Thomas, N., Clarke, V., & Lavery, J. (2003). Self-reported work and family stress of female primary teachers. Australian Journal of Education, 47(1), 73-87.
Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress and home stress both impacted on each other.
KEY WORDS: Elementary School Teachers; Employed Women; Faculty Workload; Family-Work Relationship; Females; Foreign Countries; Primary Education; Stress Variables; Teacher Morale; Teaching Conditions; Australia.
Thornton, M., & Reid, I. (2001). Primary school teaching as a career: The views of the successfully recruited. Journal of Education for Teaching, 27(1), 111-112.
Explored British student teachers' views about their choice of elementary school teaching as a career. Data from surveys and interviews indicated that virtually all respondents had always wanted to teach, enjoyed working with children, felt that teaching brought job satisfaction, and considered teaching a good career that would be challenging. Some respondents also reported negative feelings about previous noneducational work.
KEY WORDS: Career; Recruitment; Student Teachers.
Trenberth, L., & Dewe, P. (2005). An exploration of the role of leisure in coping with work related stress using sequential tree analysis. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 33(1), 101-116.
The past three decades have seen an explosion of interest into the nature, causes and consequences of stress in both work and non-work settings. Given that leisure is of growing importance in most people's lives and that the impact of stress influences the way in which leisure is used, then the role that leisure plays as a means of coping with stress represents an important research agenda. In order to explore leisure's role in coping with work stress this research explored, using a sample of secondary school principals and deputy principals, three issues: (1) why an involvement in leisure was important, (2) what reasons were given as to why leisure was important to cope with stress, and (3) what coping strategies were actually used to cope with stress in relation to whether or not leisure had always been regarded as an important part of life. Each of these issues was explored using a technique called sequential tree analysis. This technique identifies patterns of data and arranges them in hierarchical order to provide a visual display that captures the richness of relationships not always present when more traditional methods are used. The different patterns that emerged point to the complex role that leisure plays. The results also point to the need to better understand combinations and patterns before it is possible to determine the exact nature of the presumed emotion-focused role that leisure may play in coping with work stress. These findings have implications for stress management interventions and the role of leisure in them and the need to distinguish between the meanings people give to the importance of leisure as distinct from the actual use of leisure as a coping strategy.
KEY WORDS: Stress Management; Principals; Coping; Leisure Time; Intervention; Statistical Analysis.
Tytherleigh, M. Y., Webb, C., Cooper, C. L., & Ricketts, C. (2005). Occupational stress in UK higher education institutions: A comparative study of all staff categories. Higher Education Research and Development, 24(1), 41-61.
The higher education sector in the UK continues to experience significant change. This includes restructuring, use of short-term contracts, external scrutiny and accountability, and major reductions in funding. In line with this, reports of stress at work in higher education institutions have also increased. The study reported here was carried out using a stratified random sample of all categories of staff (academic and non-academic) from 14 UK universities and colleges. Levels of occupational stress were measured using the ASSET model. The results showed that the most significant source of stress for all higher education staff (irrespective of category of employee) was job insecurity. In comparison to the normative data, staff also reported significantly higher levels of stress relating to work relationships, control, and resources and communication, and significantly lower levels of commitment both from and to their organization. However, they also reported significantly lower levels of stress relating to work-life balance, overload and job overall, and lower levels of physical ill-health. Significant differences were identified between staff working at Old versus New universities and by category of employee. These results support the growing evidence that universities no longer provide the low stress working environments they once did.
KEY WORDS: Comparative Analysis; Higher Education; Job Security; Stress Variables; Educational Change; College Faculty; Work Environment; Measures (Individuals); United Kingdom.
van Dick, R., & Wagner, U. (2001). Stress and strain in teaching: A structural equation approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(2), 243-259.
School teaching seems to be particularly stressful. The stress model of Lazarus and colleagues and its adaptation to educational settings by Kyriacou and Sutcliffe is the basis for an analysis of antecedents and consequences of teacher stress. The first aim of this study was to test the theoretical model of teacher stress on a large sample using structural equation statistics (study I). The results should then be cross-validated and the model enlarged by additional operationalisations (study II). This study was conducted using heterogeneous samples of German school teachers (study I:N = 356, study II: N = 201). In study I, standardised questionnaires measuring workload and mobbing as stressors, physical symptoms as stress reactions, and social support and self-efficacy as moderating variables. In addition to these concepts, coping strategies, burnout and absenteeism were assessed in study II. The structural equation modelling in study I revealed that the predications of the stress model hold true: workload and mobbing lead to stress reactions, whereas principal support reduces the perception of workload and mobbing. Global support and self-efficacy moderate the relationships between the variables. These results were confirmed in study II and the model was enlarged by burnout and coping strategies. With all concepts, 12% of the variance of absenteeism can be explained. Limitations of the studies, using cross-sectional data and self-reported measures are discussed.
KEY WORDS: Teacher Stress; Workload; Mobbing; Stress Reactions; Social Support; Self Efficacy; Coping Strategies; Burnout; Absenteeism.
Van Horn, J. E., Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2001). Lack of reciprocity among Dutch teachers: Validation of reciprocity indices and their relation to stress and well-being. Work & Stress, 15(3), 191-213.
This research presents the results of two related studies on the convergent and construct validity of three measures of reciprocity in exchange relationships at work. In Study 1, 71 Dutch teachers were interviewed about their specific investments and outcomes in the exchange relationships with their students, colleagues and school. ANOVA revealed that they reported significantly more investments than outcomes, and that the number of reported investments and outcomes mentioned varied as a function of the type of exchange relationship. Building on these results, multi-item scales were created to assess reciprocity at a detailed level for each of the three exchange relationships. Study 2 validated these specific reciprocity measures by relating them to two global assessments of reciprocity (convergent validity) as well as to measures of job stress and well-being (construct validity). LISREL-analysis of data obtained from a further sample of 224 teachers revealed that for each type of exchange relationship there were significant, consistent and meaningful relationships among the three reciprocity measures. Further, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the reciprocity measures were differentially related to job stressors and measures of well-being. Implications are discussed.
KEY WORDS: Reciprocity; Equity; Theory; Teachers; Work Stress; Well-Being.
Vettor, S. M., & Kosinski, F. A., Jr. (2000). Work-stress burnout in emergency medical technicians and the use of early recollections. Journal of Employment Counseling, 37(4), 216-228.
Numerous studies have indicated a high work-stress burnout rate of emergency medical technicians, although none have used techniques predicting work-stress burnout. This paper discusses early memories that are representative of emergency medical technicians who may be susceptible to burnout, and memories that may indicate an individual's resistance to burnout. It proposes research to substantiate effectiveness of early recollections in predicting burnout.
KEY WORDS: Burnout; Career Counseling; Emergency Medical Technicians; Recall (Psychology); Stress Variables; Emergency Medical Services; Memory Span.
Viswesvaran, C., Sanchez, J. I., & Fisher, J. (1999). The role of social support in the process of work stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(2), 314-334.
Study 1 analyzed 68 studies, identifying three constructs: workplace stressors, strains, and social support. In study 2, models of social support in the workplace were tested, finding that social support reduced strains, mitigated perceived stressors, and moderated the relationship between stressors and strain.
KEY WORDS: Interpersonal Relationship; Meta Analysis; Social Support Groups; Stress Variables; Work Environment; Job Stress.
Williams, A. (2003). Informal learning in the workplace: A case study of new teachers. Educational Studies, 29(2-3), 207-219.
Focuses on the learning of new teachers in England to identify aspects of workplace learning that may not be accommodated within the statutory induction year. Draws from interview and survey data. Concludes that the new teachers' learning is informal, reactive, and collaborative.
KEY WORDS: Beginning Teachers; Case Studies; Educational Research; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Interviews; Learning Experience; Professional Development; Surveys; Teaching Experience; England.
Wilson, V., & Hall, J. (2002). Running twice as fast? A review of the research literature on teachers' stress. Scottish Educational Review, 34(2), 175-187.
A literature review of teacher stress in Scotland found that hours worked by teachers have not changed significantly over the last decade, but the number of unpopular tasks over which teachers have little control has increased, resulting in increased stress. Being forced to implement mandated changes also increases teacher stress.
KEY WORDS: Academic Standards; Collegiality; Coping; Educational Change; Elementary Secondary Education; Faculty Mobility; Foreign Countries; Job Satisfaction; Quality of Working Life; Social Support Groups; Stress Variables; Teacher Burnout; Scotland; Teacher Stress.
Wilson, V., Schlapp, U., & Davidson, J. (2003). Prescription for learning? Meeting the development needs of the pharmacy profession. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(4), 380-395.
A survey (n=947) of pharmacists and instructors was compared with 1999 results. Over 90% of both high and low users of formal continuing education also engaged in informal learning. Low users received the most employer support for training. Differences among high, medium, and low users and nonusers suggest a need for diverse formats and services, including distance learning.
KEY WORDS: Educational Attitudes; Foreign Countries; Informal Education; Pharmaceutical Education; Pharmacy; Professional Continuing Education.
Wood, T., & McCarthy, C. (2002). Understanding and preventing teacher burnout. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED).
This digest explains that burnout results from the chronic perception that one is unable to cope with daily life demands. Teachers must face classrooms full of students every day; negotiate potentially stressful interactions with parents, administrators, counselors, and other teachers; contend with relatively low pay and shrinking school budgets; and ensure students meet increasingly strict standards. This can result in a form of burnout at some point in their careers. The digest looks at the nature of the stress response, describes the development of the burnout construct, and examines several types of prevention that can be useful in helping teachers contend with an occupation that puts them at risk for burnout. Primary prevention includes organizational practices which allow teachers some control over their daily challenges. Secondary prevention focuses on early detection of problems before they emerge as full-blown disorders. Tertiary prevention involves ameliorating symptoms of burnout. The digest concludes that primary prevention is preferable, but all types can be effective.
KEY WORDS: Elementary Secondary Education; Stress Management; Teacher Burnout; Teacher Responsibility; Teaching Conditions; ERIC Digests; Primary Prevention.