Meanderings while searching for an answer to the dates re Britannicus, Octavia, and more… Summary of conclusions based upon the below quotes from Tacitus and Suetonius



Download 118.25 Kb.
Date16.04.2016
Size118.25 Kb.
#7949
Meanderings while searching for an answer to the dates re Britannicus, Octavia, and more…

Summary of conclusions based upon the below quotes from Tacitus and Suetonius:


  1. Nero married Octavia after his 16th birthday. Considering that Nero was born December 15, 23 CE, he married her after December 15, 39 CE.

  2. Lucius Silanus who was betrothed to his younger one. [i.e. Octavia /ed.] … Silanus was compelled to abdicate his praetorship four days before the Kalends of January and to take his own life at the beginning of the year, the very day of the marriage of Claudius and Agrippina…” It follows that:

    1. Claudius married Agrippina January 1, 40 CE and that

    2. Nero married Octavia shortly after Silanus, Octavia’s fiancée was killed, i.e. (on or) after January 1, 40 CE.

      1. This confirms my dates for Tiberius’ death/Nero’s birth, given that the latter is given in terms of the former, relative to…

      2. Claudius’ death, given that Nero was not yet quite 17 years old when he was officially made Caesar upon the death of Claudius.

  3. Britannicus was killed in Nero’s 2nd Julian calendar year of reign; “during the feast of Saturn” between December 17 and 23, 41 CE.

  4. Britannicus was not yet 14 years old when he was killed. Considering that Britannicus was born on the 22nd day of Claudius’ reign, February 14, 27 CE [Shevat (or Adar) 17 or 18, 27 CE,] Britannicus’ 14th birthday should occur February 14, 41 CE, NOT almost a year later! What is misunderstood/mistranslated?: Britannicus’ year of birth or his year of death?

  5. Considering that Octavia must have been older than Britannicus (lest she be only 12 years old or less at her marriage) and that she was in her 20th year when she was killed, she must have been born no later than about a year before Britannicus’ birth, i.e. lo later than February, 26 CE. That would make her 19 years old no later than February, 45 CE and she could have been killed no later than February, 46 CE. This does NOT agree with my prior finding that she was killed in early 48 CE. Two years too little! Where’re the errors?:

    1. Is there a corresponding error re Octavia’s 20th year and Britannicus’ 14th year? This would give us one year only…

    2. Was Octavia born after Britannicus and married no older than 12 y/o? This would give us at least two years…

    3. Was Britannicus born on the 22nd day of a year of Claudius’ reign other than Claudius’ first? This would give us at least one year…

    4. How firm is my formerly concluded year 48 CE? It looks like it is fairly well ascertained by Tacitus’ Annales. Cf. also this link.

    5. Is it possible that Caius died a year later, i.e. January 24, 42 CE? – No, not really, that date is pretty certain by several passages.

  6. Then I found that “the emperor preferred Domitius to his own son, though he was but two years older” If this is true at any one time in terms of both of their ages as usually stated in our days, while remembering also that such statements are not constant throughout the year unless both parties have the same birthday, then my final solution must permit such a statement sometime during the year. Thus, if Britannicus had not yet had his 14th birthday (February 14) when he died after October 13 of the year Claudius was killed and when Nero had not yet had his 17th birthday (December 15,) then, just prior to Nero’s 17th birthday when Nero was still 16 y/o, Britannicus could have been no more than 13 years old at the most. But that is already a three year difference which would increase on Nero’s birthday to a four year difference, and then last until Britannicus’ birthday. Thus there must be an error in at least one out of the following three passages:

    1. Nero’s being not quite 17 when Claudius died – he would have had to be only 15 y/o at the time to resolve this issue. Suetonius’ statement re Nero being already 17 y/o at the time of Claudius’ death only aggrevates this problem.

“6. …a prince of scarce seventeen was to encounter and avert this tremendous peril… who was ruled by a woman… directed by tutors.” (The Annals XIII:6 by Cornelius Tacitus)



igitur in urbe sermonum avida, quem ad modum princeps vix septemdecim annos egressus suscipere eam molem aut propulsare posset, quod subsidium in eo qui a femina regeretur, num proelia quoque et obpugnationes urbium et cetera belli per magistros administrari possent, anquirebant. (Cornelius Tacitus, Annales, LIBER XIII:6)



    1. Britannicus not having had his 14th birthday at the time when he was being killed. The reference should pertain to his 15th birthday in order to resolve this issue.

15. Nero was confounded at this, and as the day was near on which Britannicus would complete his fourteenth year, he reflected, now on the domineering temper of his mother, and now again on the character of the young prince, which a trifling circumstance had lately tested, sufficient however to gain for him wide popularity. During the feast of Saturn… (Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals, Book XIII:15)


XV. Turbatus his Nero et propinquo die quo quartum decimum aetatis annum Britannicus explebat, volutare secum modo matris violentiam, modo ipsius indolem, levi quidem experimento nuper cognitam, quo tamen favorem late quaesivisset. festis Saturno diebus inter alia aequalium ludicra regnum lusu sortientium evenerat ea sors Neroni.” (Cornelius Tacitus, Annales, LIBER XIII:15)



    1. “Domitius… was but two years older…” than Britannicus. He would have had to be three or four years older to resolve this issue.

“Overcome by these arguments, the emperor preferred Domitius to his own son, though he was but two years older, and made a speech in the senate, the same in substance as the representations of his freedman.” (Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals, Book XII:25)


his evictus triennio maiorem natu Domitium filio anteponit, habita apud senatum oratione eundem in quem a liberto acceperat modum.” (Cornelius Tacitus, Annales, LIBER XII:25)




2. a stepmother's animosity on Britannicus and Octavia, who were next in her affections to her own children.
8. So Octavia was betrothed, and Domitius, besides his previous relationship, became now the emperor's affianced son-in-law, and an equal of Britannicus…
25… Overcome by these arguments, the emperor preferred Domitius to his own son, though he was but two years older… (Cornelius Tacitus, Annales, LIBER XII:25)
58. In the consulship of Didius Junius and Quintus Haterius, Nero, now sixteen years of age, married Octavia, the emperor's daughter.
68… At first Agrippina, seemingly overwhelmed by grief and seeking comfort, clasped Britannicus in her embraces, called him the very image of his father, and hindered him by every possible device from leaving the chamber. She also detained his sisters, Antonia and Octavia…
Annales, (Book XII:8, 58)

Nero’s 1st calendar year of reign; 40 CE:
1. THE FIRST death under the new emperor, that of Junius Silanus, proconsul of Asia, was, without Nero's knowledge, planned by the treachery of Agrippina.

10. The emperor in the same year asked the Senate for a statue to his father Domitius, and also that the consular decorations might be conferred on Asconius Labeo, who had been his guardian. Statues to himself of solid gold and silver he forbade, in opposition to offers made, and although the Senate passed a vote that the year should begin with the month of December, in which he was born, he retained for its commencement, the old sacred associations of the first of January. Nor would he allow the prosecution of Carinas Celer, a senator, whom a slave accused, or of Julius Densus, a knight, whose partiality for Britannicus was construed into a crime.



Nero’s 2nd calendar year of reign; 41 CE:

11. In the year of his consulship with Lucius Antistius, when the magistrates were swearing obedience to imperial legislation, he forbade his colleague to extend the oath to his own enactments, for which he was warmly praised by the senators, in the hope that his youthful spirit, elated with the glory won by trifles, would follow on to nobler aspirations. Then came an act of mercy to Plautius Lateranus, who had been degraded from his rank for adultery with Messalina, and whom he now restored, assuring them of his clemency in a number of speeches which Seneca, to show the purity of his teaching or to display his genius, published to the world by the emperor's mouth.

15. Nero was confounded at this, and as the day was near on which Britannicus would complete his fourteenth year, he reflected, now on the domineering temper of his mother, and now again on the character of the young prince, which a trifling circumstance had lately tested, sufficient however to gain for him wide popularity. During the feast of Saturn
17. And so after a brief pause the company resumed its mirth. One and the same night witnessed Britannicus's death and funeral…
24. At the end of the year the cohort usually on guard during the games was withdrawn, that there might be a greater show of freedom, that the soldiery too might be less demoralised when no longer in contact with the licence of the theatre, and that it might be proved whether the populace, in the absence of a guard, would maintain their self-control. The emperor, on the advice of the augurs, purified Rome by a lustration, as the temples of Jupiter and Minerva had been struck by lightning.

Nero’s 3rd calendar year of reign:
25. In the consulship of Quintus Volusius and Publius Scipio, there was peace abroad, but a disgusting licentiousness at home on the part of Nero, who in a slave's disguise, so as to be unrecognized, would wander through the streets of Rome, to brothels and taverns, with comrades, who seized on goods exposed for sale and inflicted wounds on any whom they encountered, some of these last knowing him so little that he even received blows himself, and showed the marks of them in his face.

30. During the same consulship…



Nero’s 4th calendar year of reign:
31. During Nero's second consulship with Lucius Piso for his colleague, little occurred deserving mention…
33. The same year saw many impeached…
Nero’s 5th calendar year of reign:
34. Nero entered on his third consulship with Valerius Messala…
42… By what kind of wisdom or maxims of philosophy had Seneca within four years of royal favour amassed three hundred million sesterces?
Annales, (Book XIII:15, 17)

59… Then casting off all fear he prepared to hurry on his marriage with Poppaea, hitherto deferred because of such alarms as I have described, and to divorce his wife Octavia…
60. Nero, on receiving this decree of the Senate and seeing that every piece of his wickedness was regarded as a conspicuous merit, drove Octavia from him, alleging that she was barren, and then married Poppaea… Octavia, however, was dismissed under the form of an ordinary divorce, and received possession of the house of Burrus and of the estates of Plautus, an ill-starred gift. She was soon afterwards banished to Campania under military surveillance. This led to incessant and outspoken remonstrances among the common people, who have less discretion and are exposed to fewer dangers than others from the insignificance of their position. Upon this Nero, though he did not repent of his outrage, restored to Octavia her position as wife.
64. And now the girl, in her twentieth year, with centurions and soldiers around her, already removed from among the living by the forecast of doom, still could not reconcile herself to death. After an interval of a few days, she received an order that she was to die, although she protested that she was now a widow and only a sister, and appealed to their common ancestors, the Germanici, and finally to the name of Agrippina, during whose life she had endured a marriage, which was miserable enough indeed, but not fatal. She was then tightly bound with cords, and the veins of every limb were opened; but as her blood was congealed by terror and flowed too slowly, she was killed outright by the steam of an intensely hot bath.
Annales, (Book XIV:59, 60, 64)

26… Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death…(Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, The Life of Claudius.)

27 He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. He lost Drusus just before he came to manhood, for he was strangled by a pear which he had thrown into the air in play and caught in his open mouth. A few days before this he had betrothed him to the daughter of Sejanus, which makes me wonder all the more that some say that Drusus was treacherously slain by Sejanus. Claudia was the offspring of his freedman Boter, and although she was born within five months after the divorce78 and he had begun to rear her, yet he ordered her to be cast out naked at her mother's door and disowned. 2 He gave Antonia in marriage to Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, and later to Faustus Sulla, both young men of high birth, and Octavia to his stepson Nero, after she had previously been betrothed to Silanus. Britannicus was born on the twenty-second day of his reign and in his second consulship.79 When he was still very small, Claudius would often take him in his arms and commend him to the assembled soldiers, and to the people at the games, holding him in his lap or in his outstretched hands, and he would wish him happy auspices, joined by the applauding throng. Of his sons-in law he adopted Nero; Pompeius and Silanus he not only declined to adopt, but even put to death. (Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, The Life of Claudius.)

29… he put to death his father-in law Appius Silanus and the two Julias, daughters of p61Drusus and Germanicus, on an unsupported charge and giving them no opportunity for defence; also Gnaeus Pompeius, the husband of his elder daughter, and Lucius Silanus who was betrothed to his younger one. 2  Of these Pompey was stabbed in the embraces of a favourite youth, while Silanus was compelled to abdicate his praetorship four days before the Kalends of January and to take his own life at the beginning of the year, the very day of the marriage of Claudius and Agrippina (Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, The Life of Claudius.)

33:2  He attempted the life of Britannicus by poison, not less from jealousy of his voice (for it was more agreeable than his own) than from fear that he might sometime win a higher place than himself in the people's regard because of the memory of his father. He procured the potion from an archpoisoner, one Locusta, and when the effect was slower than he anticipated, merely physicing Britannicus, he called the woman to him and flogged her with his own p143hand, charging that she had administered a medicine instead of a poison; and when she said in excuse that she had given a smaller dose to shield him from the odium of the crime, he replied: "It's likely that I am afraid of the Julian law;"100 and he forced her to mix as swift and instant a potion as she knew how in his own room before his very eyes. 3 Then he tried it on a kid, and as the animal lingered for five hours, had the mixture steeped again and again and threw some of it before a pig. The beast instantly fell dead, whereupon he ordered that the poison be taken to the dining-room and given to Britannicus. The boy dropped dead at the very first taste, but Nero lied to his guests and declared that he was seized with the falling sickness, to which he was subject, and the next day had him hastily and unceremoniously buried in a pouring rain. He rewarded Locusta for her eminent services with a full pardon101 and large estates in the country, and actually sent her pupils.102 (Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, The Life of Nero.)

35... He dearly loved Poppaea, whom he married twelve days after his divorce from Octavia, yet he caused her death too by kicking her when she was pregnant and ill, because she had scolded him for coming home late from the races. By her he had a daughter, Claudia Augusta, but lost her when she was still an infant. (Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, The Life of Nero.)


57 He met his death in the thirty-second year of his age, on the anniversary of the murder of Octavia, and such was the public rejoicing that the people put on liberty-caps160 and ran about all over the city. (Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, The Life of Nero.)

Draft to a question post for WordReference.com (never posted because working on the post gave me the answer:)

 

Can anyone please help me make sense out of Tacitus' time references relative to the exact differences in age between Domitius (Nero) and Britannicus? The numbers do not seem to add up!



 

The translation says that Nero "was but two years older" than Britannicus, but Nero had his 17th birthday (December 15) more than a year before Britannicus even turned 14 (on February 14.) Thus for the greater part of the interim period Nero was 17 and Britannicus was 13. That's more than a four (4) year difference, isn't it? (The remainder of the time there was a five (5) year difference, correct?)

 

 

The Latin provides for us the word "triennio," which according to conventional wisdom (cf. also JudkinC's post #5) re Latin inclusive reckoning should translate to "two years" as provided also in the English translation below, yet translating passage #1 using words to the effect that Nero "was but three years older" is not sufficient to satify the apparent reality being described in the context (cf. quotes #2 and #3.)



 

Where am I in error? Or is one or more of the quoted English translations incorrect? I hesitate to even question that Tacitus' original Latin language is incorrect considering Tacitus' precision otherwise?

 

Here are the original Latin quotes out of Tacitus' Annales:



1. “his evictus triennio maiorem natu Domitium filio anteponit, habita apud senatum oratione eundem in quem a liberto acceperat modum.” (Cornelius Tacitus, Annales, LIBER XII:25)

2. “igitur in urbe sermonum avida, quem admodumprincepsvix septemdecim annos egressus suscipere eam molem aut propulsare posset, quod subsidium in eo qui a femina regeretur, num proelia quoque et obpugnationes urbium et cetera belli per magistros administrari possent, anquirebant.” (Cornelius Tacitus, Annales, LIBER XIII:6)

3. "XV. Turbatus his Nero et propinquo die quo quartum decimum aetatis annum Britannicus explebat, volutare secum modo matris violentiam, modo ipsius indolem, levi quidem experimento nuper cognitam, quo tamen favorem late quaesivisset. festis Saturno diebus inter alia aequalium ludicra regnum lusu sortientium evenerat ea sors Neroni.” (Cornelius Tacitus, Annales, LIBER XIII:15)

And here are the corresponding English translations:

1. “Overcome by these arguments, the emperor preferred Domitius to his own son, though he was but two years older, and made a speech in the senate, the same in substance as the representations of his freedman.” (Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals, Book XII:25)

2. Re Domitius (Nero) “6. …a prince of scarce seventeen was to encounter and avert this tremendous peril… who was ruled by a woman… directed by tutors.” (Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals, Book XIII:6)

3. "15. Nero was confounded at this, and as the day was near on which Britannicus would complete his fourteenth year, he reflected, now on the domineering temper of his mother, and now again on the character of the young prince, which a trifling circumstance had lately tested, sufficient however to gain for him wide popularity. During the feast of Saturn…" (Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals, Book XIII:15)

The Feast of Saturn begins December 17 and is typically celebrated for a week.




Response to myself:
The answer to the above question becomes obvious in view of the following statements and the statement “he was but two years older” is confirmation of the correctness of the following translations:
"He died on the third day before the Ides of October in the consulship of Asinius Marcellus and Acilius Aviola in the sixty-fourth year of his age and the fourteenth of his reign." (Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Penguin Books, p. 212. See also: Suetonius, Lives of the Caesars, Loeb Classical Library, 5.45.)

“But Claudius himself, when he had administered the government thirteen years, eight months, and twenty days, died, and left Nero to be his successor in the empire.” (The Wars of the Jews, II:12:8.)


Britannicus was born on the twenty-second day of his reign and in his second consulship…” (C. Suetonius Tranquillus, THE LIVES OF THE TWELVE CAESARS, NERO CLAUDIUS CAESAR:XXVII.)

“Britannicum vicesimo imperii die inque secundo consulatu, natum sibi parvulum etiam tum, et militi pro contione manibus suis gestans et plebi per spectacula gremio aut ante se retinens assidue commendabat faustisque omnibus44 cum adclamantium turba prosequebatur.”

Accordingly Britannicus was indeed in his fourteenth year when his father, Caesar Claudius died and when Nero took over the throne in his sixteenth year of age. The error is largely mine in interpreting Tacitus to say that Britannicus was killed before his fourteenth birthday. That statement pertains only to “Nero [who] was confounded at this… [and] he reflected…,” i.e. these thoughts of Nero’s occurred at a time when Britannicus was still only thirteen years old…. Hmmmm…. Thirteen vs. sixteen… that’s not fourteenth and sixteenth, is it?!!!

Thus, perhaps the error is most likely in my understanding of the translation of Suetonius’ passage:

“Britannicus was born on the twenty-second day of his reign and in his second consulship.79

Perhaps this quote is a mistranslation of the original?

What does Tacitus have to say about this?

7 It was only under his nephew Gaius, who in the early part of his reign tried to gain popularity by every device, that he at last began his official career, holding the consulship as his colleague for two months; and it chanced that as he entered the Forum for the first time with the fasces, an eagle that was flying by lit upon his shoulder. He was p17 also allotted a second consulship, to be held four years later,23 and several times he presided at the shows in place of Gaius, and was greeted by the people now with "Success to the emperor's uncle!" and now with "All hail to the brother of Germanicus!"

“Sortitus est et de altero consulatu p16in quartum annum;”
14 He held four consulships in addition to his original one. Of these the first two were in successive years, while the other two followed at intervals of four years each, the last for six months, the others for two; and in his third he was substituted for one of the consuls who had died, a thing which was without precedent in the case of an emperor.
“14 Consulatus super pristinum quattuor gessit; ex quibus duos primos iunctim, sequentis per intervallum quarto quemque anno, semenstrem novissimum, bimenstris ceteros, tertium autem novo circa principem exemplo in locum demortui suffectus.”
(Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, The Life of Claudius)
Well, the phrase “four years later” applies to the 5th subsequent consulship year in my list of consulships, and “intervals of four years each” is applied to the 4th subsequent conventional consulship. Thus, at least it may appear as my list of consulships supports the idea that Claudius’ 2nd consulship began at the beginning of the year following the year in which Caius died.
But, if that is correct, then Britannicus would have been even younger, i.e. born in 28 CE, and only 12 years old when Nero was 16. Thus this does not appear to be helpful in resolving this issue. If on the other hand,
“Britannicum vicesimo imperii die inque secundo consulatu, natum sibi parvulum etiam tum, et militi pro contione manibus suis gestans et plebi per spectacula gremio aut ante se retinens assidue commendabat faustisque omnibus44 cum adclamantium turba prosequebatur.”

Britannicum uicesimo imperii die inque secundo consulatu, natum sibi paruulum etiam tum, et militi pro contione manibus suis gestans et plebi per spectacula gremio aut ante se retinens assidue commendabat faustisque ominibus cum adclamantium turba prosequebatur.” (C. Suetonius Tranquillus, De Vita Caesarum (ed. Maximilian Ihm) Divus Claudius)


“Britannicus was born on the twenty-second day of his reign and in his second consulship.79 When he was still very small, Claudius would often take him in his arms and commend him to the assembled soldiers, and to the people at the games, holding him in his lap or in his outstretched hands, and he would wish him happy auspices, joined by the applauding throng.”
Considering the facts thus far discovered, I am tempted to retranslate the Latin as follows, using also the linked dictionary definitions:
“Britannicus was born on the twentieth day of his injunction, i.e. the injunction of his 2nd consulship.” (ToL translation.)
Now, if this was accordingly an event prior to Caius’ death and Claudius becoming emperor, then I may deduce from the words “he was but two years older” that Britannicus was 14 when Nero was 16 at the time of Claudius’ death. If Britannicus was born on January 20, (uicesimo = 20,) assuming that Claudius’ 2nd consulship began January 1, and if Claudius died 40 CE, then Britannicus was born January 20, 26 CE. Based upon the consulships in Tacitus’ Annals, Book 13:11, 15 it will then indeed appear as though Britannicus was killed prior to “the day… on which Britannicus would complete his fourteenth year.” It seems a bit confusing that Tacitus makes such strong association between the poisoning of Britannicus and “the feast of Saturn,” which supposedly begins December 17 and lasts a week, but perhaps it is drawn out further such that it enters into the subsequent new year as indeed it does in Nordic countries today. If so, or else if Nero began his consulship year even prior to January 1, then this is quite comprehensible and making sense.

Conclusions re Britannicus:
Accordingly, I find that Britannicus was born January 20, 26 CE [Tevet or Shevat (10th or 11 Moon) 11 or 12, 26 CE] and he died before the end of extended festivities attributed to the feast of Saturn in (December, 40 CE or) January 41 CE [Tevet or Shevat, (40/) 41 CE.]

Considerations re Octavia:

Based upon my prior findings that Octavia died in late May or early June, 48 CE (Nero died on an anniversary of that day) and upon Tacitus’ and Suetonius’ statements:



64. And now the girl, in her twentieth year, with centurions and soldiers around her, already removed from among the living by the forecast of doom, still could not reconcile herself to death. After an interval of a few days, she received an order that she was to die, although she protested that she was now a widow and only a sister, and appealed to their common ancestors, the Germanici, and finally to the name of Agrippina, during whose life she had endured a marriage, which was miserable enough indeed, but not fatal. She was then tightly bound with cords, and the veins of every limb were opened; but as her blood was congealed by terror and flowed too slowly, she was killed outright by the steam of an intensely hot bath. (Tacitus, Annales, Book XIV: 64)
35... He dearly loved Poppaea, whom he married twelve days after his divorce from Octavia, yet he caused her death too by kicking her when she was pregnant and ill, because she had scolded him for coming home late from the races. By her he had a daughter, Claudia Augusta, but lost her when she was still an infant. (Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, The Life of Nero.)
57 He met his death in the thirty-second year of his age, on the anniversary of the murder of Octavia, and such was the public rejoicing that the people put on liberty-caps160 and ran about all over the city. (Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars, The Life of Nero.)
I conclude that Octavia celebrated her 19th birthday in either 47 (May or later) or prior to her death in May or June, 48 CE. It follows that Octavia was born between mid May, 28 CE and mid June, 29 CE. Considering that Octavia’s mother, Messalina, was killed in 32 CE (as it appears from Tacitus’ Annales, Book XI) there is no conflict here. It also follows, however, that Octavia was married to Nero (between December 15 and 31, 39 CE) at an age of only 10 or 11.

Conclusions re Octavia:



  1. Octavia was born between mid May, 28 CE and mid June, 29 CE. Her mother, Messalina, was killed in 32 CE.

  2. Octavia was married to Nero (between December 15 and 31, 39 CE) at an age of only 10 or 11.

  3. Octavia was divorced and later, “in her twentieth year,” killed, i.e. 19 years old, in the first half of 48 CE.


Download 118.25 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2022
send message

    Main page