The Chinese were deeply dissatisfied with this kinds of "competitive politics".
KMT in Guangdong
Northern Expedition 北伐
Celebration of the Victory of the Northern Expedition 庆祝北伐胜利
The April 12 Incident:“四一二政变”
The April 12 Incident was a large-scale purge of Communists from the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) in Shanghai, ordered by Chiang Kai-shek on 12 April 1927, during the Northern Expedition against the warlords.
In Shanghai, over a thousand Communists were arrested, some 300 were executed, and more than 5,000 were missing.
Communists in Canton, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, Nanjing, Hangzhou and Changsha were also arrested or killed.
In Beijing on April 28, warlord Zhang Zuolin killed 20 Communists who had taken up refuge at the Soviet embassy, including Li Dazhao, co-founder of Chinese Communist Party.
Jiang title, "Generalissimo", was used only by one other major world leader, Francisco Franco of Spain, who also had close ties with the Nazi military in the 1930s.
Such were Jiang’s ties to the Axis powers that he sent his son to train in the Nazi military and take part in the Austrian annexation of 1938.
Jiang’s Son In Nazi Uniform
Jiang’s son, Jiang Weiguo (Chiang Weikuo), joined the Nazi Army for the 1938 Austrian Anschluss, was later Secretary General of the Council of National Security of Taiwan.
After Nazi connections publicized in recent years, suddenly he is "not really Jiang's son" and disowned post-mortem to "save a face".
Jiang Weiguo (Chiang Weikuo)
Military Advisers from Nazi Germany
The Nanjing Government : 1928-1937
The Five-Power Constitutional Framework
立法院 Legislative Yuan
行政院 Administrative Yuan
司法院 Judicial Yuan
监察院 Censorate Yuan
考试院 Examination Yuan
The five-power constitution fared poorly under the Nanjing government.
The Performance of the System
The legislative yuan was overshadowed by the executive yuan
The executive yuan was rivaled by party ministries not unlike the executive yuan ministries.
The examination yuan really did not function.
By 1935, for example, only 1585 candidates have successfully completed the Civil Service Examinations"
Many did not receive official positions at all."
The Censorate yuan almost entirely ineffectual.
From 1931 to 1937, it was presented with cases of alleged corruption involving 69,500 officials.
Of these, the yuan returned indictments on only 1,800 persons.
Of the 1,800 officials indicted for corruption, only 268 were actually found guilty by the legal system.
Of the 268 found guilty, 214 received no punishment, and 41 received light punishment, yet only 13 were actually dismissed from office.
Crisis in the countryside
From 1928-1937, Jiang and the KMT achieved the high point of their rule (Golden 10 years) of China. However, at no time, were they in full command.
In 1928, the KMT controlled only a small area in parts of Zhejiang and Jiangsu.
In nearly every year, the Nanjing government had some war with remaining warlords.
By about 1934, Jiang had nearly complete control over 6 provinces, partial control over 3 more.
The Nanjing government also had considerable influence in 6 additional provinces.
Fighting against the Communists in 1934-35 enabled KMT power to extend to other 4 provinces, and during the period, three more moved closer to the KMT government.
The outlook of war against Japan in 1937 produced a new surge of patrotism, of which Jiang was the major symbol. The war thus had its positive side for KMT rule: it offered Jiang the best chance to unify the country.
The proportion of revenue at all levels of government to GNP in 1936 was about 5%, about twice the figure for 1931.
This proportion was low for the period compared with other countries.
Military costs and costs of maintaining a civil administrative bureaucracy absorbed almost half of total revenue throughout the period.
The government devoted only a small portion of its revenue to such items as education, cultural activities, transportation, rural reconstruction, public health, and industry.
Jiang said in 1928: "Party members no longer strive either for principles or for the masses. They struggled for power and profit, no longer willing to sacrifice.“
Jiang said in 1930: "Not only is it impossible to find a single party headquarter which administers to and works for the welfare of the people, but all are stigmatized by the most reprehensible practices, such as corruption, bribery, and scrambling.“
Jiang said in 1936: "If we do not weed the present body of corruption, bribery, perfunctoriness, and ignorance, and establish instead a clean and efficient administration, the day will soon come when the revolution will be started against us as we did against the Manchus.”
Crisis in the Countryside
The Chinese economy was overwhelmingly agrarian and traditional.
In 1933, for example, the modern sector of manufacturing, mining, and utilities accounted for only about 3.4% of the net GDP. 80% of population were living in the countryside.
The farmers lived in appalling poverty.
In 1930, China's death rate was about the highest in the world, two and a half times higher than that of the US, and markedly higher than that of India.
According to a 1936 field study by China's leading anthropologist, the villagers' income was insufficient to secure the minimum requirement of livelihood. He concluded: "It is the hunger of the people that is the real issue in China.“
The basic cause of this rural poverty was the unequal distribution of land.
A small number of landlord owned a disproportionate share of the farmlands, and rented these to tenants at very high rates (50-70%).
The peasants therefore felt no identification with the government.
In the absence of a world war, our army should be a big school. Even under conditions of the third world war, it can still serve as a big school. In addition to fighting the war, it must do other work…In this big school, the army should learn politics, military affairs, and culture, and engage in agricultural production. It can build up its own middle- and small-size workshops to produce goods for its own use and the exchange of other goods of equal value.
Likewise, workers should, in addition to their main industrial work, learn military affairs, politics, and culture, and take part in the socialist educational movement and in criticizing the capitalist class. Under adequate conditions, they should also engage in agricultural production, following the example of the Daqing Oilfield.
Mao’s Ideal World, Cont’
The communes do their main agricultural work (including forestry, fishing, animal husbandry, and subsidiary trades), but they must also learn military affairs, politics, and culture. When circumstances allow, they should collectively set up small-scale factories and take part in criticizing the capitalist class.
The students are in a similar position. Their studies are their chief work; they must also learn other things. In other words, they ought to learn industrial, agricultural, and military work in addition to class work. The school years should be shortened, education should be revolutionized, and the domination of our schools by bourgeois intellectuals should by no means be allowed to continue.
Under favorable conditions, people in commerce, service trades, and party and government offices should do likewise.
The Soviet model stressed the use of advanced technology
Mao trusted the energy of the masses rather than the energy of machine
Why did the GLF Fail?
"The GLF was based on a sound diagnosis of the basic weakness of the Chinese economy, but a serious misconception of the proper way to deal with it."
What went wrong?
No coordinating mechanism for allocation of resources
Localized planning led to chaos
Were There Positive Aspects of the GLF?
Women's social status
Kimberley Ens Manning, “Marxist Maternalism, Memory, and the Mobilization of Women in the Great Leap Forward,” The China Review, Vol. 5, No.1, Spring 2005
III. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976
"What is unique about the CR is that this political crisis was deliberately induced by the leader of the regime itself.“
Mao’s theory of continuous revolution
Faith in the mass of the people
Mao vs. Liu and Deng
The conservatives vs. the radicals
Conflict within the rank of the radical
See my Failure of Charisma: The Chinese Cultural Revolution in Wuhan (Oxford, 1995)
Mass Movement 不破不立
May 7 Cadre Schools 五七干校
The May 7 Cadre Schools were established in the People's Republic of China during the Cultural Revolution.
Their function was to train cadres to follow the "mass line, " which was the communist equivalent of the formula, "Of the people, by the people, and for the people. "
The principal method of training in these schools was hard manual labor, which had been the Chinese peasants' way of life.
It was hoped that through such training, civil servants would be one with the masses.
This emphasis on mass line has been abandoned since Mao's death.
Go Up to the Mountains and Down to the Villages 上山下乡
Education Reform 工农兵上大学
Workers and Peasants as Teachers 工人、农民上讲台
Arts Revolution 文艺革命
Consequences of the Cultural Revolution
Disruption of the political system
Disruption of normal social life
Crisis of faith
Growth with big fluctuations
No pay rise
No material incentives
Average Annual Growth Rate
钢铁 12.9 6.40
煤炭 8.98 4.04
粮食 3.69 2.25
棉花 1.97 4.17
肉类 3.63 8.98
石油 23.4 2.07
工农业产值 8.21 8.80
GDP Index, 1913-1978
Fluctuations of Growth Rates
Human Development before 1949
Over 80% of the population were illiterate
Average year of schooling was barely 1.5
Life expectancy was around 35 years old
Infant Mortality rate was as high as 200‰
Enrollment of School Students
Human Development Indicator (1950-99)
The Balance Sheet of Mao's Era
Amartya Sen, the Nobel laureate points out: "China's relative advantage over India is a product of its pre-reform (pre 1979) groundwork rather than its post-reform redirection."
Comparing India with China, Sen said that the widespread literacy coupled with extensive land reforms in China enabled it to gain a widely shared economic expansion. But India was not in a position to reap such benefits as it lags behind in social development.
Changes during the Reform Era
Why was Reform Necessary?
Economic development is impossible unless the following three problems can be solved.