Mark Scheme for Assessment Causes of Second World War



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Mark Scheme for Assessment Causes of Second World War
1. 9 marks



Country


Name

What he wanted



France


Georges Clemenceau

Revenge. Make Germany pay.

Stop Germany invading again





Britain

David Lloyd George



To stop Germany invading again. Worried that too harsh a treaty would make Germany vengeful



USA




Woodrow Wilson


Wanted to use his ’14 points’.

Wanted a lasting peace based on ’14 points’.


Award one mark for each name and two marks for what each wanted. In order to achieve level 6 students must link to either how peace could have been achieved or outbreak of WW2.




Level

National Curriculum

Evidence of |Attainment


3

Simple Knowledge

Correctly gives name or vague statement i.e. Revenge

4

Factual Knowledge & Understanding.

Correctly gives name and vague statements i.e. Revenge, stop Germany invading again

5

Increasing depth of factual knowledge & understanding.

Correctly gives name and gives more detailed statements of what each wanted.

6

Factual Knowledge & understanding of a key aspect of history.

As above but makes links to outbreak of WW2 or how peace could have been achieved

2. 6 marks

Award one to two marks for each term. In order to achieve level 6 students must link to stirring up hatred of German people, rise of Hitler, outbreak of WW2 or impossibility of peace.


Level

National Curriculum

Evidence of |Attainment

3

Simple Knowledge

Vague statements – making Germany pay, Revenge

4

Factual Knowledge & Understanding.

Correctly identifies terms of treaty – brief statements only - Reparations, Reduction of army, giving up colonies, League of Nations, taking land away from Germany.

5

Increasing depth of factual knowledge & understanding.

Correctly identifies terms of treaty – but gives more details – figures, statistics etc.

6

Factual Knowledge & understanding of a key aspect of history.

As above but links to stirring up hatred of German people, rise of Hitler, outbreak of WW2 or impossibility of peace.

3. 1 mark for correct answer - 1933
4. 20 marks

Date

What Hitler Did

How other countries responded

1933



Rearmament – built up army and navy in secret

Did nothing because hoped strong Germany would stop communism from being a threat to Europe

1936



Invaded Rhineland – area west of Rhine. Hitler said German lands should be protected by German troops

Did nothing – many thought that it was reasonable for Germany to protect her own land


1938



Anschluss with Austria – Sent troops into Austria then held fixed election of people

Austria asked Britain, Italy, France for help, but they did nothing fearing another war

1938



Invaded Sudetanland – region of Czechoslovakia. Said that most people who lived there were German anyway

Neville Chamberlain met with Hitler. Munich agreement made – Hitler said if he could have Sudetenland then he would stop. Chamberlain believed he had prevented war

1939

Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia

Nothing, but France and Britain promised to help Poland if Hitler invaded.

1939

Hitler made an agreement with Stalin – non-agression pact – agreed to divide Poland between them. 1st September Hitler invaded Poland.

Britain and France declared war on Germany – but did not send soldiers to Poland.

As a general rule give one mark for each date given correctly, up to two marks for what Hitler did and up to two marks for how other countries responded.




Level

National Curriculum

Evidence of |Attainment

3

Simple Knowledge

Identifies one or two dates, one word answers only – rearmament, Rhineland, nothing etc

4

Factual Knowledge & Understanding.

Identifies up to three dates, one or two word answers only.

5

Increasing depth of factual knowledge & understanding.

Identifies at least three dates and able to give more detailed explanations.

6

Factual Knowledge & understanding of a key aspect of history.

As above but able to give reasons why actions taken

5. 4 marks – Give one mark for each statement - League of Nations established by Treaty of Versailles. All countries of the world to be members and disputes to be settled by talking instead of fighting. If no agreement then other countries had the power to force them to agree by cutting trade links or by using peace keeping forces. Set up in 1919. Failed because not supported by USA.




Level

National Curriculum

Evidence of |Attainment


3

Simple Knowledge

Vague statement to do with peace

4

Factual Knowledge & Understanding.

Gives one or two facts

5

Increasing depth of factual knowledge & understanding.

More detailed explanation

6

Factual Knowledge & understanding of a key aspect of history.

As above but includes why failed.

6. 10 marks




Levels

National Curriculum

Evidence of Attainment

4

Combines Information and makes inferences and deductions.

Marks 1 - 2: League of Nations not complete – USA sleeping, not doing anything

5

Draws upon knowledge to begin to evaluate the source but lacks detail

Marks 3 - 4: As above but explains which countries were active parts of League. Mentions usefulness.


6

  • Evaluate sources, which they use critically to reach & support conclusions.

  • Describe different interpretations of the past.

Marks 5 - 6:

  • As above but explains how interpretation useful– gives detail of what the picture shows - USA did not join the league. Concludes this is why League failed.

  • Interpretation that USA is the missing link in bridge to peace between nations

7

  • Evaluate sources & combine them with knowledge.

  • They explain how & why different historical interpretations have been reached.

Marks 7 – 8:

  • Picture shows that League bound to fail because USA did not join. Mentions Isolationism.

  • Treaty of Versailles set up League to establish peace but because USA not part of it it was bound to fail. Mentions usefulness and reliability and assesses each.

8

They analyse and explain different historical interpretations & are beginning to evaluate them.

Mark 9 - 10: Assesses usefulness and reliability. Mentions facts about the source and failure of League due to isolationism and USA not wanting to be Europe’s policeman. May consider power of USA and ulterior motive behind not joining League.

7. 3 marks –


Giving in to Hitler – 1 mark

Britain and France followed a policy of giving in to Hitler’s demands providing they were reasonable – 2 marks

Munich Agreement an example of Appeasement – gives details. – 3 marks
8. 6 marks
Give one mark for each argument for and against
For – Germany deserved a fair deal, Britain needed time to build up defences, British public opinion against war, Fear of another war, fear of communism
Against – it encouraged Hitler, Germany more difficult to defeat, Munich agreement a disaster, Hitler lied,

Level

National Curriculum

Evidence of |Attainment

4

Factual Knowledge & Understanding.

Identifies one or two arguments, brief statements only

5

Increasing depth of factual knowledge & understanding.

Gives 6 statements with some explanation.

6

Factual Knowledge & understanding of a key aspect of history.

As above but able to give reasons why actions taken

9. 6 marks




Levels

National Curriculum

Evidence of Attainment

4

Combines Information and makes inferences and deductions.

Marks 1 - 2: Explains source shows man waving a letter, deduces must be to do with peace or with war.

5

Draws upon knowledge to begin to evaluate the source but lacks detail

Marks 3 - 4: As above but mentions Chamberlain


6


Evaluate sources to reach & support conclusions.

Can explain consequences and their importance



Mark 5: Explains source shows Chamberlain returning from Munich agreement having made peace with Hitler, but Hitler lied and there was war anyway.

7

Evaluate sources & combine them with knowledge.

Mark 6: As above but more detailed account given. Must explain that document worth nothing because Hitler had lied.

10. 25 marks




Levels

Attainment targets

Evidence of attainment

4

1. Gives reasons for historical events

2. Combines information and makes

inferences and deductions.

3. Ability to structure ideas and to select

and deploy information appropriately,

but very descriptive and generalised.

4. They describe some of the changes

within and across periods.



Marks 1 - 6 Agrees with statement. Lists details of Versailles and shows that hatred of Germans led to Hitler being elected and therefore war.

5

1. Demonstrates knowledge of the

different periods involved.

2. Makes links and connections between

causes and consequences of changes.

3. Begins to classify causes.

4. Demonstrates understanding of links

between changes.

5. Well structured work using correct

concepts and terminology


Marks 7 – 12: As above but also mentions either appeasement, League of Nations or Hitler’s foreign policy and gives some details . Includes conclusion based on discussion.

6

1. Beginning to identify some causes as

particularly important.

2. Draws upon outline knowledge to

make links and connections.

3. Considers the significance of the main

changes that took place.

4. Approach more analytical and uses

material to support arguments but

lacks detail


Marks 13 - 18: Assesses question with regard to Treaty of Versailles , failure of League of Nations, appeasement, and Hitler’s foreign policy. Identifies some features as being more important. Makes links between some aspects – ie – if no Treaty of Versailles then maybe Hitler would not have been elected. Billion, Size of the German Army.

7

1. Uses facts to support understanding

of the political, economic and military

aspects of a period.

2. Draws upon knowledge to make links

and connections and to ascribe

particular significance to some aspect

of the changes.

3. Work shows greater evidence of

independence with detail deployed

more appropriately and the analysis

and judgements are more structured.


Marks 19 -23: Shows detailed knowledge and understanding of Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations, Appeasement and Hitler' s foreign policy.

Makes links between each topic and explains that some are more important reasons for outbreak of WW2.



Shows good line of argument with sound conclusion based on material given.


8

Their explanations of reasons, events, results of events are set in a wider historical context.

Marks 23 – 25: As above but makes a judgement in their conclusion – eg. If Treaty of Versailles less harsh then no WW2 and world would be a different place.



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