Makah Whaling neg brag lab ndi 2014 Topicality t-its

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Jenkins and Romanzo 98—have a private law practice in Washington D.C., specializing in international and environmental law, and trade and the environment (*Leestefly AND **Cara, “Makah Whaling: Aboriginal Subsistence or a Stepping Stone to Undermining the Commercial Whaling Moratorium?,” Colorado Journal of Int'l Envt'l Law and Policy Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, LexisNexis, Winter 1998,

Seven Makah elders signed a petition against whaling in 1996, which they presented at the 48th Annual IWC meeting in Aberdeen, Scotland. n38 These elders essentially believe that "cultural need" is a code for economic greed. The published statement by the elders concludes: "[we] think the word 'subsistence' is the wrong thing to say when our people haven't used or had whale meat/blubber since the early 1900s . . . . We believe the hunt is only for money." n39 Indeed, when the Makah decide to exhume a tradition that has lain dormant for three-quarters of a century, one cannot but suspect that the estimated value of $ 1 million per gray whale n40 would influence the decision. These dissenting Makah elders, as well as some Nuu-Chah-Nulth similarly opposed to members of their tribe who would like to resume whaling, have expressed strong concerns that the Indian bands are being manipulated by powerful commercial whaling interests. American [*84] politicians have also expressed similar concern over undue influence by commercial interests: "it's very significant that seven tribal elders oppose this request . . . . They rightfully fear that the hunt will become a commercial enterprise. In fact, the tribe's leaders have been seeking the counsel of whalers from Japan and Norway." n41 Makah members opposing whaling have experienced threats and pressure from other Makah, and there has been an attempt within the Makah tribe to silence dissenters and cover up the dispute. n42 Undaunted, those Makah opposing the proposed whale hunt will again be present at the 1997 IWC meeting in Monaco to object to the ASW quota request. n43 Although the tribal council members in favor of the whale hunt claim to have the support of seventy percent of all Makah families, this statement is deliberately misleading: the vote taken by the counsel was impromptu, and therefore only a small portion of the Makah community actually voted on the proposal. According to Alberta Thompson, a seventy-three-year-old Makah: The council went ahead without consent of the tribe . . . . They say they have 70 percent, but that isn't so . . . . The tribal council isn't telling the world that we Makah are really split on this issue and there is a silent majority that is just afraid to speak out against whaling because the tribal counsel tells them it will threaten our treaty rights. n44 [*85] The World Council of Whalers (WCW), n45 a recently formed body in favor of aboriginal whaling which consists of many Nuu-Chah-Nulth members who generally side with the Makah's whaling petition, even felt compelled to publicly condemn the inappropriate handling of dissent within the tribe. n46 Ironically, some Nuu-Chah-Nulth members have publicly expressed similar resentment, complaining that the WCW has publicly expressed tribal support for a resumption of whaling despite the fact that Nuu-Chah-Nulth members also lack unanimity on this issue.

Specifically, a Makah quota would set a low benchmark for the nutritional requirments of the moratorium – leads to Japanese whaling

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