Marcel Mauss a general Theory of Magic



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part of their profession. It is possible to believe that it was also in these schools of magic that a scientific tradition and methods of intellectual scholarship were developed. In the lower strata of civilization, magicians are scholars and scholars are magicians. Shape-changing bards of the Australian tribes are both scholars and magicians. So are the following figures in Celtic literature: Amairgen, Taliessin, Talhwiarn, Gaion, the prophets, astrologers, astronomers and physicians, who seemed to have gained their knowledge of nature and its laws from the cauldron of the witch Ceridwen.
Though we may feel ourselves to be very far removed from magic, we are still very much bound up with it. Our ideas of good and bad luck, of quintessence, which are still familiar to us, are very close to the idea of magic itself. Neither technology, science, nor the directing principles of our reason are quite free from their original taint. We are not being daring, I think, if we suggest that a good part of all those non-positive mystical and poetical elements in our notions of force, causation, effect and substance could be traced back to the old habits of mind in which magic was born and which the human mind is slow to throw off.
We are confident that, for this reason, we shall find magical origins in those early forms of collective representations which have since become the basis for individual understanding. Thus, as we said in the beginning, our work has not been merely a chapter in religious sociology, but is also a contribution to the study of collective representations. General sociology may even gain some profit-and we hope this may be so-since we believe that we have shown, with regard to magic, how a collective phenomenon can assume individual forms.
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INDEX
a Aborigines, 26, 65, 151

Africa, 39, 82

Agobard of Lyons, 113

agricultural magic, 29

alchemy, 24, 64, 90-2, 93, 121, 123-5, 128, 176, 177

Algonquin magic, 20 n3, 45, 104, 131, 141, 146

American magic, 63, 74, 102 ;

(Central), 142 ;

(North), 45, 104, 139

angels, 103, 104

animism, 15, 42, 130, 135

anointing, 71

apparitions, 113

Arabs, 39

archangels, 103

Arunta tribe, 20 n1, 26, 37, 47, 52, 103, 118, 123, 142

Assyrian magic, 21 n7, 39, 56, 76, 99, 104, 122, 131

astral body, 113, 150, 151

astrology, 57, 176, 177

Australian magic, 20 n1, 45, 74, 102, 103, 115, 142, 159, 165 ;

see also names of tribes

b Baffin Land, 51

Baganda tribe, 82

Balkans, 99, 100

Banks Islands, 20 n2, 48, 135

Bekker, B., 113

belief in magic, 113-21

Berthelot, P. E. M., 21 n8, 177

black magic, 84, 85, 89, 104, 115, 147, 167

Blau, L., 21 n7

Bloomfield, M., 21 n6

Booandik tribe, 39

Borneo, 166

Brahman magic, 19, 21 n6, 33, 39, 41, 46, 56, 64, 85, 87, 104, 143-4, 155

c Caland, W., 21 n6

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Cambodian magic, 104

Catharists, 38

Catholicism, 38, 114, 117

causality, 17, 78, 95, 99, 140

Celts, 19, 37, 54

Chalmers, 38

charms, 37, 53, 105, 123, 130, 140

Cherokee tribe, 20 n3, 45, 56, 58, 59, 61, 65, 67, 95, 99, 102, 114, 157, 172

children, 36, 102

China, 115

Christ, 105, 126

Church, 33, 38, 108, 117 ;

see also Catholicism

Codrington, R. H., 20 n2, 121, 133, 134, 13

consecration, 64

contagion, magical, 82, 95

covens, witches', 54

Crooke, W., 21 n6

d Dakota tribe, 141

Daremberg, C. V., 21 n8

Dasyus, 39

Davies, T. W., 21 n7

Dayaks, 43, 139, 163, 167

death rites, 27

deconsecration, 64

definition of magic, 13, 16, 22-30

demonology, 14, 128-33, 135, 143

demons, 16, 18, 26, 37, 43, 46, 48, 58, 66, 69, 77, 98, 100-1, 102-6, 113, 122, 128-31, 135, 143, 145

devil, 30, 104, 113, 124, 143 ;

mark of, 33 ;

pact with, 47

devils see demons

Dieri, 36

Dieterich, A., 52, 69

divination rites, 36, 56, 61, 140

double, 43-4, 99

drug-taking, 61

Durkheim, E., 4, 7

e entry rites, 60, 123

Eskimoes, 51, 71

Europe, 33, 48, 57, 99, 105, 115, 117

evil eye, 34, 126, 148, 159, 160

evolution, theory of, 2

exit rites, 61, 123, 157

exorcism rites, 27, 39, 56, 68, 70, 75, 99, 100, 130

expiation, 64

explanations of magic, 121-73 ;

collective forces as, 150-73 ;

inadequacy of some, 121-33 ;

'magic potential' as, 131-49

f familiar, witch's, 45, 46

Fewkes, J. W., 141

Finnish magic, 19, 39, 67, 99

fishing rites, 31, 161

Fison, L., 20 n1

Flower, M. and F., 44

folk magic, 31, 55, 153

Fossey, C., 21 n7, 77

France, 169

fraud, 115, 118

Frazer, J. G., 3, 37, 79, 84, 89, 122, 163 ;

The Golden Bough, 15-18, 25-7

funeral rites, 102

g ghosts, 58

Gillen, F. J., 20 n1, 116, 118

gods, 16, 17, 26, 29, 51, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 101, 103, 104-5, 131, 139, 157 ;

high, 105

Gray, M., 20 n2

Greek magic, 21 n8, 56, 57, 63-4, 65, 68, 71, 76, 83, 92, 99, 100, 102, 103, 104-5, 107, 127, 143, 144, 177

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Grimm brothers, 14, 28

h Hanson, J., 21 n9

Hartland, S., 15, 81, 84, 125

Hebrew magic, 21 n7

Hell, 104

Henry, V., 21 n6, 85

Hewitt, J. N. B., 20 n3, 139, 141, 148, 176

Hindu magic, 21 n6, 37, 39, 40, 46, 57, 63, 65, 104, 130, 143, 153, 155

history of magic, 14-19

Hoffman, W. J., 20 n3

Hopi (Moki) tribe, 141

Hova tribe, 163

Howitt, A. W., 20 n1, 45, 118

Hubert, H., 21 n8

hunting rites, 31, 161

Huron Indians, 20 n3, 77, 139, 140

hyperaesthesia, 160

i images, 66, 77-8, 79, 82, 84-5, 116, 123, 132, 143, 154, 174

incantations, 9, 18, 20 n1, 24, 27, 36, 67, 71, 100, 105, 125, 135, 139, 160

incubi, 47

India, magic in, 21 n6, 24, 32, 36, 39, 43, 46, 54, 57, 58, 71, 87, 99, 100, 102, 104, 108, 126, 127,143-4 , 159, 177

Indo-China, 138, 166

initiation rites, 26-7, 32, 36 ;

magician's, 50-6

Inquisition, 36, 169

Iroquois Indians, 45, 53, 60, 77, 131, 139, 140, 142, 146

j Jamblique, 45, 71

Jesuits, 39

Jevons, F. B., 15, 18, 79

Jews, 38, 74

Johannes Teutonicus, 42

k Kiowa Indians, 141

Kurnai tribe, 20 n1, 42

l Lang, A., 15

language, magic, 71-5, 129

Lapps, 39

laws of magic, 78-91, 94, 125, 132, 150

Lehmann, W., 15, 17, 160, 161

Lévi-Strauss, C., 1, 3-8

levitation, 42, 43

Lucifer, 104 ;

see also devil

Lyall, A., 15

m Madagascar, 138, 162, 163

magic as category, 1, 2, 5, 120-1

magicians, 11, 20 n2 and n3, 24, 30, 57, 75, 83, 88, 89, 90, 100, 101, 113, 145, 150, 151, 153, 156, 171 ;

beliefs, 115-21 ;

children as, 36 ;

contagion and, 83 ;

double of, 42-5, 99 ;

initiation of, 50-6 ;

mana and, 136-8 ;

materials, tools, 58-61, 66-7, 74, 77, 116 ;

operating conditions, 32, 62, 69-72, 109, 157 ;

marks, qualities, 33-50, 86, 94, 98, 107, 129, 175 ;

relationships within ritual, 77-8 ;

in society, 28, 32-3, 35, 36, 37-40, 49, 165, 166, 176-8 ;

spirits and, 26, 47-52, 147 ;

women as, 35-6, 147

magic numbers, 72

magic wand, 59-60, 89, 128

Malay(si)an magic, 22, 38, 47, 48, 51, 52, 54, 57, 65, 67, 71, 74, 100, 103, 130, 139, 166

mana, 4-7, 37, 133-40, 145, 146-7, 148-50, 155-6, 167-8, 170, 171

Marcellus of Bordeaux, 76, 82, 125

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Mauss, M., 1, 3-4, 5-7

mazdaism, 103

Melanesian magic, 20 n2, 28, 37, 39, 45, 52, 54, 76, 81, 99, 101-4, 121, 122, 133, 135-7, 139, 146, 159

Mexican magic, 20 n4, 142

Michel, J., 114, 170

Moki tribe see Hopi tribe

Mooney, J., 20 n3, 67, 141

Murring tribe, 20 n1, 45, 50, 118

Muslim magic, 74

n Nambikwara tribe, 4

New Guinea, 37, 38, 163

New Hebrides, 20 n2, 81

New South Wales, 142

New Zealand magic, 139

o Ojibway tribe, 20 n3, 45, 49, 90, 99, 102, 141

Oldenberg, H., 15

Olympiodore, 177

Omaha tribe, 141

Origen, 72

p Paré, A., 171

Parker, L., 165

Pitta-Pitta tribe, 20 n1, 56, 164

Port Moresby, 38

possession, 48, 51, 75, 77, 108

prayers, 9, 16, 24, 60, 67, 68, 69, 93, 100, 122, 124

prophets, 105, 140, 178

Pueblo Indians, 141

r Ray, S. H., 20 n2

religion, 23, 38 ;

magic and, 2, 10, 11, 16, 22, 25-30, 37, 56-69, 74, 93, 101, 104, 106-14, 122, 132, 149, 158, 166-8, 175, 176 ;

science of, 132 ;

women in, 147

representations, magical, 75-111, 116, 121, 132-3, 145 ;

abstract, 78-91, 106 ;

concrete, 92-8 ;

personal, 98-105

revelation, 50, 52, 53, 94

ritual, basic idea of, 10

ritual, magic:

actions, 23-7, 55-75 ;

conditions, 55-62 ;

non-verbal, 62-6 ;

operation, 16 ;

verbal, 67-75

Roth, R., 21 n6

Roth, W. E., 20 n1, 116

Rutland, Duke of, 44

s sacred, idea of, 10-12, 146

sacrifices, 9, 12, 16, 26, 27, 56, 57, 58, 60, 64, 69, 73, 77, 93, 100, 109, 111, 122, 126 ;

child, 64 ;

expiatory, 29, 65

Sagho, E., 21 n8

saints, 46, 57, 69, 104, 105

sanctuaries, 57

Satan, 104 ;

see also devil

Scandinavians, 39

secret societies, 34, 52, 53, 134

Seler, E., 20 n4, 142

shamanism, 15, 43, 48, 61

shams, 38, 52, 166

shape-changing, 44-5, 46, 178

Sioux Indians, 49, 51, 53, 60, 141

Skeat, W. W., 20 n5, 22, 67, 138

society and magic, 11, 110-11, 119, 147, 150, 154-5, 161-74

Solomon Islands, 20 n2, 81

soul:

of dead, 101-3, 105, 130, 147 ;



as double, 43

spells, 27, 37, 68-71, 73, 76, 77, 81, 102, 105, 109, 113, 125, 129, 135, 140, 152

Spencer, B., 20 n1, 116, 118

spirits, 17, 25, 47, 98, 100 ;

demons and, 135 ;

language, 71, 157 ;

magical, 26, 44, 46, 99-106, 108, 129, 131-2, 145, 147 ;

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magician and, 47-52, 150 ;

mana and, 134-9

stigmata, 34

Straits Settlements magic, 20 n5, 52, 138, 166

sympathetic magic, 15-16, 18, 24, 25, 55, 63, 66, 68, 73, 82, 90, 91, 96, 105, 115, 117, 121-6, 129, 132, 142, 145, 162

t talismans, 60, 67

Tallqvist, K. N., 39

Tanna tribe, 20 n2

telepathy, 163

Thavanet, Father, 141

Theocritus, 68

Tylor, E. B., 14, 15, 79

v vampires, 37

Vaudois, 38

Ville, Marie-Anne de la, 169

Virgil, 61

Virgin Mary, 105

w Wales, 47, 54

war rites, 161

Weber, A., 21 n6

Whitney, W. D., 21 n6

Wilken, G., 15

witches, 48, 89, 90, 160 ;

covens, 54 ;

devil's mark on, 33 ;

familiar, 45, 46 ;

flights of, 44, 117 ;

incubi, 47 ;

sabbath, 56 ;

shape-changing, 44-5 ;

trials, 36, 169 ;

Witchcraft, 39, 54, 148, 169

Woivorung clan, 176



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