentation for the brainstorming session on measuring innovation in education, 11 June 2009, Paris.

Bloch, C (2010), Mapping public sector innovation – towards a management framework, Conference on Measuring Public Sector Innovation, 8 February 2010, Copenhagen.

Bloch, C (2010), Towards a conceptual framework for measuring public sector innovation: Module1 – Conceptual Framework, MEPIN project, March 2010.

Bloch, C (2010), Measuring Public Innovation in the Nordic Countries: Final report. www.mepin.eu

Bloch, C; Bugge, M; and Slipersæter, S (2008), Measuring innovation in the public sector - key issues and concepts.

Bloch, C; Jørgensen, L; Norn, M; and Vad, T (Damvad) (2009), Public Sector Innovation Index – A Diagnostic Tool for measuring innovative performance and capability in public sector organisations, an exploratory project commissioned by the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA), October 2009.

Bugge, M; Hauknes, J; Bloch, C; and Slipersæter, S (2010), The Public Sector in Innovation Systems - Module1 – Conceptual Framework, MEPIN project.

Clark, J; Good, B; and Simmonds, P (Technopolis Group) (2008), Innovation Index: 2008 Summer Mini-Projects, a report commissioned by NESTA, 12 September 2008.

Clark, J; Good, B; and Simmonds, P (2008), Innovation in the public and third sectors: Suggestion for a public innovation index, presentation by the Technopolis Group, 13 October 2008.

Damvad (2010), Summary note on the Conference on Measuring Public Sector Innovation, 8 February 2010, Copenhagen.

Damvad (2010), Summary note on the Technical workshop – Measuring public sector innovation, 9 February 2010, Copenhagen.

Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation (2009), The Nordic Survey on Public Innovation 2009 (Pilot Survey), MEPIN project.

Deloitte (2009), Driving innovation in the public sector: Developing an innovation index, an exploratory project commissioned by NESTA, October 2009.

Department of Agriculture & Food and Department of Commerce, Western Australia (2010), Thinking outside the box…Innovation in the WA Public Sector – A report from the WA Public Sector Innovation Workshop. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/objtwr/imported_assets/content/amt/dg_forum_booklet_new_version_landscapev3.pdf

Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research (2011), Working towards a measurement framework for public sector innovation in Australia: A draft discussion paper for the Australian Public Sector Innovation Indicators Project. http://www.govdex.gov.au/

Department of Premier and Cabinet, Victoria (Nov. 2009), VPS Innovation Action Plan. www.dpc.vic.gov.au.

European Commission (2010), Call for tenders: European Innovation Scoreboard 2011-12.

European Commission (2010), European Innovation Policy: Towards a new agenda, presentation slides.

Frascarti Manual (2002), Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development. OECD Publishing. http://www.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/display.asp?lang=EN&sf1=identifiers&st1=922002081p1 accessed 28/04/2011.

Gallup Organisation (2011), Innobarometer 2010 Analytical Report: Innovation in Public Administration.

Good, B (2008), Innovation in the public sector: Suggestions for a public-sector innovation index, presentation by the Technopolis Group, 10 December 2008.

Hollanders, H (2010), Measuring innovation: The European (Public Services) Innovation Scoreboard, INNO Grips Workshop “Social innovation – Mobilising resources and people”, 25-26 March 2010, Brussels.

Hughes, A; Moore, K; and Kataria, N (2011), Innovation in Public Sector Organisations: A pilot survey for measuring innovation across the public sector. NESTA. www.nesta.org.uk

Hughes, A; Farren-Handford, M; and Baker, C (Ernst & Young) (2009), Public Sector Innovation Index: Exploratory Project, a report commissioned by NESTA, 30 October 2009.

Innovation and the ATO: Opening address by Commissioner Michael D’Ascenzo, Public Service Innovation Network Meeting, Canberra, 17 March 2011. http://www.ato.gov.au/youth/content.aspx?menuid=42807&doc=/content/00274417.htm&page=1

Jørgensen, L (Damvad) (2010), Mapping user needs: For Nordic Project on Measuring Public Innovation, MEPIN project, March 2010.

Lambert, R (UK Department for Business, Innovation & Skills) (2010), OECD work on innovation in the public sector – new metrics for policy-making, presentation for the Conference on Measuring Public Sector Innovation, 8 February 2010, Copenhagen.

LSE Public Policy Group (2008), Innovation in Government Organizations, Public Sector Agencies and Public Service NGOs, a report commissioned by NESTA, Innovation Index Working Paper, September 2008.

Martin J (1999), Innovation Strategies in Australian Local Government. www.ahuri.edu/downloads/publications/occasional_Paper_4.pdf

Measuring Public Innovation (MEPIN) (2010), Leaflet about the project, http://www.mepin.eu, accessed 28 June 2010.

Mortensen, P (CFA) (2010), Survey methodology for measuring public innovation, MEPIN project, March 2010.

NESTA (2009), NESTA Policy and Research Invitation to Tender (ITT) for the Innovation Index for the Public Sector: Exploratory projects.

NESTA (2009), The Innovation Index Project: Brainstorming on measuring innovation on education, presentation to the OECD, 11 June 2009.

NESTA (2010), Proposal: Developing the Innovation Index for the Public Sector.http://www.nesta.org.uk

National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators, Working Party (NESTI) (2009), Measuring public sector innovation in Nordic Countries: Toward a common statistical approach, OECD, 19 May 2009.

NESTI (2010), Creating guidelines for the measurement of public sector innovation. OECD Cote: DSTI/EAS/STP/NESTI 19

NESTI (2010), Measuring public sector innovation in Nordic Countries: Toward a common statistical approach – Update on project and initial results of cognitive testing with respondents, OECD, 8 January 2010.

NESTI (2010), The measurement of innovation in the public sector: some observations from testing a draft questionnaire in Finland, OECD, 14 January 2010.

NESTI (2010), NESTI Roadmap: A progress report of the activities of the Working Party of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators and Longer-term directions, OECD, 17 March 2010.

OECD (May 2010), Innovation Strategy: Getting a head start on tomorrow. http://www.oecd.org

OECD (Nov. 2010), Creating guidelines for the measurement of public sector innovation. http://www.oecd.org

OECD (2005), Oslo Manual: guidelines for collecting and interpreting innovation data. http://www.oecd.org/document/33/0,3343,en_2649_34273_35595607_1_1_1_37417,00.html accessed 28/04/2011.

The Innovation Unit (2009), An innovation index for the public sector, an exploratory project commissioned by NESTA, October 2009.

United Kingdom Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (2008), Innovation Nation: Unlocking Talent, March 2008.

Yoon, J (2006), Korean Government Innovation: Strategies and Methodologies for Administrative Innovation, Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs, South Korea, 27 March 2006. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan022718.pdf

Yoon, J (2006), Government Innovation Index: Concept, development and application, presentation by the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs, South Korea, June 2006.





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