Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Females; Sex Stereotypes; Choices; Stress; Household Work.

Wallace, C. (2002). Household strategies: Their conceptual relevance and analytical scope in social research. Sociology, 36(2), 275-292.

The article considers the idea of 'household strategies' as a concept that takes into account the motivations and agency of actors in society. In particular, it considers household strategies as a method of analysis through looking at the intersection of different economies in household behaviour and as a unit of analysis, with a focus on households rather than individuals. Although the concept of household strategies has limitations in each of these dimensions, it has nevertheless remained an important empirical tool of investigation. In fact, household strategies have become perhaps even more salient under conditions of social change such as post-Communism or post-Fordism. An over-emphasis on agency implied by this approach can be counteracted by considering structural factors that have emerged in empirical studies and which restrict the formation and deployment of household strategies. However, such restrictions are not just objective but also culturally defined. Viewed in this manner, household strategies can be used for comparative research and can help to elucidate the social factors underlying economic behaviour. The article concludes by suggesting certain conditions under which household strategies are likely to become especially important.
KEY WORDS: Households; Strategies; Informal Sector; Housework; Household Work.

Warren, T. (2003). Class- and gender-based working time? Time poverty and the division of domestic labour. Sociology, 37(4), 733-752.

Through an approach of class and gender, this article connects two major research themes; variation in time poverty & the organization of the domestic division of labour, to the study of couples' working time. Links are drawn between these two research themes through review of debates in key studies and an analysis of dual-earner couples from different classes in the British Household Panel Survey. In conclusion, the article suggests that a class-based analysis is necessary to reveal how the different dimensions of time poverty intermesh and play out on the daily lives of families, and the resulting ways in which families' caring and paid working lives are managed on a day-to-day basis.
KEY WORDS: Time Utilization; Sexual Division of Labor; Sex; Housework; Dual Career Family; Family-Work Relationship; Class Differences; Social Class; United Kingdom; Household Work.

Wharton, A. S. (2000). Feminism at work. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 571, 167-182.

This paper examines the contributions of feminist research to the study of work, occupations, and organizations. Three themes in the literature are investigated: (1) characteristics of housework and so-called women's work more generally; (2) economic inequality between men and women; & (3) structural and institutional bases of gender in the workplace. The direction of feminist research on these themes have been shaped by feminist activists. This research, in turn, has influenced feminist activists' strategies and orientations. The article concludes with a discussion of future challenges for feminist research on the study of work.
KEY WORDS: Feminism; Work; Housework; Work Environment; Sex; Social Science Research; Sexual Inequality; Activism; Occupations; Organizational Research; Sociology of Work; Household Work.

Wheelock, J., Oughton, E., & Baines, S. (2003). Getting by with a little help from your family: Toward a policy-relevant model of the household. Feminist Economics, 9(1), 19-45.

Recent decades have seen dramatic changes in the ways in which households in developed Western economies gain their livelihoods, with marked elements of a return to old ways of working. There has been a shift from reliance upon one family wage to the need for family employment as well as growing reliance on self-employment and small business. These changes mean that child care for working parents, and the promotion of new small enterprise, are key areas of policy concern. Drawing on original English empirical research around both these themes, this article shows the ways in which UK households draw on redistribution between the generations as a - generally decommodified - contribution to livelihoods and "getting by." We argue that these results confound widely utilized models of how people behave and take particular issue with how economists and policymakers model the household and its boundaries as the institutional context for individual decisions.
KEY WORDS: Households; Economic Models; Family Businesses; Small Businesses; Family-Work Relationship; Labor Force Participation; Boundaries; Policy Analysis; Methodological Problems; Household Work.

Youm, Y., & Laumann, E. O. (2003). The effect of structural embeddedness on the division of household labor: A game-theoretic model using a network approach. Rationality and Society, 15(2), 243-280.

This article proposes a game-theoretic model in which the structural embeddedness of the partners is the key concept predicting family members' behavior. Under the condition of strong embeddedness, partners behave as if they share a unitary utility function because they can safely assume their partners' gain will be their own gain. With weak embeddedness, however, partners can no longer assume a flow of future fair rewards and thus are in a bargaining situation. They try to decrease their share of housework by using their resources (options outside marriage/cohabitation) as threats in their bargaining with their partners. A representative sample from the Chicago Health & Social Life Survey is analyzed as illustrative evidence for this model.
KEY WORDS: Housework; Sexual Division of Labor; Game Theory; Network Analysis; Negotiation; Chicago, Illinois; Household Work.

Section 2.5

Changes in Community Volunteer Work

Becker, P. E., & Dhingra, P. H. (2001). Religious involvement and volunteering: Implications for civil society. Sociology of Religion, 62(3), 315-335.

This paper examines the role of congregations in civil society by examining the relationship between religious involvement and volunteering. We draw on a survey and interviews with respondents from upstate New York to analyze a set of inter- related questions: how does congregational involvement lead people into volunteering and influence the meaning of volunteer activity? How do church members choose a volunteer site? What role do congregations play in generating civic engagement and social capital? We find no liberal/conservative differences either in the likelihood of volunteering or in choosing between secular and religious volunteer opportunities. Rather, we find that social networks and impressions of organizational identity draw people into volunteering and into particular organizations, and that there is a competition between congregations and other civic groups for members' time, We conclude that congregations foster both "loose" and strong connections to civic life for members at different stages of the life course.
KEY WORDS: Volunteers; Church Attendance; Social Networks; USA; New York; Volunteer Work.

Bekkers, R. (2007). Intergenerational transmission of volunteering. Acta Sociologica, 50(2), 99-114.

The author investigates the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in the past. Findings from this study suggest that while the transmission of volunteering for religious and quasi-religious ('pillarized') associations is due largely to the transmission of religion and social status from parents to their children, parental volunteering for pillarized associations has increased the likelihood of children's volunteering for secular associations, even controlling for parental and children's religion, education, wealth and personality characteristics. The paper finds this spillover effect is consistent with a value internalization explanation, and was not due to the direct social pressure of parents.
KEY WORDS: Learning Theory; Personality; Socialization; Voluntary Associations.

Blackstone, A. (2004). "It's just about being fair": Activism and the politics of volunteering in the breast cancer movement. Gender & Society, 18(3), 350-368.

Constructions of women's activism as social service, volunteer, or charity work contribute to the relative invisibility of these forms of activism. The author did field research at an affiliate office of the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. The author analyzed how these women volunteers resist the label "activist" in conjunction with their engagement in activities that resemble activism. She also examines the reasons for their resistance to the term. Her analysis shows implicit connections between constructions of activism and gender shape the extent to which volunteers think of their work either as political or as activism. In light of Komen's heteronormative gender ideology, she concludes by raising questions about the relationships among gender, activism, and civic participation.
KEY WORDS: Activism; Breast Neoplasms; Human Females; Prosocial Behavior; Volunteer Work.

Burden, J. (2000). Community building, volunteering and action research. Loisir et Societe/Society and Leisure, 23(2), 353-370.

This paper describes an action research project that took place in a small community theater setting run by older volunteer women in Brisbane, Australia. To assist with the study, a series of planning workshops were facilitated by the researchers to assist the women in organizing and managing the processes of their group. The overall findings pointed to the significance of a development perspective in theorizing volunteering. While personal change and growth is important in sustaining volunteering as a leisure activity, of equal significance is the maintenance of the self-directing community. The author argues that it is the element of personal and community self-direction that aligns volunteering with leisure rather than work. The article concludes that to maintain the social connections that build healthy communities and social capital, governments must support both economic and social infrastructures that enable volunteers to experience their volunteer work as freely chosen.
KEY WORDS: Volunteers; Social Networks; Leisure; Brisbane, Australia; Elderly Women; Community Organizations; Cultural Capital; Organizational Development; Volunteer Work.

Camino, L., & Zeldin, S. (2002). From periphery to center: Pathways for youth civic engagement in the day-to-day life of communities. Applied Developmental Science, 6(4), 213-220.

This article presents 5 modern pathways for youth civic engagement. These pathways are described as: public policy/consultation, community coalition involvement, youth in organizational decision making, youth organizing and activism, and school-based service learning. Three overarching qualities found with all pathways are also discussed: youth ownership, youth-adult partnership, and facilitative policies and structures.
KEY WORDS: Citizenship; Political Participation; Prosocial Behavior; Age Differences; Civic Engagement.

Chau-wai Yan, E., & So-kum Tang, C. (2003). The role of individual, interpersonal, and organizational factors in mitigating burnout among elderly Chinese volunteers. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(9), 795-802.

First, exploratory factor analysis was performed to find out the underlying dimensions of burnout. Correlation analyses were then conducted to explore links among the major variables. Lastly, hierarchical regression analyses were executed to uncover the relative contribution of various factors in predicting burnout among elderly volunteers. The results indicated that a 2-factor structure of burnout namely lack of personal accomplishment and emotional depletion, was found.
KEY WORDS: Demographic Characteristics; Emotional Content; Gerontology; Self Efficacy; Volunteers; Volunteer Work.

Choi, L. H. (2003). Factors affecting volunteerism among older adults. The Journal of Applied Gerontology, 22(2), 179-196.

This study explores whether employment status has an effect on a person's decision to volunteer and the number of hours volunteered. The data are from the 1993 Asset & Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) study. As fewer people remain in the workforce among the older population, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are used to determine the rate of volunteering in relation to employment status. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between respondents who did or did not volunteer within the past 12 months. Results from a regression analysis suggested that part-time work, age, education, importance of religion, and health status are significantly related to volunteer hours. Although only a small number of respondents are currently working, the number of volunteer hours contributed is higher in comparison to past studies.
KEY WORDS: Elderly; Volunteers; Employment; Volunteer Work; Employment Status.

Chou, K.-L., Chow, N. W. S., & Chi, I. (2003). Volunteering aspirations of Hong Kong Chinese soon-to-be-old adults. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 27(3-4), 79-96.

Using a representative randomized sample of 1,866 adults aged between 45 and 59, this paper attempts to assess the volunteering aspiration of these adults after their retirement or when they become 60 years old. Also this study explored reasons why they planned or did not plan to be volunteers and attempted to identify socio-economic characteristics of these adults who planned to be volunteers. Approximately 38% of these respondents planned to be volunteers after retirement. In addition, lack of knowledge as well as relevant skills were cited as barriers to volunteerism. Results showed that soon-to-be-old adults who intended to do volunteer work were more likely to have higher levels of education, have higher income level, and be protected by a retirement plan, and less likely to be financially supported by their adult children and receive welfare than those who did not.
KEY WORDS: Aspirations; Retirement; Volunteers; Aging; Socioeconomic Status; Volunteer Work; China; Hong Kong.

Cockram, J. (2003). The impact of compulsory community participation on the not for profit sector in Western Australia. Australian Journal on Volunteering, 8(1), 5-14.

Australia's Voluntary Work Initiative is designed to assist welfare recipients who were required to perform volunteer work. 32 volunteer program administrators were interviewed. Findings from the interview analysis indicated that although volunteering helped overcome isolation and develop job skills, low levels of commitment and short stays (especially among younger participants) and potential exploitation were concerns.
KEY WORDS: Adults; Attitudes; Foreign Countries; Nonprofit Organizations; Unemployment; Volunteers; Welfare Recipients; Volunteer Work; Australia.

Colby, A., Sippola, L., & Phelps, E. (2001). Social responsibility and paid work in contemporary American life. In A. S. Rossi (Ed.), Caring and doing for others (pp. 463-505). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

This chapter presents the attempts to map out various patterns of social responsibility exhibited in a representative group of middle aged American women and men. A MIDUS sub-sample of 94 people (aged 34-65 yrs) were interviewed. These participants were asked to talk about their life histories and what they do for their families, friends, and communities; about their paid work and volunteer work; and their financial contributions to charities and directly to other people. Results indicated that numerous people's paid employment interfered with their social responsibility and it is suggested that jobs should provide employees with some means of forming a moral engagement with their work.
KEY WORDS: Charitable Behavior; Job Characteristics; Money; Responsibility; Social Behavior; Volunteer Work.

Curtis, J. E., Baer, D. E., & Grabb, E. G. (2001). Nations of joiners: Explaining voluntary association membership in democratic societies. American Sociological Review, 66(6), 783-805.

Using data from surveys of nationally representative samples of adults from the 1990s in the US, this article compares the levels of voluntary association membership for 33 democratic countries. Four explanations of national differences in association involvement are identified and tested: economic development, religious composition, type of polity, and years of continuous democracy. The analysis includes total working association memberships, both including and excluding unions and religious associations. Americans volunteer at rates above the average for all nations on each measure, but they are often matched and exceeded by those of several other countries, notably the Netherlands, Canada, and a number of Nordic nations, including Iceland, Sweden, and Norway. Hierarchical linear models indicate that voluntarism tends to be particularly high in nations that have: (1) multidimensional Christian or predominantly Protestant religious organizations, (2) prolonged and continuous experience with democratic institutions, (3) social democratic or liberal democratic political systems, and (4) high levels of economic development. With some exceptions for working memberships, these factors, both separately and in combination, are clearly important predictors of cross-national variation in voluntary association membership.
KEY WORDS: Political Systems; Membership; Associations; Economic Development; Democracy; Crosscultural Differences; Religions; Volunteer Work.

Erbaugh, E. B. (2002). Women's community organizing and identity transformation. Race, Gender & Class, 9(1), 8-32.

This paper documents how women's community organizing alters participants' relationships to dominant social and political institutions. Utilizing participant observation and interviews, the study was conducted in a multiethnic, working-class organization that combines two community organizing models. Findings indicated that members of the organization critiqued dominant ideologies and public policies about welfare and engaged in dialogue with political authorities about economic issues. Members' political motivation and sense of empowerment was increased through their experiences of collective identity formation and personal identity transformation. The article contends that identity formation and transformation are important in evaluating the success of community organizing efforts.
KEY WORDS: Females; Mobilization; Working Class; Group Identity; Ideological Struggle; Dominant Ideologies; Community Organizations; Class Identity; New Mexico; Community Work.

Erlinghagen, M. (2000). Unemployment and volunteer work in longitudinal perspective. An analysis of the West German subsample from the German Socioeconomic Panels [SOEP] for the Years 1992 and 1996. Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 52(2), 291-310.

This study utilizes longitudinal data on the West German subsample of the German Socioeconomic Panel for 1992 & 1996 to investigate the effects of unemployment on the probability to volunteer. Logistic regression analyses offer no evidence for the likelihood of taking up or maintaining volunteer work among the unemployed. On the other hand, the prospect of volunteering increases with a higher educational degree or secure family circumstances. Educational qualifications are in demand, and they also enable successful participation in the regular labor market. Among the homeless, particularly those who have little education, volunteering is not considered an adequate activity.
KEY WORDS: Federal Republic of Germany; Unemployment; Volunteers; Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Homelessness; Work Orientations; Economic Crises; Volunteer Work.

Erlinghagen, M. (2003). The individual returns of volunteer work. A contribution to a theory of unpaid and nondomestic private production. Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 55(4), 737-757.

In the debate on the future of voluntary work & honorary appointments, the question of the individual benefits assumes a special interest. It is obvious that an unpaid voluntary activity has to be regarded as work because of the expectation to yield a personal gain. Combining a sociological & a microeconomic perspective, this article shows that volunteering is part of the production process within the private household. Volunteers acquire benefits by reducing transaction costs in economies of scale & economies of scope.
KEY WORDS: Volunteers; Benefits; Social Participation; Private Sphere; Labor Process; Volunteer Work.

Frank-Alston, M. M. (2001). The influence of community service/volunteer work on perceptions of job satisfaction, job motivation, and organizational commitment on employees in a manufacturing plant. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 61(12-A), 4642.

This study explores the relationship between community service/volunteer work and perceptions of job satisfaction, motivation, and organizational commitment. The research focused on employees in a manufacturing firm in central Pennsylvania that sponsors a corporate volunteer program. Results support previous research which points to the effect these programs have on worker productivity issues of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation. Findings also extend previous findings associated with the attraction and retention of workers and building work force skills and attitudes that foster organizational commitment, company loyalty and job satisfaction. Also, it was found that volunteer activities provide employees with personal and professional growth.
KEY WORDS: Community Services; Job Satisfaction; Motivation; Organizational Commitment; Volunteers; Business and Industrial Personnel; Volunteer Work.

Fuertes, F. C., & Jimenez, M. V. (2000). Motivation and burnout in volunteerism. Psychology in Spain, 4(1), 75-81.

This study explores motivation in Spanish voluntary workers in the fields of AIDS and cancer. Results indicate the importance of other-oriented motivations for the permanence of volunteers in organizations. Data also show that the degree of burnout in volunteers in work is low.
KEY WORDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Motivation; Neoplasms; Occupational Stress; Volunteers; Volunteer Work.

Gagnon, E., & Sevigny, A. (2000). Permanence and changes in voluntarism. Recherches Sociographiques, 41(3), 529-544.

Voluntarism can take many forms. Public policy influences the nature & mode of its organization. However, a definition of voluntarism must also take into account the meaning that volunteers ascribe to their work and how their aspirations may be fulfilled through their activity. From this perspective, such elements as freedom to undertake the commitment, meaningful experience, and proximity between volunteers and those whom they assist are central in today's volunteer movement. This view give rise to a definition of volunteer work as a privileged moment for recognition of oneself and of others, and through the valuing of a situation or a form of conduct.
KEY WORDS: Work Attitudes; Work Orientations; Volunteers; Volunteer Work.

Gottlieb, B. (2002). Older volunteers: A precious resource under pressure. Canadian Journal on Aging, 21(1), 5-9.

From the literature on the extensive investment older adults make in volunteering, and on the findings of a study of 19 not-for-profit agencies that rely heavily on older adults to provide a variety of community services, This paper identifies several significant changes in the character of the clients who are served by elder volunteers in not-for-profit agencies and in government health policies affecting the delivery of community services. It offers suggestions for research and policy development that look to optimize the contribution that older volunteers make to society and the contribution that volunteering makes to the health and well-being of older adults.

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