"The variety and expenditure of the religious endowments [payments] at Damascus are beyond computation. There are endowments in aid of persons who cannot undertake the pilgrimage to Mecca, out of which they paid the expenses of those who go in their place. There are other endowments for supplying wedding outfits to girls whose families are unable to provide them, and others for the freeing of prisoners. There are endowments for travelers, out of the revenues of which they are given food, clothing, and the expenses of travel to their countries. Then there are endowments for the improvement and paving of the streets, because all the lanes in Damascus have pavements on either side, on which the foot passengers walk, while those who ride use the roadway in the center"
-Ibn Battuta’s description of the welfare system in Muslims countries.
1. What are three examples of welfare endowments provided to Muslims according to Ibn Battuta? Be sure to put your answers in your own words.[2 points each]___________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
"Then we traveled to Baghdad, the Abode of Peace and Capital of Islam. Here there are two bridges like that at Hilla, on which the people promenade night and day, both men and women. The baths at Baghdad are numerous and excellently constructed, most of them being painted with pitch, which has the appearance of black marble. This pitch is brought from a spring between Kufa and Basra, from which it flows continually. It gathers at the sides of the spring like clay and is shoveled up and brought to Baghdad. Each establishment has a number of private bathrooms, every one of which has also a wash-basin in the corner, with two taps supplying hot and cold water. Every bather is given three towels, one to wear round his waist when he goes in, another to wear round his waist when he comes out, and the third to dry himself with."
-Ibn Battuta describes Baghdad in the early 14th century.
1. What were the baths in Baghdad like according to Ibn Battuta in the 14th century? Be detailed in your answer.[4 pts.]____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
This man [Mansa Musa] flooded Cairo with his benefactions. He left no court officer nor holder of a royal office without the gift of a load of gold. The people of Cairo made incalculable profits out of him and his suite in buying and selling and giving and taking. They exchanged gold until they depressed its value in Egypt and caused its price to fall.”
Gold was at a high price in Egypt until they came in that year. The mithqal did not go below 25 dirhams and was generally above, but from that time its value fell and it cheapened in price and has remained cheap till now. The mithqal does not exceed 22 dirhams or less. This has been the state of affairs for about twelve years until this day by reason of the large amount of gold which they brought into Egypt and spent there by Mansa Musa on his pilgrimage. …
-The following description of the visit to Cairo in 1324 by the King of Mali, Mansa Musa, was written by Al-Umari, who visited Cairo several years after the Mansa Musa’s visit.
What can you tell about Mansa Musa from the above account? [3 pts.] _____________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
According to Al-Umari, what one result of Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca on Cairo? [3 pts] ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. Which city on this map did Mansa Musa develop as a center of learning?[1 pt.] ______________________
2. Which conclusion regarding early African trade is supported by the information provided by this map?[3 pts.]___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________