Materials for Teaching, Research and Policy Making



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KEY WORDS: Working Conditions; Work Environment; Europe; Labor Laws and Legislation; Employees; European Union Countries; Women; Employment; Quality of Work Life; Survey.

Riedmann, A., Bielenski, H., Szczurowska, T., & Wagner, A. (2006). Working time and work–life balance in European companies. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.


The Foundation's Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance 2004-2005 set out to map the use of a variety of working time arrangements in companies, to assess the reasons for their introduction and their impact. This report presents an overview of the survey's initial findings. It focuses on aspects such as flexible time arrangements in general, overtime, part-time work, nonstandard working hours, childcare leave and other forms of long-term leave, phased and early retirement and company policies to support work-life balance.
URL: http://www.eurofound.eu.int/pubdocs/2006/27/en/1/ef0627en.pdf
KEY WORDS: Working Time; Work-life Balance; European Union; Work Arrangements; Employment Surveys.

Parent-Thirion, A., Fernández Macías, E., Hurley, J., & Vermeylen, G. (2007). Fourth European working conditions survey. Dublin: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions.


EU policymakers recognize that improving working conditions is crucial to achieving a better quality of work, greater productivity and increased employment - the Lisbon objectives. In this context, the Foundation's European Working Conditions Surveys, conducted every five years, have been providing a valuable insight into key aspects of work since 1990. This report analyses the findings of the fourth European Working Conditions Survey, carried out in autumn 2005 across 31 countries, including the 27 EU Member States. Based on workers' responses, it paints a broad and varied picture of the physical, intellectual and psychological dimensions of work and its impact on personal fulfillment and work-life balance.
KEY WORDS: Employment Survey; Working Conditions; Exposure; Physical Agents; Noise; Radiation; Vibration; Physical Workload; Mental Strain; Work Organization.

Wallace, C., Pichler, F., & Hayes, B. C. (2007). First European quality of life survey: Quality of work and life satisfaction. Luxembourg: Office for official publications of the European Communities.


This analytical report addresses the important question concerning the extent to which quality of work influences overall quality of life. More specifically, the report undertakes a detailed analysis of how working conditions, job satisfaction and work-life balance affect life satisfaction. Central to this analysis is describing how the characteristics of the work situation affect the subjective life satisfaction of an individual. In doing so, the report reaches some significant conclusions, in particular the strong correlation between working conditions and job satisfaction, which in turn is shown to affect a person's overall life satisfaction.
KEY WORDS: Quality of Life; Questionnaires; Contentment; Self-realization; European Union Countries.
Other European Union Surveys.
DARES. (1998). Working Conditions Survey. Paris, FR: Direction de l'Animation de la Recherche, des Études et des Statistiques (DARES) - Ministère de l'Emploi et de la Solidarité.
This survey was conducted by the French Direction de l'Animation de la Recherche, des Études et des Statistiques (DARES) - Ministère de l'Emploi et de la Solidarité. The objective was to study working conditions and organization and their evolution during the last two decades. The target population was the active population of all the economic activities, and the sample size was approximately 20 000 persons.

This survey is a complement of the INSEE Employment survey. This survey covers only metropolitan France. Only private households are included. The survey also covers part of the population living in collective households and some persons who are counted separately, insofar as they have family ties with ordinary households. The resident population comprises persons living on French territory. The complementary surveys questionnaire is applied to each active working individual in the household. The worker has to answer personally. Subjects considered in the questionnaire include: Design of work stations, exposure to physical agents (noise, radiation, vibration, etc.), physical workload, mental strain, work organization issues.


KEY WORDS: Employment Survey; Working Conditions; Exposure; Physical Agents; Noise; Radiation; Vibration; Physical Workload; Mental Strain; Work Organization.

Jansen, R., & Dostal, W. (1998). Qualification and Course of Employment: Germany BIBB/IAB-survey. Nuernberg: Bundesinstitut fuer Berufsbildung Bonn (BIBB) and Institut fuer Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung der Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeit, Nuernberg (IAB).


This survey was conducted by the Federal Institute for Vocational Training Affairs (BIBB)/Institute for Employment Research (IAB). The stated objective was to assess the working population and their actual working conditions. The population consisted of people with more than nine working-hours/week who must be able to answer the German questionnaire (no translation into foreign languages). Apprentices were not included. The population size was approximately 34 thousand employees. Interviews were conducted face to face.

Each one of the four surveys treats a specific topic. 1985/86 treated the effects of computerization and 1991/92 compared the working conditions between East Germany and West Germany after the reunification. All four survey programmers included questions related to occupational risk and occupational demands. Subjects considered in the survey include: occupational safety and health (OSH) management, design of work stations, exposure to physical agents (noise, radiation, vibration, etc.), exposure to chemical agents, exposure to biological agents, safety at the workplace, physical workload, mental strain, work organization issues, social environment (participation and consultation, equal opportunities, violence at work, etc.), occupational and health outcomes.


URL: http://info1.za.uni-koeln.de/dbksearch/SDESC2_eng.asp?no=3379&search=BIBB & search2=&DB=E
KEY WORDS: Work Responsibilities; Working Conditions; Job Stress; Work Changes; Occupations; Education; Further Education; Mobility.
DETEFP. (2000). Survey on workers' working conditions. Lisbon: Departamento de Estatística do Trabalho, Emprego e Formação Profissional.
The increasing need for information concerning working conditions justified the inclusion of complementary data related to the working environment that were not included before, such as: ergonomic conditions, more detailed information about the working station, degree of autonomy, absenteeism levels and opportunities for mobility, among other items gathered in this occasion by means of face-to-face interviews. This survey was conducted by the Departamento de Estatística do Trabalho, Emprego e Formação Profissional (DETEFP) do Ministério do Trabalho e da Solidariedade (MTS). The stated objectives were to characterise labour conditions which may be hazardous to the health and safety of the worker; to identify activity sectors, professional occupations and other target groups most vulnerable to occupational risks; and to improve knowledge of services and equipment for the protection and prevention against occupational risks available at the workplace.

The sample size was 5000 workers. Subjects considered in the questionnaire include: occupational safety and health (OSH) management, exposure to physical agents (noise, radiation, vibration, etc.), exposure to chemical agents, exposure to biological agents, safety at the workplace, occupational and health outcomes. As well as ergonomic conditions, working time, commuting time, social conditions (distance between home and workplace, means of transportation used, holidays given, subsidies earned...), accidents at work and occupational diseases.


KEY WORDS: Occupational Safety and Health; Management; Design of Work Stations; Exposure to Physical Agents; Noise; Radiation; Vibration; Employees Working Conditions; Technical Innovation; Training, Risks Assessment; Health Examinations; Ergonomic Conditions; Working Time; Commuting Time; Social Conditions; Accidents at Work; Occupational Diseases.

ISFOL. (2002). Features and quality of work in Italy [Le Caratteristiche e la Qualità del Lavoro in Italia]. Rome: ISFOL - Istituto per lo sviluppo della formazione professionale dei lavoratori.


This survey, conducted by the ISFOL - Istituto per lo sviluppo della formazione, attempts to define features of work and working conditions in Italy. The sample size was approximately 2,000 persons. Interviews were conducted at home.
KEY WORDS: Features of Work; Working Conditions; Atypical Workers.

Smulders, P. (2002). TNO working situation survey. Hoofddorp, The Netherlands: TNO Work & Employment.


This survey, conducted by TNO Work & Employment was designed to describe the work situation of Dutch workers. The population consisted of people 15-65 years of age, of all the economic activities except: forestry, logging and related service activities; fishing, operation of fish hatcheries and fish farms; service activities incidental to fishing; mining of coal and lignite; extraction of peat; extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas; service activities incidental to oil and gas extraction, excluding surveying; mining of uranium and thorium ores; mining of metal ores; and other mining and quarrying (NACE codes). Interviews were conducted by mail, with a sample size of approximately 4 000. Subjects considered in the questionnaire included: occupational safety and health (OSH) management, design of work stations, exposure to physical agents (noise, radiation, vibration, etc.), exposure to chemical agents, exposure to biological agents, safety at the workplace, physical workload, mental strain, work organization issues, social environment (participation and consultation, equal opportunities, violence at work, etc.), occupational and health outcomes.
URL: http://www.tno.nl/kwaliteit_van_leven/publicaties/tno_work_situation_survey/ improvement_of_productivity.pdf
KEY WORDS: Occupational safety and health; Management; Design of Work Stations; Exposure to Physical Agents; Noise; Radiation; Vibration; Chemical Agents; Biological Agents; Physical Workload; Mental Strain; Work Organization; Job Security.

INSHT. (2002). National working conditions survey. Madrid: National Institute of Health and Safety at Work (INSHT).


This survey was conducted by the Spanish National Institute for Health and Safety (INSHT). The objectives were to gain knowledge of those work environment factors that are generating illness or discomfort in the Spanish working population; to identify the Spanish worker population's typical working conditions; to understand the current preventive structures; to assess preventive activities based upon research, intervention actions or training acts; and to gain knowledge of the evolution of the Spanish working population labour conditions.

The target population consisted of all companies operating in Spain with more than one worker in all economic activities, except farming and mining sectors. The selection of the workers was at random among the employees considering all present workers in the working centre at that time, including in-house workers and those belonging to other companies such as subcontracts and temporary employment agencies (ETT). The selected workers answered the worker questionnaire. Only one employee was interviewed in companies with less than 250 employees and two were interviewed in companies with more than 250. The resultant sample size was 3 419 face to face interviews to employers and 3 702 interviews to employees. Subjects included in the questionnaire include: occupational safety and health (OSH) management, design of work stations, exposure to physical agents (noise, radiation, vibration, etc.), exposure to chemical agents, exposure to biological agents, safety at the workplace, physical workload, mental strain, work organisation issues, social environment (participation and consultation, equal opportunities, violence at work, etc.), occupational and health outcomes. As well as employees working conditions, labour conditions (in terms of contractual relationships), technical innovation performed by the companies, (machinery and equipment) OSH activities (training, information about security and health, risks assessment and health examinations).


KEY WORDS: Occupational Safety and Health; Management; Design of Work Stations; Exposure to Physical Agents; Noise; Radiation; Vibration; Employees Working Conditions; Technical Innovation; Training, Risks Assessment; Health Examinations.


V. Other Country Surveys on Learning and Work

Surveys on Work and Learning in Finland


Blomqvist I. et al. (1995). Participation in adult education and training in Finland. Adult education survey 1995. Helsinki: Statistics Finland.
The 1995 Adult Education Survey reports the following: Half of the population attended adult education in 1995; Women are more active than men; Activity depends on initial education; About 43 per cent of labour force are in work-related adult education; Increasing numbers of wage earners are in employer-sponsored training; Big companies are the most active in staff training; Work-related training brings new job tasks; Almost two in three are interested taking part in further work-related training; Self-improvement and professional development are the primary motives for training; Time pressure in the workplace is the main obstacle to participation in employer-sponsored training; Financial restraints are the main obstacle to education during out-of-work time.
URL: http://www.stat.fi/tk/he/aku95b_text_en.html
KEY WORDS: Educational Surveys; Finland; Adult Education; Participation.

Blomqvist, I., & et al. (2000). Adult education survey 2000: Introduction and questionnaire. Helsinki: Statistics Finland.


The purpose of the Adult Education Survey 2000 was to produce statistical data and publications relating to adult education and learning, which can be used in planning and decision-making concerning adult education and learning, and which offer a comprehensive and reliable foundation for public discussion. This is the fourth Survey on participation in adult education and training implemented by Statistics Finland.
URL: http://www.stat.fi/tk/he/aku00_ennakko_lomake_en.pdf
KEY WORDS: Educational Surveys; Employment Surveys; European Union Countries; OECD Countries; Adult Education; Higher Education; College Costs; Youth; Young Adults; Attitudes; Education; Employment; Vocational Guidance; Academic achievement; Continuing Education; Occupational Learning; Experiential Learning; Occupational Training; Socioeconomic Factors.

Blomqvist, I., & al., e. (2000). Adult education survey 2000. Helsinki: Statistics Finland.


The purpose of the Adult Education Survey 2000 is to produce statistical data and publications relating to adult education and learning, which can be used in planning and decision-making concerning adult education and learning, and which offer a comprehensive and reliable foundation for public discussion. This is the fourth Survey on participation in adult education and training implemented by Statistics Finland.

The Adult Education Survey 2000 is the fourth survey carried out by Statistics Finland on the subject of participation in adult education and training. The previous Adult Education Surveys are from 1980, 1990 and 1995. The surveys were made as joint projects with the Ministry of Education. The target population of the Adult Education Survey 2000 are permanent residents of Finland aged 18 to 79. A total of 5,000 persons were selected for the sample by systematic sampling. The data was collected by face-to-face interviews from February to June 2000. The total number of responses was 3,602. Some of the results of the survey include the facts that: More than half of the population participated in adult education and training; Most of adult education and training was work-related; More than half of employees participated in employer-sponsored training; One fifth of adults studied for other than work-related reasons.


URL: http://www.stat.fi/tk/he/aku00_ennakko1_en.html
KEY WORDS: Educational Surveys; Employment Surveys; European Union Countries; OECD Countries; Adult Education; Higher Education; College Costs; Youth; Young Adults; Attitudes; Education; Employment; Vocational Guidance; Academic Achievement; Continuing Education; Occupational Learning; Experiential Learning; Occupational Training; Socioeconomic Factors.

Statistics Finland. (2000). Adult education survey. Helsinki: Statistics Finland.


Statistics Finland has conducted four surveys concerning participation in adult education. The data for the first survey were collected in 1980. The survey has been conducted at five-year intervals since 1990, and the next data collection will take place in 2006. The surveys have been joint projects with the Ministry of Education, which has also provided most of the funding for them. In addition, the 2006 survey is part of a European co-operative project coordinated by the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat). Adult education surveys study participation in education, as well as learning and skills among the adult population. In addition, they produce data about people's opinions and experiences of adult education, their willingness and need to participate in it, and obstacles to and preconditions for it. Adult education is described by its organisers, contents, scope and perceived effects. Data on specific, additional topics, such as information technology or foreign language skills and diverse everyday learning environments have also been collected on each survey round. Since the 1990 data collection, the collected information has included large volumes of data describing the working lives and work histories of the adult population. The population of the survey has been the resident adult population of Finland, defined in each survey as all persons aged 18 to 64 and living permanently in Finland. Depending on specific research requirements, the upper age limit of the population has sometimes been raised; for example up to 79 in the 2000 survey. The data from the survey are based on face-to-face interviewing of a sample of approximately 5,000 people. The sample of the 2006 survey will comprise approximately 6,800 persons. The data for the next adult education survey will be collected in 2011, integrated into a corresponding survey concerning studying and learning among the adult population in the Member States of the European Union. Preliminary data on the survey for 2006 will be available in the first half of 2007. The basic report will be written during 2007.
URL: http://tilastokeskus.fi/til/aku/index_en.html
KEY WORDS: Educational Surveys; Employment Surveys; European Union Countries; OECD Countries; Adult Education; Higher Education; College Costs; Youth; Young Adults; Attitudes; Education; Employment; Vocational Guidance; Academic achievement; Continuing Education; Occupational Learning; Experiential Learning; Occupational Training; Socioeconomic Factors.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. (2000). Finnish quality of work life surveys. Work and health survey. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
This survey was conducted by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. The stated objectives include: collecting follow up information on working conditions and other work related factors, health, well-being and work ability of the working population, health related lifestyle factors, use of healthcare services, and the functioning of occupational health services. The target population consisted of Finnish speaking people between age 25-65 years (population of working age). The size of this population was 2 800 861. Interviews were conducted by telephone with a response rate of 56% in 2000.

Subjects considered in the questionnaire included: occupational safety and health (OSH) management, design of work stations, exposure to physical agents (noise, radiation, vibration, etc.), exposure to chemical agents, exposure to biological agents, safety at the workplace, physical workload, mental strain, work organisation issues, social environment (participation and consultation, equal opportunities, violence at work, etc.), and occupational and health outcomes.


URL: http://www.occuphealth.fi/

URL: http://www.eurofound.eu.int/publications/files/EF04111EN.pdf


KEY WORDS: Employment Surveys; Health Surveys; European Union Countries; Quality of Life; Socioeconomic Factors.

Surveys on Work and Learning in Sweden.


Statistics Sweden. (1999). The work environment survey. Stockholm: Statistics Sweden.
Statistics Sweden has conducted continuous surveys on working conditions in Swedish working life since 1989, by questioning a sample of 10 000-15 000 individuals every second year. Some of the questions were also asked in connection with a survey conducted in 1984. The questions in the 1999 Work Environment Survey were asked as supplementary questions in SCB's Labour Force Surveys (LFS) in October-November 1999, and via questionnaires that were sent to those who had answered the supplementary questions. The data collected in LFS can be used as background information, e.g. to allow separate presentation of data for different groups in working life.

This Statistical Report presents results from the 1999 survey, along with certain results from the earlier surveys. The results for all questions included in the survey are presented both as overall results and for women and men separately, with a breakdown into three age classes. For selected questions, the presentation also follows a relatively detailed classification by occupation and economic activity and a socioeconomic breakdown. The selection of questions was made jointly by SWEA and SCB.


URL: http://www.av.se/dokument/statistik/english/Work_Environment_1999.pdf
KEY WORDS: Employment Surveys; Sweden; Work Environment; Working Conditions; Social Aspects; Public Opinion.
Statistics Sweden. (2001). Working environment survey: Swedish Work Environment Authority (SWEA) & Statistics Sweden (SCB).
This survey was conducted by Statistics Sweden (SCB) on behalf of the Swedish Work Environment Authority (SWEA). The objective of the survey is to gather data on both physical and psychological work environment conditions. The target sample is the working population (employees, self-employed persons and family workers) of all the economic activities. The sample size was 12,000. Interviews were conducted by telephone and postal questionnaire.

Subjects considered in the questionnaire include: occupational safety and health (OSH) management, design of work stations, exposure to physical agents (noise, radiation, vibration, etc.), exposure to chemical agents, exposure to biological agents, safety at the workplace, physical workload, mental strain, work organisation issues, social environment (participation and consultation, equal opportunities, violence at work, etc.), occupational and health outcomes.


KEY WORDS: Employment Surveys; Sweden; Work Environment; Working Conditions; Social Aspects; Public Opinion.

Statistics Sweden. (2003). Staff training statistics. Stockholm/Örebro: Statistics Sweden.


Statistics on staff training give information on the further education, competences and utilisation of the workforce and can be seen as belonging to both labour market statistics and education statistics. The statistics measure the scope and content of staff training on a half-yearly and calendar year basis. The survey is carried out as a complementary survey to the Labour Force Survey (AKU). AKU is carried out every month. Supplementary questions on staff training are set twice yearly, in June and in December. The survey in June relates to the first half of the year and the December measurement relates to the second half of the year. AKU covers all registered persons in Sweden, aged between 16 and 64. The sampling frame is the Total Population Register. Questions on staff training are only set to the gainfully employed.

The sample for staff training statistics is approximately 13 000 persons. Data collection is carried out by computer-assisted telephone interviews. The type of staff training measured involves training that the employer or the company has paid for, in part or in total. Costs for staff training are measured using a template method in combination with information on the scope of the staff training and information from Statistics Sweden's wage statistics.


URL: http://www.scb.se/templates/Standard____23983.asp

URL: http://www.scb.se/statistik/UF/UF0502/_dokument/TekniskCVTS.pdf



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