Marisa Marshalka



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Marisa Marshalka

Honors U.S. History II- B Block

CRM Assessment

4/30/12


It is undisputable that the rights of all Americans, no matter the race, gender, or sexuality, need to be represented equally. However, rather than strengthen the protection such minorities, the Civil Rights Movement has caused harm to the United States because of the manner in which it occurred, by influencing social groups to further segregation in instances when the movement failed, and by forcing authority figures to take violent stances against opposition.
Free Speech Movement

The photograph is depicting hundreds students congregating at UC Berkeley in 1960 to protest against a visit by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). ON the first day of protests, 31 students were arrested, which was so inspiring to other students that the Free Speech Movement began. Students believed that they were justified in giving political protests in public and that they had the right to support black civil rights. The Free Speech Movement was one of many that showed the possibility of spreading your opinion peacefully and making a change without resorting to violence.


Kjobech, Chris. "UBB Message - ReaderRant." Photo. 1965. ReaderRant. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. .
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) evolved into The Weathermen Underground
SDS, originally a group who protested against war and violence, dramatically changed when their tactics when they were not successful in the Civil Rights Movement and evolved into the Weathermen. According to the FBI, the Weathermen Underground was categorized as having a “purpose of which serve to acknowledge his revolutionary obligations to the international communist movement and at the same time create the conditions for a revolution in the mother country” (2). The Weathermen were looked at as a group of terrorists and extremist who posed a threat to the United States. Rather than uniting the nation, SDS turned into a group that scared the nation and threatened national security. The Weatherman “consistently carried out with Marxist-Leninist conception of armed struggle within the U.S.” (2), which was very scary to people of both races. The failure of the Civil Rights Movement to give the minorities and underprivileged equal treatment left many angry and resentful, leading to dangerous protest groups.
"Weatherman Underground Summarry 8/20/76." FBI Records: The Vault. The FBI, 28 Mar. 2011. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. .
Declaration of Constitutional Principles”
In the South, the ruling of Brown v Board of Education was not accepted easily. White parents and black parents both found the prospect of integrating schools dangerous and unpleasant. The black parents were afraid for their children’s safety. The white communities did not accept the ruling because of their racist personalities. The members of the House of Representatives and the Senate from many southern states created the “Declaration of Constitutional Principals” to “appeal to the States and people who are not directly affected by these decisions to consider the constitutional principles involved against the time when they too, on issues vital to them may be the victims of judicial encroachment.” In the south, they believed that the federal government had no power to force states to integrate schools. This divided the nation further by placing representatives of the white people against the very limited representatives of the black people. This placed areas in the Deep South behind the times of other areas because the real desegregation of schools did not occur until the 1970s.
United States. Cong. Declaration of Constitutional Principles. Cong. Doc. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. .
Failure of Equal Rights Amendment

The Civil Rights Movement stood for more than just the black citizens of the U.S. because the women fought to be represented as well. The ERA stated that “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.” This part of the Civil Rights Movement was not supported by all women and there were different stances on this amendment. Phyllis Schlafly and her “STOP ERA” campaign were influential to the amendments failure, which shows that the Civil Rights Movement had the ability to put people against each other, even if they were originally part of the same group.


“Why." Equal Rights Amendment. Alice Paul Institute. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. .
An American Dilemma by Gunnar Myrdal
The American Dilemma analyzes the U.S.’s failure to accomplish what they had set out to do during World War II. The goal was to have a victory at home and abroad that would eliminate violence born of racism overseas and domestically. However, this goal was not reached because of the white men in the U.S. who did not want to take responsibility for their actions. In Myrdal’s book he states that “white prejudice and discrimination keep the Negro low in standards of living, health, education, manners and morals. This, in its turn, gives support to white prejudice. White prejudice and Negro standards thus mutually ‘cause’ each other.” Myrdal is correct in his analysis because he shows the great divide between whites and blacks at this time because they both had prejudices for one another. As a race, the blacks had never been treated as equals to the whites, which inspired their hatred, and the whites were distant from the blacks because of their inherent racist values that were taught from generation to generation.
Myrdal, Gunnar. "An American Dilemma:." Google Books. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. .
Response to Murder of Emmett Till

"...We Are Out To Get The Two Killers Of That Boy..."


“They are worser than savages. They are not human. If we could only get to them we would cut off their hand and feet and burn there eyes out. But they and all who stick whit them is going to get it so help us God if we have to start a revolution down South… We mean every word we say. We are watching every move.”
Analysis: On September 27, 1955 there was a letter written to “Sir Jude or Dist Attorney To whom it may concern” regarding the murder of Emmett Till and the desire for harsh punishment on those charged with the crime. The letter was written by a group of black men, and possibly women, who wanted it to be known that a “human bein is a human bein no matter what color you are.” The black community had felt so persecuted and dehumanized throughout their history in the United States that they were taking advantage of this one crime to lash out at the white men responsible. It is extremely unfair to the black people writing this letter that “you can come from any place in this world and your skin is white you are better than an American Negro.” However, their anger was blinding them in their search for justice as they were left with the tactics of violence. The authors of the letter stated that “we have boys from all groups and we have Porto Ricans, West Indies and East Indies, American Negroes all races. We have cars to go to the South and we are out to kill every Southern that is a criminal if they go free…We shall get them no matter where you put them.” When this group of blacks expresses such hatred for another race they are supporting the divide between races that harmed the United States due to the Civil Rights Movement. Even though the black authors are justified in their anger, their willingness to attack the men charged with the crime proves not to be the right path of action.

""...we Are out to Get the Two Killers of That Boy..."" PBS. PBS, 27 Sept. 1955. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. .


Witnesses
1. Malcom X

“We want no part of integration with this wicked race of devils…A bill that is owed to us must be collected.”


Before Malcolm left the Nation of Islam, he made the “Black Revolution” speech to an audience of underprivileged blacks to rally them on the cause of black separatism. Malcom X wanted to incite the anger towards whites that that was buried within the black community so that they could rise up and form a nation of their own. He preached that “no one is more innocent than the poor, blind American so-called Negro who has been led astray by blind Negro leaders, and no one on earth is more guilty than the blue-eyed white man who has used his control and influence over the Negro leader to lead the rest of our people astray.” The social divide that Malcom X was instigating has left a negative impact even until today because of the mistrust that both races seem to generally have for one another. Malcom X labeled the white Americans as the guilty ones, which they were for the most part, but he did not preach the aspect of forgiveness that would keep the nation united as a whole.
X, Malcom. "The Black Revolution June, 1963." Malcolm-x.org. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. .
2. President Lyndon B. Johnson

Detroit Race Riot

The Detroit Race riots that were sparked from the “rubbing of races” that occurred in the city, left devastating results. Over the course of five days, 33 blacks and 10 whites were killed, 1,189 were injured and over 7,200 people were arrested. It is approximated that 2,500 stores were looted. The total property damage was estimated at about $32 million. This was the largest urban uprising since the death of Martin Luther King Jr. With President Johnson on the stand he can explain the way that the horrors of riots reached across the nation and impacted everyone. President Johnson authorized use of Federal troops, who were allowed to fight an insurrection in any state against the government, to help reduce the size of the disaster. President Johnson acted in compliance with the Insurrection Act of 1807, which was granted by the Governor of Michigan on Monday, July 24. The race riots prove the deeper segregation that was created by the Civil Rights Movement because of the black community that lived in Detroit was brutally affected, while the white community that lived in the suburbs was not harmed to the same extent.


Riots in Detroit: July 1967. The National Archives and Records Administration, Special Media Archives Services Division, College Park, MD., 23 Aug. 2006. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. .
3. Stokely Carmichael

Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) evolved into The Black Panthers

In October of 1966, the Black Panther Party Platform and Program was released citing many reasonable demands, but additionally many demands that would forever impact the separation between the white and black community. The Black Panthers made it clear that the believed in black communities running their own businesses and that “if the white American businessmen will not give full employment, then the means of production should be taken from the businessmen and placed in the community so that the people of the community can organize and employ all of its people and give a high standard of living.” This seems to be leaning towards a possibly socialist platform because they want a guaranteed income by the government. The Black Panthers were the most extreme in their desire to protect their own people. The believed they could end police brutality in their communities by “organizing black self-defense groups that are dedicated to defending our black community from racist police oppression and brutality.” This idea created a violent reputation for the Panthers who worked to protect their own but did not care about any other Americans.


"The Panthers' Ten-Point Platform." PBS. PBS, 23 Aug. 2006. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. .
4. Gunnar Myrdal

As a witness, Myrdal would provide the viewpoint that the white communities in the U.S. are at fault for the low quality of living of the black communities. Myrdal once said that “the big majority of Americans, who are comparatively well off, have developed an ability to have enclaves of people living in the greatest misery without almost noticing them.” This shows that the people who have the power to easily make changes in our society would rather allow things to remain as they are so that they can stay at the top, either socially, economically, or both. The U.S. was harmed by the Civil Rights Movement not because of what it was intended to produce, but because of the backlash that the upper class exhibited when their positions were threatened.

Myrdal, Gunnar. "Gunnar Myrdal: Prize Lecture." The Official Website of the Nobel Prize. 1992. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. .

Works Cited


""...we Are out to Get the Two Killers of That Boy..."" PBS. PBS, 27 Sept. 1955. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. .
Kjobech, Chris. "UBB Message - ReaderRant." Photo. 1965. ReaderRant. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. .
Myrdal, Gunnar. "An American Dilemma:." Google Books. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. .
Myrdal, Gunnar. "Gunnar Myrdal: Prize Lecture." The Official Website of the Nobel Prize. 1992. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1974/myrdal-lecture.html
Riots in Detroit: July 1967. The National Archives and Records Administration, Special Media Archives Services Division, College Park, MD., 23 Aug. 2006. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. .
"The Panthers' Ten-Point Platform." PBS. PBS, 23 Aug. 2006. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. .
United States. Cong. Declaration of Constitutional Principles. Cong. Doc. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. .

"Weatherman Underground Summarry 8/20/76." FBI Records: The Vault. The FBI, 28 Mar. 2011. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. .



“Why." Equal Rights Amendment. Alice Paul Institute. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. .
X, Malcom. "The Black Revolution June, 1963." Malcolm-x.org. Web. 26 Apr. 2012. .


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