Master bibliography for sports in society, 1994–2009 Note

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Note: This 121-page master bibliography contains about 3000 references that I’ve used while writing and rewriting Sports in Society since the early 1990s. It can be used by those doing word searches for references. Some references from the 10th edition (2009) may not be included in this version of the bibliography.
60 Minutes; “Life after the NFL: Happiness.” Television program, (2004, December); see also,

AAA. 1998. Statement on “Race.” Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association. (retrieved June, 2005).

Abdel-Shehid, Gamal. 2002. Muhammad Ali: America’s B-Side. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 26, 3: 319–327.

Abdel-Shehid, Gamal. 2004. Who da man?: black masculinities and sporting cultures. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.

Abney, Roberta. 1999. African American women in sport. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 70(4), 35–38.

Abrams, Judith Z. 1998. Judaism and disability: Portrayals in ancient texts from the Tanach through the Bavli. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press

Acker, Joan. 1992. Gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21, 5: 565–569.

Acker, Joan, K. Barry, and J. Esseveld. 1983. Objectivity and truth: problems in doing feminist research. Women’s Studies International Forum 6: 423–435.

Acker, Joan. 1992. Gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology 21, 5: 565–69.

Acosta, R. Vivian. 1993. The minority experience in sport: Monochromatic or Technicolor. Pp. 204–13 in

Acosta, Vivian. 1999. Hispanic women in sport. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 70, 4:, 44–46.

Acosta, R.Vivian, and Linda J. Carpenter. 1985. A. Women in athletics: a status report. B. Status of women in athletics: changes and causes. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 56, 6: 30–37.

Acosta, R.V., and L.J. Carpenter. 1986. Women in intercollegiate sport: a longitudinal study--nine year update. Unpublished paper.

Acosta, R. Vivian, and Linda J. Carpenter. 1992. As the years go by—Coaching opportunities in the 1990s. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 63, 3: 36–41.

Acosta, R.V., and L.J. Carpenter. 1992. Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal study  fifteen year update. Unpublished paper.

Acosta, R. Vivian, and Linda J. Carpenter. 1996. Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal study—Nineteen year update, 1977–1996. Brooklyn, NY: Photocopied report.

Acosta, Vivian, and Linda Carpenter. 2000. Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal study twenty-three year update, 1977–2000. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal 9, 2: 141–145.

Acosta, R. Vivian, and Linda Jean Carpenter. 2004. Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study Twenty Seven Year Update, 1977–2004.

Acosta, R. Vivian, and Linda Jean Carpenter. 2007. Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study Twenty Nine Year Update, 1977 – 2006. Available online, (retrieved, 1/15/08).

Adams, S. 1994, Work ethic leads to tight end’s success. The Denver Post December 19:5D.

Adang, O. 1993. Crowd, riots and the police: An observational study of collective violence. Aggressive Behavior 19, 37–38.

Adelson, Eric. 2002. Hot to trot. ESPN The Magazine 5, 13 (June 24): 74–76.

Adelson, Eric. 2003. Driven. ESPN, The Magazine 6.26 (December 22): 70–71.

Adelson, Eric. 2006. Michelle Wie can change the world. ESPN-The Magazine 9.03 (February 13): 65–66.

Adler, Patricia A., and Peter Adler. 1991. Backboards & blackboards: College athletes and role engulfment. New York: Columbia University Press.

Adler, Patricia A., and Peter Adler. 1994. Social reproduction and the corporate other: The institutionalization of after school activities. The Sociological Quarterly 35, 2: 309–28.

Adler, Patricia A., and Peter Adler. 1996. Preadolescent clique stratification and the hierarchy of identity. Sociological Inquiry 66, 2: 111–42.

Adler, Patricia A., and Peter Adler. 1998. Peer Power: Preadolescent culture and identity. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Adler, Patricia A., and Peter Adler. 1999. College athletes in high-profile media sports: The consequences of glory. In J. Coakley & P. Donnelly, eds., Inside Sports (pp. 162–170). London: Routledge.

Adler, Peter, and Patricia A. Adler. 1985. From idealism to pragmatic detachment: the academic performance of college athletes. Sociology of Education 58 (October): 241–250.

Adler, Peter, and Patricia A. Adler. 1987. Role conflict and identity salience: college athletics and the academic role. The Social Science Journal 24(4):443–455.

Adler, Patricia A., S. J. Kless, and Peter Adler. 1992. Socialization to gender roles: Popularity among elementary school boys and girls. Sociology of Education 65 (July): 169–87.

Aiello, Maria. 2006. A brief history of sport. In Pontifical Council for the Laity. The world of sport today: A field of Christian mission (pp. 13–21). Città del Vaticana: Libreria Editrice Vaticana.

Albert, Edward. 2004. Normalizing risk in the sport of cycling. In Kevin Young, ed. Sporting bodies, damaged selves: Sociological studies of sports-related injury (pp. 181–194). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Albert, M. 1996. Science, post modernism, and the left. Z. Magazine 9 (July/August) 64–69.

Alesia, Mark. 2004. Lawmaker to the NCAA: Get tougher or be taxed. Indianapolis Star (May 19): Accessed 5/19/04.

Alesia, Mark. 2005. Off court, schools lacking color: Most players are black, but few male students are. Indianapolis Star (March17): 1A

Alexander, K., A. Taggart, and S. Thorpe. 1996. A spring in their steps? Possibilities for professional renewal through sport education in Australian schools. Sport, Education, and Society 1, 1: 23–46.

Alfred University. 1999. Initiation rites and athletics: A national survey of NCAA sports teams. See

Ali-Knight, Jame & Chambers, Donna. 2006. Case studies in festival and event marketing and cultural tourism No. 92

Allen, K. 1998. Hockey players easily shift from thugs to tugs of heart. USA Today, Dec. 2, 1A & 1C.

Allison, Lincoln, 1993. The changing politics of sport. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Allison, Lincoln, 2000. Sport and nationalism. In J. Coakley and E. Dunning, eds. Handbook of sports studies (pp. 344–355). London: Sage Publications, Ltd.

Allison, Lincoln. 2004. The global politics of sport: the role of global institutions in sport. London/ New York: Routledge.

Allison, Maria T. 1979. On the ethnicity of ethnic minorities in sport. Quest 31, 1: 50–56.

Allison, Maria T., and C. Meyer. 1988. Career problems and retirement among elite athletes: The female tennis professional. Sociology of Sport Journal 5, 3: 212–222.

Allison, Maria T., and Gunter Luschen. 1979. A comparative analysis of Navajo Indian and Anglo basketball sport systems. International Review of Sport Sociology 3 4(14):75–85.

Althiede, David L., and R.P. Snow. 1978. Sports versus the mass media. Urban Life 7, 2:189–204.

American Academy of Pediatrics. 2000. Intensive training and sports specialization in young athletes. (RE9906). Pediatrics 106, 01: 154–157 (or

Anderson, C.H., and J.R. Gibson. 1978. Toward a new sociology. The Dorsey Press, Homewood, Ill.

Anderson, Dean. 1993. Cultural diversity on campus: A look at collegiate football coaches. Journal of Sport & Social Issues 17, 1: 61–66.

Anderson, Eric. 1999. Comparing the black and gay male athlete: Patterns of oppression. Paper presented at the annual conference of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Cleveland, OH (November).

Anderson, Eric. 2000. Trailblazing: The True Story of America’s First Openly Gay Track Coach. Los Angeles, CA: Alyson Publications.

Anderson, Eric. 2002. Gays in sport: Contesting hegemonic masculinity in a homophobic environment. Gender & Society 16, 6: 860–877.

Anderson, Eric. 2002. Hegemonic masculinity in a homophobic environment. Gender and Society 16, 6: 860–877.

Anderson, Eric. 2004. Exploitation of the scholarship athlete. Unpublished manuscript.

Anderson, Eric. 2005. In the game: Gay athletes and the cult of masculinity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Anderson, Kristen L. 1999. Snowboarding: The construction of gender in an emerging sport. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 23, 1: 55–79.

Anderson, P. 1996. Racism in sports: A question of ethics. Marquette Sports Law Journal 6, 2: 357–408.

Anderson, Sarah, and John Cavanagh. 2000. The top 200. Washington, DC: Institute for Policy Studies.

Andersson, Mette. 2007. The Relevance of the Black Atlantic in contemporary sport: Racial imaginaries in Norway. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 42, 1: 65–82.

Andrews, David L. 1996a. The fact(s) of Michael Jordan’s blackness: Excavating a floating racial signifier. Sociology of Sport Journal 13, 2: 125–158.

Andrews, David L., ed. 1996. Deconstructing Michael Jordan: Reconstructing postindustrial America. Sociology of Sport Journal 13, 4. Special issue.

Andrews, David L. 2000. Posting up: French post-structuralism and the critical analysis of contemporary sporting culture. In Jay Coakley and Eric Dunning, eds., Handbook of sport studies (pp. 106–138). London: Sage.

Andrews, David L., ed. 2001. Michael Jordan, Inc.: Corporate sport, media culture, and late modern America. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Andrews, David L. 2001. Sport. In Culture works: The political economy of culture (pp. 131–162) edited by R. Maxwell, ed. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Andrews, David L. 2002. Coming to terms with cultural studies. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 2002 26, 1: 110–117.

Andrews, David L. 2006. Sport, commerce, culture: Essays on sport in late-capitalist America. NY: Peter Lang.

Andrews, David L. 2007. Sport as spectacle. In George Ritzer, eds., Encyclopedia of sociology (pp. 4702–4704). London/New York: Blackwell.

Andrews, David L., and C.L. Cole. 2002. The nation reconsidered. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 26, 2: 123–124.

Andrews, David L., and Steven J. Jackson. 2001. Sport stars: The cultural politics of sporting celebrity. London/NY: Routledge.

Andrews, David L., and Michael Silk. 1999. Football consumption communities, trans-national advertising, and spatial transformation. Paper presented at the annual conference of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Cleveland, OH (November).

Andrews, Vernon. 1998. African American player codes on celebration, taunting, and sportsmanlike conduct. Pp. 145–181 in G. Sailes, ed. African Americans in sport. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Angelini, James R. 2008. How did sport make you feel? Looking at the three dimensions of emotion through a gender lens. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 58, 1-2: 127–135.

Anonymous. 1999. Confessions of a cheater. ESPN The Magazine, 1 November, 80–82.

AP – Associated Press. 2000. Fox relishes his role as Lakers’ enforcer. The Denver Post (June 20): C10.

Applebome, Peter. 1999. Alma maters: Two words behind the massacre.,

Araton, Harvey. 2002. Playing with pain has no gender. The New York Times (December 22):

Arbena. J. L. 1988. Sport and society in Latin America: Diffusion, dependency, and the rise of mass culture. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Archer, R. and A. Bouillon. 1982. The South African game: Sport and racism. Zed Press, London.

Ardell, Jean Hastings. 2004. Breaking into baseball: women and the national pastime. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Ardrey, Robert. 1961. African genesis. New York: Dell.

Ardrey, Robert. 1966. The territorial imperative. New York: Atheneum.

Armstrong, Gary. 1994. False Leeds: The construction of hooligan confrontations. Pp. 299– 325 in R. Giulianotti & J. Wiliams, eds. Game without frontiers: Football, identity and modernity. Aldershot, England: Arena (Ashgate Publishing Ltd.).

Armstrong, Gary, and R. Harris. 1991. Football hooligans: Theory and evidence. Sociological Review 39, 3: 427–58.

Armstrong, Gary. 1998. Football hooligans: Knowing the score. Oxford: Berg.

Armstrong, Gary. 2006. Football hooliganism. In George Ritzer, ed. Encyclopedia of sociology (pp. 1767–1769). London/New York: Blackwell.

Armstrong, Jim. 2000. Coors Field is not the patient’s place. The Denver Post (April 24): 3D.

Arnold, P. J. 1996. Olympism, sport, and education. Quest 48, 1: 93–101.

Asay, Paul. 2005. Opening church’s doors first step to conversion. The Colorado Springs Gazette (December 11): Accessed 12/11/2005.

Ash, M.J. 1978. The role of research in children’s competitive athletics. In R.A. Magill, et al., eds. Children in sport: a contemporary anthology. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Champaign, Ill.

Ashe, Arthur. 1977. Send your children to the libraries: an open letter to black parents. New York Times, section 5, p. 2, Feb. 6.

Ashe, Arthur. 1992. Can blacks beat the old-boy network? Newsweek, January 27: 40.

Ashe, Arthur. 1993. A hard road to glory. 3 vols. New York: Amistad.

Assael, Shaun. 2005. Cut and run. ESPN The Magazine 6.14 (July 7): 40–49.

Assael, Shaun. 2005. Shape shifter. ESPN The Magazine 8.09 (May 9): 88–96.

Atencio, Matthew, and Jan Wright. 2008. “We be killin’ them”: Hierarchies of black masculinity in urban basketball spaces. Sociology of Sport Journal 25, 2: 263–280.

Atkinson, Michael. 2002. Fifty-million viewers can’t be wrong: Professional wrestling, sports-entertainment, and mimesis. Sociology of Sport Journal 19, 1: 47–66.

Atlanta Journal/Constitution. 1996. America’s Olympic teams are increasingly marked by less diversity, more elitism. October 1: H7. Special report.

Atre, T., et al. 1996. Sports: The high-stakes game of team ownership. Financial World 165, 8 (May 20): 52–70.

Atwell, R. 1985. It’s only a game. In D. Chu, et al., eds. Sport and higher education. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Champaign, Ill.

Aveni, A.F. 1976. Man and machine: some neglected considerations on the sociology of sport. Sport Sociology Bulletin 5, 1: 13–24.

Axthelm, Pete. 1970. The city game. New York: Harper & Row.

Azzarito, L., & Solomon, M. A. (2005). A reconception of physical education: the intersection of gender/race/social class. Sport Education and Society 10, 1: 5–48.

Baade, R. A., and R. F. Dye. 1988. An analysis of the economic rationale for public subsidization of sports stadiums. The Annals of Regional Science 22, 2: 37–47.

Baade, R. A., and R. F. Dye. 1990. The impact of stadiums and professional sports on metropolitan area development. Growth and Change: A Journal of Urban and Regional Policy 21, 2: 1–14.

Baade, R.A. 1987. Is there an economic rationale for subsidizing sport stadiums? The Heartland Institute, Chicago.

Baca, Lawrence R. 2004. Native images in schools and the racially hostile environment. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 28, 1: 71–78.

Bacon, Victoria L., and Pamela J. Russell. 2004. Addiction and the College Athlete: The Multiple Addictive Behaviors Questionnaire (MABQ) with College Athletes. The Sport Journal 7, 2: online at

Bagnato, A. 1995. The buck stops nowhere. Chicago Tribune, 6 August, 1, 5.

Bailey, N. 1993. Women’s sport and the feminist movement: Building bridges. Pp. 297–304 in G. Cohen, ed. Women in sport: Issues and controversies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Bain, L. 1978. Differences in values implicit in teaching and coaching behaviors. Res. Q. 49(1):5–11.

Bain, L. 1978. Differences in values implicit in teaching and coaching behaviors. Research Quarterly 49, 1: 5–11.

Baird, Katherine E. 2005. Cuban Baseball: Ideology, Politics, and Market Forces. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 29, 2: 64–183.

Bairner, A. 1996. Sportive nationalism and nationalist politics: A comparative analysis of Scotland, the Republic of Ireland, and Sweden. Journal of Sport & Social Issues 20, 3: 314–34.

Bairner, Alan. 2001. Sport, nationalism, and globalization: European and North American Perspectives. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Bairner, Alan. 2004. Inclusive Soccer–Exclusive Politics? Sports Policy in Northern Ireland and the Good Friday Agreement. Sociology of Sport Journal 21, 3: 270–286.

Bairner, Alan, ed. 2005. Sport and the Irish. Histories, Identities, Issues. Dublin: University College Dublin Press.

Baker, Joseph, and J. Robertson-Wilson. 2003. On the risks of early specialization in sport. Physical and Health Education Journal 69: 4–8.

Baker, R. 1984. Sport’s a rotten influence. Colorado Springs Sun, p. 13, April 30.

Baker, William J., and C. Alexander. 2001. If Christ came to the Olympics. Seattle. WA: University of Washington Press.

Baker, William J. 1982. Sports in the western world. Rowman & Littlefield, Totowa, N.J.

Baker, William. J. 1988. Sports in the Western world. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Bale, John. 1991. The brawn drain: Foreign student-athletes in American universities. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Bale, John. 2002. Lassitude and latitude: observations on sport and environmental determinism. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 37 (2): 147–158.

Bale, John and Mette Christensen, eds. 2004. Post-Olympism: Questioning sport in the twenty-first century. Oxford/New York: Berg.

Bale, John, and Mike Cronin, eds. 2003. Sport and postcolonialism. Oxford/New York: Berg.

Bale, John, and J. Maguire, eds. 1994. The global sports arena: Athletic talent migration in an interdependent world. London: Frank Cass.

Bale, John, and J. Sang, eds. 1996. Kenyan running: Movement culture, geography and global change. London: Frank Cass.

Ball, Donald W. 1975. A note on method in the sociology of sport. In D.W. Ball and J.W. Loy, eds. Sport and social order. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc., Reading, Mass.

Ballanger, Lee. 1981. Editorial. In Your Face: America’s Bluecollar Sport Letter 1, 4: 1.

Ballard, Chris. 2004. Fantasy world. Sports Illustrated 100, 25 (June 21): 80–89.

Ballard, Steve. 1986. The most powerful woman in sports. Sports Illustrated 65, 14: 56–58, 67–68.

Ballard, Steve. 1996. Broken back doesn’t stall Indy winner. USA Today (May 28): A1.

Bamberger, Michael, and Don Yaeger. 1997. Over the edge. Sports Illustrated 86, 15: 60–70.

Bandow, Doug. 2003. Surprise: Stadiums don’t pay after all! Cato Institute Report, 10/19/03. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.

Banet-Weiser. Sarah. 1999. Hoop dreams: Professional basketball and the politics of race and gender. Journal of Sport & Social Issues 23, 4: 403–420.

Banks, Dennis. 1993. Tribal names and sports mascots. Journal of Sport & Social Issues 17(1), 5–8.

Barber, Bonnie L., Jacquelynne S. Eccles, and M. R. Stone. 2001. Whatever happened to the jock, the brain, and the princess? Young adult pathways linked to adolescent activity involvement and social identity. Journal of Adolescent Research 16, 5: 429–455.

Barkley, Charles. 1992. Petty issues won’t change the world. USA Today, Aug. 5:7E.

Barnes, B.A., Susan G. Zeiff, and Dean I. Anderson. 1999. Racial difference and social meanings: Research on “Black” and “White” infants’ motor development, 1931–1992. Quest 51, 4: 328–345.

Barnett, C.R. 1982. The reaction of the popular press to the last two black National Football League players, 1932–1934. Paper presented at the meetings of the North American Society for Sport History, Manhattan, Kans.

Barnett, S. 1990. Games and sets: The changing face of sport on television. London: British Film Institute (BFI Publishing).

Barney, Robert K., Stephen R. Wenn, and Scott G. Martyn. 2002. Selling the five rings: the International Olympic Committee and the rise of Olympic commercialism. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.

Barr, S. 1987. Women, nutrition, and exercise: a review of athletes’ intakes and a discussion of energy balance in active women. Progress in Food and Nutrition Science 11: 307–361.

Barthes, Roland. 2007. What is sport? New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press.

Bartimole, Roldo. 1999. The city and the stadia (panel). Presentation at the annual conference of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Cleveland, OH (November).

Basralian, J. 1995. Amateurs ... at best. Financial World 164, 4 (February 14): 117–22.

Bass, A. 2002. Not the triumph but the struggle: The 1968 Olympics and the making of the black athlete. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Bast, Joseph L. 1998. Sports stadium madness: Why it started, how to stop it. Heartland Policy Study, No. 85. Chicago: Heartland Institute.

Baxter, V., A. V. Margavio, and C. Lambert. 1996. Competition, legitimation, and the regulation of intercollegiate athletics. Sociology of Sport Journal 13, 1: 51–64.

BBC Sport Academy. 2005. Rugby League – Disability. Online, (retrieved November, 2005).

Beal, Becky, and Lisa Weidman. 2003. Authenticity in the skateboarding world. In Robert E. Rinehart Synthia Sydnor, eds. 2003. To the extreme: Alternative sports, inside and out (pp. 337–352). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Beal, Becky. 1995. Disqualifying the official: An exploration of social resistance through the subculture of skateboarding. Sociology of Sport Journal 12, 3: 252–67.

Beal, Becky. 1999. Skateboarding: An alternative to mainstream sports. In J. Coakley and P. Donnelly, eds., Inside Sports (pp. 139–145). London: Routledge.

Beal, Carol. R. 1994. Boys and girls: The development of gender roles. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Beals, Katherine A. 2000. Subclinical eating disorders in female athletes. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 71, 7: 3–29.

Beamish, Rob. 1988. The political economy of professional sport. In J. Harvey and H. Cantelon, eds. Not just a game. Ottawa, Ontario: University of Ottawa Press.

Beamish, Rob. 1990. The persistence of inequality: An analysis of participation patterns among Canada’s high performance athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 25, 2: 143–53.

Beamish, Rob. 1993. Labor relations in sport: Central issues in their emergence and structure in high-performance sport. pp. 187–210 in A. G. Ingham and J. W. Loy, eds. Sport in social development. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Beamish, Rob, and Ian Ritchie. 2004. From chivalrous ‘brothers-in-arms’ to the eligible athlete: Changed principles and the IOC’s banned substance list. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 39, 4: 355–371.

Beamish, Rob, and Ian Ritchie. 2006. Fastest, highest, strongest: a critique of high-performance sport. NY/London: Routledge.

Beaton, Rob. 1993. Mexicans best-suited to pitch, scouts say. USA Today Baseball Weekly (February 24–March 2): 11

Bechtel, Mark, and Stephen Cannella. 2005. Scoredcard: Cable ready. Sports Illustrated 103, 8 (August 29): 16–17.

Becker, A. 1990. The role of the school in the maintenance of ethnic group affiliation. Human Organization 49: 48–55.

Becker, Debbie, 1996. Nothstein: ‘I enjoy the pain’. USA Today (July 24): 14E, 17E.

Becker, Debbie. 1999. Leaping past the pain. USA Today (April 1): 1E, 4E.

Becker, J. 1975. Superstition in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology 6, 3: 148–152.

Begg, D. J., J. D. Langley, T. Moffitt, and S. W. Marshall. 1996. Sport and delinquency: An examination of the deterrence hypothesis in a longitudinal study. British Journal of Sport Medicine 30, 4: 335–41.

Begley, Sharon. 1995. Three is not enough. Newsweek, February 13: 67–69.

Begley, Sharon. 2002. Science of speed. Newsweek, 18 February, 56–57.

Begley, Sharon, and M. Brant. 1999. The real scandal. Newsweek, 15 Feb., 48–55.

Beiruty, Hikmat. 2002. Muslim Women in Sport. Nida’ul Islam Magazine. (retrieved, Oct 15, 2005).

Bélanger, A. 1999. The last game? Hockey and the experience of masculinity in Québec. Pp. 293–311 in P. White & K. Young, eds. Sport and gender in Canada. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Bell, Jack. 2005. M.L.S. has a wide range of salaries. New York Times (July 11). Online: (retrieved July 14, 2005).

Bell, Wendell. 1997. Foundations of futures studies. Two volumes. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Bell, Wendell. 1997. The purposes of future studies. The Futurist (November1): 1–19. Online,

Bell, Wendell, and James Mau. 1971. Images of the future: Theory and research. In W. Bell and J. Mau, eds., The sociology of the future (pp. 6–44). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Bellamy, R. V., Jr. 1998. The evolving television sports marketplace. Pp. 173–87 in L. A. Wenner, ed. MediaSport. London/NY: Routledge.

Beller, J. M., and S. K. Stoll. 1995. Moral reasoning of high school athletes and general students: An empirical study versus personal testimony. Journal of Pediatric Exercise Science 7: 352–363.

Bellos, Alex. 2002. Futebol: the Brazilian way of life. NY: Bloomsbury.

Belson, Ken. 2003. The N.B.A. takes its style and attitude to Japan. The New York Times, section D (October 30): 6

Belson, Matthew. 2002. Assistive technology and sports. In Artemis A. W. Joukowsky, III and Larry Rothstein, eds. Raising the bar (pp. 124–129). New York: Umbrage Editions, Inc.

Bender, D. L., ed. 1988. What should be done about the drug problem in sports? St. Paul, MN: Greenhaven Press.

Benedict, Jeff. 1997. Public heroes, private felons: Athletes and crimes against women. Boston: Northeaster University Press.

Benedict, Jeff. 1998. Athletes and acquaintance rape. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Benedict, Jeff. 2004. Out of bounds: inside the NBA’s culture of rape, violence, and crime. New York: HarperCollins.

Benedict, Jeff. and A. Klein. 1997. Arrest and conviction rates for athletes accused of sexual assault. Sociology of Sport Journal, 14: 1: 86–94.

Benedict, Jeff, and Don Yaeger. 1998. Pros and cons: The criminals who play in the NFL. New York: Warner Books.

Benedict, Ruth. 1961. Patterns of culture. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.

Benford, Robert D. 2007. The college sports reform movement: Reframing the “edutainment” industry. Sociological Quarterly 48, 1: 1–28; online,

Ben-Porat, Guy, and Amir Ben-Porat. 2004. (Un)Bounded Soccer: Globalization and Localization of the Game in Israel. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 39, 4: 421–436.

Bentz, R. 1996. Robinson for three. Sports Spectrum (June): 14–15.

Berger, Jody. 1999. Alone at the top. ESPN The Magazine, 29 Nov., 128–131.

Berger, Jody. 2002. Pain Game. Rocky Mountain News (February 23): 6S.

Berger, Jody. 2004. Straight shooter. The Denver Post (January 24): 1B,

Berghorn, Forrest J., Norman R. Yetman, and William E. Hanna. 1988. Racial participation and integration in men’s and women’s intercollegiate basketball: Continuity and change, 1958–1985. Sociology of Sport Journal 5, 2: 107–124.

Bergsgard, Nils A. et al. 2007. Sport policy: a comparative analysis of stability and change. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Bergsgard, Nils Asle, and Hilmar Rommetvedt. 2006. Sport and politics: The case of Norway. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 41, 1: 7–28.

Berkowitz, L. 1969. Roots of aggression: a reexamination of the frustration-aggression hypothesis. Atherton Press, New York.

Berkowitz, L. 1972a. Sports, competition, and aggression. In Proceedings: 4th Canadian Psycho-Motor Learning and Sport Symposium, Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa.

Berkowitz, L. 1972b. Social psychology. Scott, Foresman & Co., Glenview, Ill.

Berkowitz, Leonard. 1969. Roots of aggression: A reexamination of the frustration-aggression hypothesis. New York: Atherton Press.

Berlage, Gai I. 1982. Children’s sports and the family. ARENA Review 6(1):43–47.

Berlant, Anthony R. 1996. Building character or characters? What the research says about sport participation and moral development. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (Supplement): A-95.

Bernstein, Alina. 2002. Is it time for a victory lap?: Changes in the media coverage of women in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 37, 3–4: 415–428.

Bernstein, Alina, and Neil Blain, eds. 2003. Sport, media, culture: Global and local dimensions. London: Frank Cass.

Berra, Lindsey. 2005. This is how they roll. ESPN The Magazine 8.24 (December 5): 104–111.

Berri, David J.; Martin B. Schmidt, and Stacey L. Brook. 2006. The wages of wins: taking measure of the many myths in modern sport. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.

Berryman, Jack. 1982. The rise of highly organized sports for preadolescent boys. In R.A. Magill, et al., eds. Children in sport. Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Champaign, Ill.

Best, Amy L. 2007. Book Review: The games black girls play: Learning the ropes from double-dutch to hip-hop. By Kyra D. Gaunt New Brunswick, NJ: New York University Press, 2006. Gender and Society 21, 3: 447–449.

Best, C. 1987. Experience and career length in professional football: The effect of positional segregation. Sociology of Sport Journal 4, 4: 410–20.

Bhasin, S., et al. The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. The New England Journal of Medicine 335, 1 (July 4): 1–7.

Bierman, J. A. 1990. The effects of television sports media on black male youth. Sociological Inquiry 60, 4: 413–27.

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Billings, Andrew C., and Fabio Tambosi. 2004. Portraying the United States vs Portraying a Champion: US Network Bias in the 2002 World Cup.

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