Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making

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Bibliographic Databases


Sociological Abstracts


Worldwide Political Science Abstracts

Canadian Education Index

CBCA Full-text Education

Education-line: Electronic Texts in Education and Training


Representative Journals

Journal of Education and Work

Studies in Adult Education

Work and Occupations

Work, Employment and Society

Canadian Journal of Sociology

Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology

Annual Review of Sociology

American Journal of Sociology

British Journal of Sociology of Education

Contemporary Sociology

International Journal of Sociology

European journal of Women's Studies

Government Sources

Statistics Canada

US Department of Labour

US Department of education

International Labour Organization

Internet Search Engines

The following keywords, mostly drawn from prior bibliographic databases, were used to aid the initial search process for relevant work and learning studies:



Adult Education

Adult Students

Continuing Education

Educational Environment

Educational Needs

Educational Practices

Educational Policy

Experiential Learning

Formal Education

Informal Learning

Informal Education

Learning Theories

Learning Processes

Lifelong Learning

Nonformal Learning

Nonformal Education

Participatory Education

Prior Learning

Self-Directed Learning

Self-Planned Learning


Vocational Learning

Vocational Education

Workplace Training

Workplace Learning

Workplace Literacy

Work and Learning/ Learning and Work Relations

Career Development

Education Work Relationship

Professional Development

Skill Development

Education and Employment

Partnerships in Education

School to Work Transitions


Paid Work Employment Status

Knowledge Workers






Part-Time Work

Temporary Work

At Risk Workers

Disabled Workers

Immigrant Workers

Contingent Work


Service Personnel

Employee Attitudes, Morale, Motivation, Participation, Rights, Turnover

Employers’ Requirements

Employment Policy

Employment Practices

Employment Changes

Hiring Practices


Work Attitudes

Job Design





Changes in Paid Work

Unpaid Work

Volunteer Work

Community Work

Community Involvement

Household Work



Family Roles

Family Structure

Family-Work Relationship


Emotion work

Emotional labour

Care Work/Carework

Work and Family Policy

Work and Family Balance

Social Class

Class Analysis


Social Change


Organizational Change

Economic Change

Effects Of Social Change


Information Age

Information Economy

Information Society

Information Technology

Knowledge Based Economy (KBE)

Technology - Social Aspects

Economic Conditions

Economic Policy

Power Relations

Sex Roles

Division of Labour

Life Cycle

Sexual Division of Labour Demand-Control

Effort-Reward Imbalance

Social Control

Social Theories of Work and Learning

Research Methods

Case Studies

Social Surveys


Social Inequality

Social Justice




Labour Movement

Social Movements

Industrial Relations

Labour Relations

Labour Force

Quality of Work

Job Characteristics

Job Satisfaction

Job Security

Work and Stress

Working Hours


Hours of Work/Labour

Flexible Working Hours

Labour Laws And Legislation

Labour Market

Labour Supply

Labour Turnover


Labour Unions


Women in Trade-Unions

Women Labour Union

Labour Unions and Education

Labour Education

Teacher Work

Teaching Conditions

Teacher Hours of Work

Teacher Attitudes

Teacher Supply/Demand

Teacher Education

Student Teachers





Marital Status

Single Parents

Educational Status

Educational Attainment

Rural/Urban Regions


Immigrant Status


The current search was completed by relying on the general categories in the table of contents in conjunction with these keywords. Again, the emphasis throughout was on resources that addressed the relations between work and learning. The WALLRB is not intended to be inclusive of all relevant items but indicative of the diversity of issues and representative of the types of recent studies.
Each item contains basic citation information, an annotation and a set of keywords. Most annotations are based on publicly available sources provided through government agencies, most notably the ERIC database.
The WALLRB can be searched through the table of contents categories, keywords, or through a full-text search using any word contained within the references. Indexes of authors cited and keywords use in WALLRB are provided as search aids. Either web interface or MS Word search functions may be used. The WALLRB is available in several formats including standard printed form as well as different electronic forms (PDF, MS Word, searchable html, EndNote and RIS file format) which should make this database almost universally accessible. A printable electronic version of the WALLRB is accessible through the website, as well as through the website Together with the Centre for the Study of Education and Work (CSEW), the University of Toronto Library System has recently established a research repository which makes studies developed through the NALL and WALL research networks permanently available for public access through the UT Library Website ( A printed copy of the WALL Resource Base is accessible through the University of Toronto library system by publication title or authors:
Livingstone , D. W., Raykov, M., Pollock, K., Antonelli, F. Scholtz, A. & Bird, A. (2008). Work and Lifelong Learning Resource Base (WALLRB): Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making. (2nd ed.). Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto.
or by the WALLRB acronym. A interactive electronic version of the WALLRB is available through the WALL network web site at the OSE/UT website through the link The infrastructure of WALLRB is designed to facilitate continuing updating.
For quick review of the resource base, a short form of WALLRB containing only citations without annotations is also available on the WALL website under WALLRB (short form).
Most of the item-by-item search process was conducted by Milosh Raykov, Fab Antonelli, Katina Pollock, Antonie Scholtz and Anne Bird. They each handled major sections. Milosh integrated and formatted these materials. I was responsible for overall organization and final editing. Rhonda Sussman assisted with final editing. Others whose resource searches contributed to specific sections were: Victoria Bowman, Kathryn Church and Sandria Officer, as well as the students in my 2008 advanced research seminar: Ursule Critoph, Ahmed Ilmi, Lisa Koltowski, Diana Phayre, Dawn Sancho and Kevin Shimmin.
We are very grateful to OISE/UT Education Commons staff who assisted in the acquisition of library materials and development of the searchable web interface for the resource base, most notably Don Banh, Valerie Downs, Julie Hannaford and Judith Snow.
Any ideas for further development of the WALLRB are most welcome. Please send any comments or suggestions to Dr. D.W. Livingstone, Department of Sociology and Equity Studies, OISE/UT, 252 Bloor St. W., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1V6 (phone: 416 987-0015, email:
We hope the WALLRB will become a widely used resource base in learning and work studies as well as a building block for continuing research, teaching, policy formation and practice in this burgeoning field.

D.W. Livingstone July, 2008

Canada Research Chair in

Lifelong Learning and Work

Key Previous Reference Sources

Adams, M., Livingstone, D.W., Roth, R., Sawchuk, P., Terepocki, M. & Vanstone, S. (1999). Preliminary bibliography of the research network for new approaches to lifelong learning (NALL). NALL Working Paper No. 1. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

Livingstone, D.W. (ed.) (2006). NALL working papers: Annotated bibliography of studies based on data from the Research Network on New Approaches to Lifelong Learning. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at: and

Livingstone, D. W., Stowe, S. & Raykov M. (2003). Annotated bibliography on the changing nature of work and lifelong learning. WALL Working Paper 2. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

Luciani, T. (2001). Second NALL bibliography on informal and non-formal learning. NALL Working Paper No. 48. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

Chapter 1.
General Resources for Work and Learning

Section 1.1 Research Methods for Studying
Learning and Work Relations

Billig, S., & Waterman, A. S. (2003). Studying service-learning: Innovations in education research methodology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This book presents innovations in research methodology as these are implemented in the study of service-learning, and provides recommendations to professionals doing research on service-learning and on any form of experiential education or educational reform.
KEY WORDS: Education; Research; Methodology; Student Service; Experiential education.

Bray, M., Adamson, B., & Mason, M. (Eds.). (2007). Comparative education research: Approaches and methods. Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre (CERC) and Springer.

This book argues that approaches and methods in comparative education research are of high importance for educational theory, but do not always receive adequate attention. The book contributes new insights focusing on different units of analysis. Individual chapters compare places, systems, times, cultures, values, policies, curricula and other units of analysis. Each chapter is contextualized within broader analytical framework that identify the purposes and strengths of the field.
KEY WORDS: Comparative Education; Methodology; Educational Theory; Research.

Bridges, D., & Smith, R. (Eds.). (2007). Philosophy, methodology, and educational research. Malden, MA ; Oxford: Blackwell.

This book evaluates the variety of intellectual resources, research methods, methodological approaches and investigates what constitutes good educational research. A distinguished, international group of philosophers of education considers questions regarding the kind of research that can usefully inform policy and practice and inferences drawn from different kinds of research. The authors demonstrate the critical engagement of philosophers of education with the wider educational research community and illustrate the benefits that can accrue from such engagements.
KEY WORDS: Education; Research; Methodology; Philosophy.

Castro Nogueira, M. A., & Castro Nogueira, L. (2002). Toward a correct understanding of qualitative methodology. Politica y Sociedad, 39(2), 481-496.

Identifies ruptures between epistemology, theory, & technique in qualitative social investigations by drawing on the notion of social distinctions (Bourdieu, 1988) & subjectivity in methodology (Ibanez, 1979). As contemporary qualitative investigation has lost sight of the realization that facts & statistics are scientific constructions, that there must be a consistent understanding of the distinction between the social fact & the social process, & that sometimes this distinction is impossible to infer, this text explores the occurrence of fact & statistic in contemporary qualitative methodology.
KEY WORDS: Qualitative Methods; Social Science Research; Epistemology; Methodology (Philosophical); Social Facts; Social Processes.

Chafetz, J. S. (2004). Bridging feminist theory and research methodology. Journal of Family Issues, 25(7), 963-977.

People committed to a sociopolitical ideology have different skills relating to a social movement designed to bring about social change. Janet Chafetz contends that feminist social and behavioral scientists can maximize their movement contributions by doing excellent social science on gender issues; that is their unique contribution. She offers the development of gender theory including well-defined and empirically relevant concepts and the use of the most appropriate methodologies available to answer the specific questions raised by such theories.
KEY WORDS: Feminist Theory; Research Methodology; Theory Practice Relationship; Sex; Theoretical Problems; Methodological Problems; Social Science Research; Theory Formation.

Church, K. (2000). The communal 'we'? A conversation piece on the richness of being a network. NALL Working Paper No. 15. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

The focus of this paper is on those four or five places where NALL's conversations over the past few years have coalesced. These topics include creating spaces in which to work against the typical social relations of academic work, maintaining and extending collaborative working relationships between academics, labor and community groups/organizations outside of university and other institutional settings, making "common sense" of informal learning using divergent methods, clarifying or challenging the dominant definition of informal learning, and finally formulating strategies that would appropriately address the tendency of dominant groups and discourses to regulate and appropriate informal knowledge. This paper pays particular attention to the small case studies primarily because they are the most latent piece of NALL's work. This document is considered to be a place to begin a broader discussion.
KEY WORDS: Power Relations; Social Inequality; Work and Learning Relationships; Paid Work; Social Relations; Academic Work; Collaborative Work; Community Organizations; Informal Learning.

Dul, J., & Hak, T. (2007). Case study methodology in business research. Boston, MA: Elsevier.

This study provides the complete guide for how to design and conduct theory-testing and other case studies Case Study Methodology in Business Research sets out structures and guidelines that assist students and researchers from a wide range of disciplines to develop their case study research in a consistent and rigorous manner. It clarifies the differences between practice-oriented and theory-oriented research and, within the latter category, between theory-testing and theory-building. It describes in detail how to design and conduct different types of case study research, providing students and researchers with everything they need for their project.
KEY WORDS: Case Study; Methodology; Business Research.

Gee, M. K., & Ullman, C. (1998). Teacher/ethnographer in the workplace: Approaches to staff development. Grayslake, IL: Lake County College.

The use of ethnographic methods by teachers' to assess learning and staff development needs for workplace adult education programs is the focus of this article. Outlined are characteristics of the ethnographic researcher's approach and behavior as well as the following 4 stages of ethnographic research: (1) open-ended, inductive study; (2) structured observation; (3) analysis; and (4) speculation and sharing of findings. Data collection through photography and interviews is presented. Photography is used to create a record of the workplace, identify its technology status and needs, and create an image for later analysis and sharing. Noted are tips for taking and analyzing photographs. For interviews, 5 types of interview questions are discussed. They are: "grand tour" or overview; specific task-or area-related questions; asking for examples; eliciting experiences; and questions about use of job-related terminology. Authors highlight the benefits of using these data collection methods, and the similarities and differences in workplace and adult basic education.
KEY WORDS: Action Research; Adult Education; Data Collection; Educational Needs; Ethnography; Labor Force Development; Research Methodology; Staff Development; Teacher Role; Work Environment.

Giele, J. Z., & Elder, G. H. (1998). Methods of life course research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

What are the most effective methods for doing life course research? The field’s founders and leaders attempt to answer this question, giving readers tips on: the art and method of the appropriate research design; the collection of life-history data; and the search for meaningful patterns to be found in the results.
KEY WORDS: Social Sciences; Biographical Methods; Life cycle; Human Research Methodology.

Gobo, G. (2003). Qualitative methodology in localism and globalization. Quaderni di Sociologia, 47(32), 197-204.

While Denzin & Lincoln's American Handbook of Qualitative Research radically changed epistemological methods and approaches, and paved the way to new and innovative publications, many current published books do not go beyond their ethnocentric connotations with few including the very lively discussion on localism vs globalization concepts. By definition, an international publication must give the same consideration to every nation regardless of political and economical power. However, scientific publications on qualitative methodology, often presented as international, are in fact published only in English.
KEY WORDS: Qualitative Methods; Globalization; Localism.

Grant, G. (1999). Education, the life course and research. British Journal of Special Education, 26(2), 71-75.

Reviews, from a British perspective, the literature on lifelong inclusive education for individuals with learning disabilities. The role of the family, community, and society in an inclusive educational culture is discussed. The paper urges more longitudinal studies, structured evaluation of inclusive educational developments, basic research on different models of inclusive education, and cross-cultural research.
KEY WORDS: Foreign Countries; Inclusive Schools; Learning Disabilities; Lifelong Learning; Mental Retardation; Research and Development; Research Needs; Social Integration United Kingdom.

Green, J. L., Camilli, G., & Elmore, P. B. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of complementary methods in education research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

The Handbook of Complementary Methods in Education Research is a successor volume to AERA's earlier and highly acclaimed editions of Complementary Methods for Research in Education. More than any book to date, it brings together the wide range of research methods used to study education and makes the logic of inquiry for each method clear and accessible. Descriptions of each method include its history, research design, questions that it addresses, ways of using the method and ways of analyzing and reporting outcomes. This handbook is appropriate for teaching and graduate students, policy analysts, education researchers and other scholars seeking an accessible overview of state-of-the-art knowledge regarding specific methods.
KEY WORDS: Education; Methodology; Human; Research Methods.

Haig-Brown, C. (2000). Some thoughts on protocol in university/community parternships. NALL Working Paper No. 16. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

The pilot project, "A Pedagogy of the Land" (POL), provides an opportunity to ponder the relations between aboriginal community /university knowledges in this case, the relations between an Anishinaape land-based pedagogy and the developing theorizing around formal and informal learning. Traditional aboriginal education is not limited to elders teaching children. While elders are responsible for passing knowledge to the appropriate people when they are ready, any person older or more experienced in a particular knowledge than another has the potential to be that person's teacher. Education is a community responsibility taken seriously by each and every community member who at any moment can be in the position of teaching. The learning in POL does not fit any category of the "Basic Types of Intentional Learning." It involves traditional indigenous knowledge keepers with some fluency in their language whose knowledge arises from traditional Anishinaape world view in a program that allows them to build on one another's knowledge and prepare to pass it on to others who know less. Located on an isolated island in a large northern lake, POL has the goal to recreate indigenous knowledge in a contemporary context. Over a year, students attend two summer courses with an intervening research component. As participants work through their days in traditional activities, they incorporate sacred knowledge into their every action. Comments from Anishinaape teacher, Kaaren Dannenmann follow. (YLB)
KEY WORDS: Adult Education; Canada Natives; Colleges; Cultural Activities; Cultural Education; Culturally Relevant Education; Indigenous Populations; Informal Education; Instruction; Knowledge Base for Teaching; Nonformal Education; School Community Relationship; Student Empowerment; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Role; Theory Practice Relationship.

Haig-Brown, C. (2000). Taking down the walls: Communities and educational research in Canada's 21st Century. NALL Working Paper No. 17. Toronto: Centre for the Study of Education and Work, OISE/UT. Available at:

To take community seriously in the conduct of educational research, the researcher should consider taking down epistemological walls and the "real" ones that confine the processes and products of academic labor to artificially isolated settings. Epistemologically, the question of walls relates to the kinds of knowledge competed over, most often disciplinary knowledge. Within and around disciplinary walls are the walls of theory. Community in the context of the discussion means the creation of spaces that allow difference to be a constant, unpredictable part of who we are together. A pilot project, A Pedagogy of the Land (POL), is an example of current research in an attempt to take down the walls. POL involves traditional indigenous knowledge keepers with some fluency in their language whose knowledge arises from traditional Anishinaape world view in a program that allows them to build on one another's knowledge and prepare to pass it on to others who know less. POL addresses walls by taking the university a faculty member out of the walls of the campus. It begins from the premise that traditional knowledge has most often been pushed outside the epistemological walls of academe by being given inequitable status and prestige. What happens on the island in the north where POL is located is discourse that has been inaccessible to the English language, arises from the land, and is constructed by the people who have lived there since time immemorial. (Contains 13 references.) (YLB)

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