Makah Whaling neg brag lab ndi 2014 Topicality t-its



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The link is to the inclusion of exploitive native images, cultural references, and stories – each native representation leads to the impact of culture loss and the re-creation of violence and oppression – inclusion and visibility are a double-edged sword – they allow the USFG learn the survival strategies of the oppressed – that’s Moreton - Robinson

Visibility

Whiteness necessarily reproduces, normalizes, and centers itself through media and literature by exploitation of the native image


Moreton – Robinson 04, Aileen Moreton – Robinson, 1/1/04, Moreton – Robinson is Professor of Indigenous Studies, Division of Research and Commercialisation, and Indigenous Studies Research Network, “Whitening Race,” NN
Dyer highlights the salience or whiteness in modernity s development of knowledge: Research into books, museums, the press, advertising, films, television, software repeatedly shows that in Western representation whites are overwhelmingly and disproportionately predominant, have the central and elaborated roles, and above all are placed as the norm, the ordinary, the standard. Whites are everywhere in representation. Yet precisely because of this and their placing as norm they seem not to be repre- sented to themselves as whites but as people who are variously gen- dered, classed, sexualised and able. At the level of racial representation, in other words, whites are not of a certain race, they re just the human race. (1997:3) In the guise of the invisible human universal, whiteness secures hege- mony through discourse by normalising itself as the cultural space of the West. Sustained by imperialism and global capitalism, whiteness travelled culturally and physically, impacting on the formation of nationhood, class and empire (Frankenberg 1997a:2). It would be a mistake, however, to assume that whiteness is only found in societies inhabited and dominated by white people or that it functions only where white bodies exist. Whiteness is not just about bodies and skin colour; instead, it is 'more about the discursive practices that, because of colonialism and neocolonialism, privilege and sustain global dominance of white imperial subjects' (Shome 1999:107). The hegemony of Western whiteness continues to shape the future of the rest of the world. The USA, Britain and Australia's pre-emptive invasion of Iraq demonstrates that the East is now the new frontier for the white West. Despite the fact that there was no evidence to substan- tiate Iraq as a direct threat to Australia or Britain, Prime Ministers Tony Blair and John I Ioward were the first to join America and its 'war on terror'. Representing themselves as the holders of true humanity, these white Anglo nations positioned themselves as the liberators of Iraq bringing civilisation to an uncivilised people. Australia as a former colony of Britain saw the transplanting of an English form of whiteness to its shores. English cultural, religious, polit- ical and economic values shaped the new colony. While English Protestants dominated public life during the eighteenth century, by the end of the nineteenth century Irish and Scottish Catholics had gained social mobility (see Chapter 16).These groups may have been divided along ethnic, religious and class lines but they cemented themselves as a white race in the twentieth century through the shaping of Australia's constitution.The White Australia policy made Angloccntric whiteness the definitive marker of citizenship; and a form of property born of social status to which others were denied access including Indigenous people. Through political, economic and cultural means Anglocentric whiteness restricted and determined who could vote, who could own property, who could receive wages for work, who was free to travel, who was entitled to legal representation and who could enter Australia. These devices of exclusion did not articulate who or what is white but rather who or what is not white. The discursive formation of Anglocentric whiteness is a relatively uncharted territory that has remained invisible, dominant and perva- sive, even as it influences everyday life. 'Like any other complex of beliefs and practices whiteness is embedded in a highly articulated social structure and system of signification' (Winant 1997:48). The Anglocentric culture of Australia shares features consistent with other white Western societies and is a powerful producer of national identity, shaping ideologies of individualism, egalitarianism, mateship and citi- zenship. Inter-war representations of Australian mateship, figured through the face of the white digger, embodied racial exclusion as much as an abstract nationalist idea (Nicoll 2001a). Representations of whiteness continue to be enshrined and conveyed in curricula, televi- sion, films, newspapers, novels, museums, performing and visual arts, songs and other material culture. For example, when Australian egali- tarianism and individualism are personified through sportspeoplc like Dawn Fraser, Pat Rafter and Ian Thorpe, they are not associated with a particular racial group. Consider why Cathy Freeman is positioned as running for reconciliation, yet Ian Thorpe swims for the nation.

Whiteness uses native stories and cultural traditions to re-create itself – every public advocacy by the oppressed is turned into a tool of exploitation by the dominant force





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