Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Mental Stress; Early Retirement; Occupations; Causal Analysis; Sociology of Work; Motivation; Psychology; Case Studies; Ergonomics; Belgium; Elderly Workers; Teachers; Stress; Job Retirement Decisions.

Harden, R. M. (1999). Stress, pressure and burnout in teachers: Is the swan exhausted? Medical Teacher, 21(3), 245-247.

This paper discusses teacher stress in medicine and reviews models that address the question of work stress and how individuals respond.
KEY WORDS: Burnout; Higher Education; Medical Education; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Teacher Burnout.

Hemmings, B., & Hockley, T. (2002). Student teacher stress and coping mechanisms. Education in Rural Australia, 12(2), 25-35.

This paper surveys 43 student teachers taking a 9_week practicum in rural Australian primary schools and case studies of four of them found that student teacher stress diminished over time. Five coping strategies were identified: communicating with others, self-help, relaxation/recreation, teaching and managing, and organization.
KEY WORDS: Case Studies; Coping; Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Rural Schools; Social Support Groups; Stress Management; Stress Variables; Student Surveys; Student Teacher Attitudes; Student Teaching; Australia (New South Wales).

Hodkinson, P., & Hodkinson, H. (2004). The significance of individuals' dispositions in workplace learning: A case study of two teachers. Journal of Education & Work, 17(2), 167-182.

This article about workplace learning examines the relationship between, first, individual learners positions and dispositions, and secondly, their working and learning within the workplace community and practices. Drawing on research with secondary school teachers, the article presents case study accounts of two teachers from the same school to illustrate the significance of these relationships. In order to understand these relationships from a broadly participatory perspective, the article then presents a theoretical discussion, extending Lave and Wenger's work on communities of practice, through the use of Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, capital and field. It concludes that such a combination offers a valuable means of understanding these relationships, in a wider social, economic and political context. It is necessary to offer an account of learning for work which acknowledges the independence of individuals acting within the interdependence of the social practice of work.
KEY WORDS: Work and Learning; High School Teachers.

Hoekstra, A., Beijaard, D., Brekelmans, M., & Korthagen, F. (2007). Experienced teachers' informal learning from classroom teaching. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 13(2), 189-206.

This study examines how teachers learn informally and through the work-related activities. Data about teacher behaviour, cognition, motivation and emotion were collected through observations and interviews. According to Eraut's classification, the study analyses three types of learning based on consciousness that is involved in learning. The findings demonstrate how cognitive, affective, motivational and behavioural aspects are interrelated and that learning occurs at several levels of awareness. The authors argue that a theory of teacher learning should account for activities involved in the alignment of behaviour to plan and for the role of motivation and emotion.
KEY WORDS: Learning; Professional Development; Teachers; Teaching; Classrooms; Human; Male; Female; Netherlands; Experienced teachers; Informal learning; Classroom Teaching; Teacher Learning.

Horn, I. S. (2005). Learning on the job: A situated account of teacher learning in high school mathematics departments. Cognition and Instruction, 23(2), 207-236.

To investigate teachers' everyday on-the-job learning, I used a comparative case study design and examined the work of mathematics teachers in 2 high schools. Analysis of interviews, classroom observations, and teachers' conversations highlighted 3 key resources for learning: (a) reform artifacts oriented the teachers' attention to key concepts of a reform, whereas the interactions surrounding them established local meanings; (b) conversation-based classification systems communicated pedagogical assumptions; and (c) the rendering of classroom interactions in conversations shaped opportunities for teachers to consult with and learn from colleagues. Taken together, these learning resources provide a conceptual infrastructure for teachers to make sense of their practice. This research highlights the social and situated nature of teachers' pedagogical reasoning and specifies the role of teacher community in teacher learning.
KEY WORDS: Secondary Education; Secondary School Mathematics; Educational Change; Experiential Learning; Mathematics Teachers; Faculty Development; Teacher Collaboration.

Howe, E. R. (2005). Japan's teacher acculturation: Critical analysis through comparative ethnographic narrative. Journal of Education for Teaching, 31(2), 121-131.

Cross-cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported. Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In contrast, Japan's teachers have opportunities for reflection, collegiality and collaboration. Moreover, effective induction practices have evolved gradually, becoming a tacit part of teaching culture. Japan's teacher acculturation is characterized by significant teacher relationships; leadership and guidance; and further cultivated through professional development. However, undeveloped pre-service programmes, one-way, "top-down" pedagogical exchanges, and ineffective mentors are contentious issues, hampering teacher education reforms. Nevertheless, Japanese induction practices challenge us to ameliorate teacher education to focus more on the needs of beginning teachers.
KEY WORDS: Teaching Methods; Foreign Countries; Beginning Teachers; Teacher Orientation; Educational Change; Ethnography; Collegiality; Acculturation; Preservice Teacher Education; Comparative Analysis.

Howes, C., James, J., & Ritchie, S. (2003). Pathways to effective teaching. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 18(1), 104-120.

This article examines strategies for effective teaching among African-American and Latino early childhood teachers serving low-income children. Findings indicate that after controlling for formal education, that responsive involvement in the field is associated with a teacher's staying in the field for the community, being mentored, and being supervised. Engaging in language play was positively related to formal education and supervision; those engaged in language arts activities tended to have formal education and were mentored and supervised.
KEY WORDS: Caregiver Child Relationship; Child Care; Early Childhood Education; Educational Attainment; Predictor Variables; Preschool Teachers; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Qualifications; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Experience; Young Children.

Ito, M. (2000). Burnout among teachers: Teaching experience and type of teacher. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 48(1), 12-20.

One purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of some factors on burnout among teachers. Out of 525 elementary and middle school teachers, 208 responded to questionnaire on (1) personality characteristics, (2) evaluation of their own ability as a teacher, and their image of the ideal teacher, (3) stress in their work, (4) support, (5) image of their co- workers, and (6) burnout. The results indicated that a lack of personal accomplishment was negatively associated with "self- evaluated teaching ability" and "human relation." Emotional exhaustion was suppressed by "human relations", and promoted by "worry." A comparison of new and experienced teachers showed that the new ones felt lower personal accomplishment, and evaluated themselves more poorly on their ability to guide their classes. The second purpose of the present study was to compare 2 types of teachers: (a) those oriented to class guidance, emphasizing class management, and (b) those oriented to relationships, emphasizing their relations with their pupils. Self-evaluated teaching ability was a factor in burnout in the former group, whereas relations with colleagues played an important role in preventing burnout in the latter.
KEY WORDS: Burnout; Teaching Experience; Two Types Of Teachers; Elementary And Middle School Teachers; Impact.

Johnston, R., & Chappell, C. (2000). Constructing a picture of the organisational training and development professional. Working paper. Australia; New South Wales: Australian National Training Authority, Melbourne.

A survey was designed to assist in constructing a picture of new vocational education and training professionals working in organizational settings in Australia. They were practitioners whose positional titles included training and development (T&D), human resource development, or human resource practitioners who work within organizational settings or as consultants to organizations. The subscriber data base for "Managing T&D" was used as a research sample. Of 1,200 surveys circulated throughout Australia, 197 usable responses were received. Results indicated respondents perceived that training is increasingly being afforded a high priority in Australian workplaces; 80 percent worked in organizations that employed T&D staff; the naming or labeling of the profession as practiced in organizations is not consistent and could be seen as an indicator that this is still an evolving field of practice in organizations; the lack of requirement by organizations of a constant or specialist qualification of its practitioners could also be seen as supporting the claim the field is still evolving; there was considerable consistency in the nominated current skill requirements for practitioners and in perceptions about current areas of high importance to organizations and predictions about future areas that would be of high importance to organizations; and there was a relatively commonly held sense of the purpose of this field of professional practice.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Developed Nations; Educational Research; Emerging Occupations; Foreign Countries; Higher Education; Human Resources; Job Skills; Job Training; Labor Force Development; Occupational Information; Organizational Objectives; Postsecondary Education; Professional Occupations; Professional Recognition; Teacher Qualifications; Trainers; Vocational Education.

Karakaya, S. (2004). A comparative study: English and Turkish teachers' conceptions of their professional responsibility. Educational Studies, 30(3), 195-216.

This paper discusses some of the findings pertaining to how teachers see their work, produced by a comparative study of 120 English and 120 Turkish primary school teachers. The sample was drawn from schools in four different types of matched catchment areas--rural, inner city, suburban and affluent suburban--in Leicestershire. England, and in Erzurum, Turkey. Four major dimensions of difference between the two national contexts are identified in terms of the range of professional activities undertaken, the ambiguity of relative importance to teachers of the process as against the products of learning. Against a background of contemporary policy changes which seem likely to effect different teaching and learning activities in the two countries, the paper argues that attempts to change teachers' practice without due regard to those conceptions of professional responsibility which are deeply rooted in particular national traditions, as well as more general classroom realities, will result in a lowering of morale and decreased effectiveness.
KEY WORDS: Teaching Methods; Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis; Teacher Effectiveness; Educational Policy; Teacher Attitudes; Elementary School Teachers; Teacher Responsibility; Educational Change; Teacher Morale.
Karasek, R. A. (2004). An analysis of 19 international case studies of stress prevention through work reorganization using the demand/control model. Bulletin of Science Technology and Society, 24(5), 446-456.
In this paper, nineteen international case studies of workplace stress prevention initiatives are analyzed. The focus of these cases, which span a variety of workplaces and locations, is on preventing stress through work reorganization rather than remedial approaches for stress relief. It is found that the majority of the occupations represented in the case studies can be categorized as high-strain jobs according to the demand/control model. Common trends in terms of why the interventions were initiated and by whom, the type of intervention chosen, and the results are analyzed. It is found that in general, worker participation, open communication between labor and management, and a learning approach to stress are keys to preventing stress at work and also tend to increase productivity.
KEY WORDS: Prevention; Occupations; Productivity; Case Studies; Stress Management; Foreign Countries; Job Development.

Klapan, A., & Lavrnja, I. (2001). General and professional education within the conception of the lifelong learning: University of Rijeka, Croatia.

General and professional education is important in a learning society. Most pedagogy has been devoted to developing general education, while professional education is seen as a type of optional education. General and professional education have always been divided; the former has been oriented toward acquisition of knowledge and values, while the latter has been geared toward the acquisition of working skills and professional knowledge. This view of professional education has not been intentional but a consequence of the development of the wider social and historical context. Although making distinctions between general and professional education may be necessary, any distinction between the two is damaging and unnatural. This is particularly true today, as scientific-technical development, more than ever before, introduces significant changes into communal life and activity. We need to reconsider the relationship between general and professional education. The emphasis ought to be on the link between gaining knowledge and values and acquiring vocational skills and appreciation for learning in a learning society. This is because educated experts and specialists will be better able to follow technological and social changes if they have a general education.
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Adult Learning; Articulation (Education); Change Strategies; Conventional Instruction; Delivery Systems; Developed Nations; Developing Nations; Educational Change; Educational History; Educational Practices; Educational Principles; Educational Theories; Educational Trends; General Education; Informal Education; Lifelong Learning; Linking Agents; Nonformal Education; Postsecondary Education; Professional Education; Systems Approach; Technical Education; Technological Advancement; Theory Practice Relationship; Trend Analysis; Vocational Education; Learning Society.

Kontos, S., & Wilcox-Herzog, A. (2001). How do education and experience affect teachers of young children? Research in review. Young Children, 56(4), 85-91.

This Article synthesizes research on the relationship between general education, specialized education, and experiences and early childhood professionals' teaching practices. The study reveals that teachers' formal education influences classroom quality and effective teacher behavior. Causally related to classroom quality, specialized education is also correlated with effective teacher behavior. On the other hand, a teacher's experience cannot be consistently linked to classroom quality or effective behavior.
KEY WORDS: Classroom Environment; Early Childhood Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Quality; Preschool Education; Preschool Teachers; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Qualifications; Teacher Student Relationship; Teaching Experience; Young Children.

Krantz, G., & Lundberg, U. (2006). Workload, work stress, and sickness absence in Swedish male and female white-collar employees. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 34(3), 238-246.

This study analyzed the association of sickness absence and involvement in paid and unpaid work among full-time white-collar employees randomly selected from the general Swedish population. Analysis of variance was used to assess the gender differences concerning self-reported sickness absence. The study found lower sickness absence among employed men and women who worked overtime. Contrary to expectations, greater involvement in paid and unpaid work was not associated with higher sickness absence. According to this study, conflicting demands were associated with higher sickness absence among men.
KEY WORDS: Conflict Between Demands; Gender Differences; Sickness Absence; Total Workload; White-collar Employees; Work-home Conflict; Work Stress; Strain; Women.

Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: directions for future research. Educational Review, 53(1), 27-35.

Research on teacher stress has become a major area of international research interest. This paper reviews research findings on teacher stress and suggests five directions for future research: (i) monitoring the extent to which particular educational reforms are generating high levels of teacher stress; (ii) exploring why some teachers are able to successfully negotiate periods of career reappraisal and retain a positive commitment to the work, whilst others are not; (iii) clarifying the nature of the stress process in term of two types of triggers' one based on excessive demands and the other based on a concern with self-image; (iv) assessing the effectiveness of particular intervention strategies to reduce teacher stress; (v) exploring the impact of teacher-pupil interaction and classroom climate on teacher stress.
KEY WORDS: Secondary-School Teachers; Burnout; Model; Strategies; Symptoms.

Lieberman, A., & Miller, L. (1999). Teachers: Transforming their world and their work. New York; London: Teachers College Press.

In this sequel to Teachers -- Their World and Their Work, the authors bring the reader up to date by addressing the contemporary realities of schools and teaching, focusing on both the constraints and the possibilities embedded in practice. The words and experiences of teachers and principals are used by the authors to show what growth and change look like from the inside -- the teacher's perspective: what change requires, how differences in context and personnel are accommodated, what people learn as they change, and what it feels like in the process.
KEY WORDS: Public Schools; United States; Teacher Effectiveness; Educational Change; Teaching.

Locke, T., Vulliamy, G., Webb, R., & Hill, M. (2005). Being a "professional" primary school teacher at the beginning of the 21st century: A comparative analysis of primary teacher professionalism in New Zealand and England. Journal of Education Policy, 20(5), 555-581.

This article analyses findings from two studies conducted collaboratively across two educational settings, New Zealand and England, in 2001-2002. These studies examined the impact of national educational policy reforms on the nature of primary teachers' work and sense of their own professionalism and compared these impacts across the two countries. Adopting a policy ethnography approach, using in-depth interview data from samples of teachers in each country, it is argued that there have been discursive shifts in the meaning of the three key terms, autonomy, altruism and knowledge, embodied in the classical professionalism triangle. These shifts reflect policy-makers' moves from a "professional-contextualist conception" of teacher professionalism towards the "technocratic-reductionist" conception that accompanies neoliberal educational reforms in many countries. Teachers in both countries experienced increasing constraints on their autonomy as they became far more subject to "extrinsic" accountability demands. Whether these demands were perceived as enhancing or diminishing teacher professionalism depended on the manner in which they were filtered through the profession's defining quality, namely teachers' altruistic concerns for the welfare of the children in their care.
KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Comparative Analysis; Ethnography; Altruism; Educational Policy; Educational Change; Elementary School Teachers; Personal Autonomy; Knowledge Base for Teaching.

Lohman, M. C. (2000). Environmental inhibitors to informal learning in the workplace: A case study of public school teachers. Adult Education Quarterly, 50(2), 83-101.

From interviews and site visits with 22 teachers, four environmental inhibitors to informal workplace learning emerged: lack of time for learning, lack of proximity to learning resources, lack of meaningful rewards, and limited decision-making power in school management. Ways to facilitate teachers' learning include strategic classroom assignments, unencumbered time, access to communications technology, and revision of reward systems.
KEY WORDS: Adult Learning; Educational Environment; Elementary Secondary Education; Informal Education; Public Schools; Teachers; Work Environment.

Lohman, M. C. (2006). Factors influencing teachers' engagement in informal learning activities. Journal of Workplace Learning, 18(3), 141-156.

Analysis of data that influence teacher engagement in informal learning activities found that teachers rely more on interactive rather than on independent informal learning activities. Study found that lack of time, lack of proximity to colleagues, and insufficient funds inhibit teachers from engaging in informal learning. Study found other factors, personal characteristics, initiative, self-efficacy, love of learning, interest in the profession, commitment to professional development, a nurturing personality and an outgoing personality enhance teachers' determine teachers' engagement in informal learning.
KEY WORDS: Learning; Public School Education; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Education; Teachers; Human; Male; Female; Influencing Factors; Teachers Engagement; Informal Learning Activities; Public School Teachers.

Mann, S. (2004). 'People-work': Emotion management, stress and coping. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32(2), 205-221.

Workers involved in 'people-work' are expected to engage in a great deal of emotion management as they attempt to convey the appropriate emotions (which they may not genuinely feel) to their clients or customers while at the same time, perhaps suppressing inappropriate ones. Should this emotion management be unsuccessful within some industries, a customer may be lost as they choose to take their business to a competitor; however, within the 'caring' business, such as the counselling and guidance professions, a failure to display the appropriate emotion (e.g. sympathy) or a leakage of an inappropriate one (e.g. boredom) can have much more serious implications for the well-being of the client and their continued relationship with the professional. This paper will thus argue that emotion management or 'emotional labour' is a vital skill within the counselling and guidance professions, but one that can also be a significant source of work stress. Strategies for coping with the stress of performing emotional labour are suggested.
KEY WORDS: Guidance; Coping; Emotional Response; Interpersonal Relationship; Burnout; Stress Management; Employees; Employee Attitudes.

McNess, E. (2004). Culture, context and the quality of education: Evidence from a small-scale extended case study in England and Denmark. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education, 34(3), 315-327.

Much recent education policy-making around the world has focused on a restructuring of the role of the classroom teacher in a bid to increase the 'quality' of the educational experience and raise pupil attainment. However, the definition of quality, as expressed through policy, may not always accord with the aims and aspirations of individual teachers who work within a specific cultural context. The rhetoric and intent expressed in policy texts may even have the potential to restrict the quality of what teachers do. This paper draws on some of the findings from a small-scale comparative study of teachers' work in England and Denmark which used an extended case study approach, set in a socio-cultural framework, to examine the relationship of policy trends to teacher values and professional practice. Evidence from the study is used to discuss the issue of 'quality', highlighting contextually specific variations which impact on the implementation of national policy at the local level. Through a discussion of the study's methodology, attention is also drawn to the need for a more contextually sensitive approach to the creation and evaluation of policy which, while recognising universal concerns, also pays heed to local priorities and teacher values.

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