Main ideas • Queen Hatshepsut ruled as pharaoh and expanded trade during the New Kingdom. • Akhenaton tired to change Egyptian religion by replacing the old gods with one god called Aton. • Ramses II ruled Egypt for decades and created a stable



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Name _______________________________________________ Period _________ Date ___________________

Chapter 5 - Lesson 4 "The New Kingdom"

MAIN IDEAS

• Queen Hatshepsut ruled as pharaoh and expanded trade during the New Kingdom.

• Akhenaton tired to change Egyptian religion by replacing the old gods with one god called Aton.

• Ramses II ruled Egypt for decades and created a stable empire.




The New Kingdom
1. The New Kingdom included some of Egypt's most _______________________ rulers.

2. The capital city had been _______________________, but the pharaohs of the New


Kingdom changed the capital city to _________________________ which was about
450 miles south of Memphis.

3. The first woman to rule as pharaoh was ___________________________________


4. She became pharaoh because her ________________ died. He died soon after he took

power. For a while Queen Hatshepsut ruled the New Kingdom with ________________


who was her step son.

5. Once Queen Hatshepsut declared herself the only ruler, she wore a _________________


which is saved and only to be worn by pharaohs----all of whom had been male. What do
you think about this. . .was it a bold move for her? Explain your thoughts.

6. Describe the ways Hatshepsut expanded Egypt.


waging war:


trade:

7. What kind of monument did Hatshepsut have built to show her greatness?


8. Why is Hatshepsut's death a mystery?


A Reforming Pharaoh

9. The next leader we learn about in the New Kingdom is _________________________________. In this

lesson we learn he influenced or changed TWO things: religion and art.
10. When Akhenaton became pharaoh he chose a ____________ god called ______________ to be the
"top" god or the god with the "highest" status.
11. He closed _______________ of the other gods as a way to "promote" the worship of ONE god,
Aton. This is the first time in history that we believe Egyptians worshiped only ONE god.

Akhenaton's new religion did ______________ last long.


12. The priests who had served the other gods suddenly lost power. Egyptians worried and
feared that this angered the many gods. To avoid conflict, Akhenaton moved about
__________ miles away from the Egyptians. He created a new capital city called _____________
13. Besides religion, Akhenaton influenced the way that Egyptians thought about ______________.
Instead of everything looking "perfect" in pictures, Egyptians began to show how people

________________ looked.


14. After Akhenaton died, one of his ________________ relatives was chosen as a ruler. This person
was named Tutanhkamen, (better known as ______________________________. )
15. This young "boy king" ruler was able to rule with help from _______________________. The
advisors convinced him to reject the "new religion" and go back to worshiping the old

gods. People were very happy.



A Powerful Pharaoh
16. After King Tut died, _______________________________________ took the throne. He ruled for _________.
It is among the longest in history AND he was able to ________________________ the
Egyptian empire during his reign.
17. Ramses II was an ______________________ builder. He was also called Ramses-the - ____________
18. Ramses II wanted to make Egypt powerful through ________________. Under his rule he
extended Egypt's territory south into the African kingdom of ______________________. It
stretched to the ____________________________ rim of the ____________________________________ Sea.
It was at this point that Egypt now bordered the empire of the _____________________________.
19. Ramses II was also a __________________________ leader. Describe the battle Ramses II led the

Egyptians in against the Hittites. Who won?


What was a result of this battle?
20. Ramses II ruled for nearly 66 years. What did he do to honor himself / show his "greatness?"

21. After Ramses II died, Egypt declined because the central ______________________ weakened and


foreign powers entered Egypt. One of the foreign rulers who conquered Egypt was the
King of Macedonia, also known as _______________________________________________________ .
22. After Alexander the Great died, Macedonians continued to rule Egypt. The last Macedonian
ruler was the famous queen ______________________________________________. Eventually the
powerful ______________________ Empire conquered Egypt.
Why it matters now. . . .
• Hatshepsut was the first woman to rule as pharaoh. She expanded Egypt's trade with other lands.
• Akhenaton tried to change Egypt's religion to a belief in one god, but his religion did not last

after his death.


• Ramses II built an extensive empire and ruled for 66 years. His reign was a time of peace and prosperity.

Word

(Term, person or place)



Definition

(in your own words)



Icon/Picturej0212957


Application: Which learning

target goes with this word?

What's the connection?

Hatshepsut

p. 173








LT #

reign


p. 173








LT #

trading expedition

p. 173








LT #

reserve


p. 173







LT #

monument


p. 174







LT #

obelisk


p. 174







LT #

Word

(Term, person or place)



Definition

(in your own words)



Icon/Picturej0212957


Application: Which

learning target goes with this

word? What's the connection?

Akhenaton

p. 175








LT #

King Tutankhamen

p. 175








LT #

Ramses II

p. 175








LT #

Hittites


p. 176







LT #

peace treaty

p. 176








LT #

Alexander the Great

p. 177








LT #


Hatshepsut: Woman Pharaoh

Hatshepsut was an Egyptian queen who became a pharaoh—the ruler of Egypt. She ruled during the 18th dynasty—the first dynasty of the New Kingdom. Hatshepsut was the daughter of Pharaoh

Thutmose I and his queen Ahmose. When Thutmose I died, his son, Thutmose II, became pharaoh. Thutmose II then married his father’s oldest daughter, according to the custom in Egyptian royal families. His bride was Hatshepsut, his half-sister.


Much of what is known about Hatshepsut has been learned from official documents and monuments that tell of her achievements. As a result, history knows more about Hatshepsut the pharaoh than about Hatshepsut the private woman. It appears, however, that she came from a close-knit family and was especially fond of her father and daughter. Her appearance is also somewhat of a mystery. Sculptures and paintings of pharaohs traditionally portrayed them with “perfect” features, no matter how they really looked. When Hatshepsut’s husband died, his heir

was Thutmose III, his son by another woman. Hatshepsut was his stepmother. Because Thutmose III was too young to rule at the time of his father’s death, Hatshepsut stepped in as regent—someone who rules with, or in place of, a child. She and Thutmose III were co-rulers until 1472 B.C., when Hatshepsut declared herself pharaoh.


A Female Pharaoh More than 3,500 years ago, the rulers of the world were almost exclusively men. Hatshepsut, however, was in a better position than most women to establish a position of power. First of all, she lived in Egypt, where women enjoyed more rights than in most other societies. Egyptian women had the right to own and inherit property and to hold public office. They also were entitled to defend their rights in courts of law. Egyptians were more inclined to view women as being capable outside the home.
Second, Hatshepsut had served as regent for about six years. This gave her time to establish herself as a capable and legitimate ruler. Once she was pharaoh, Hatshepsut chose to be portrayed as a man more often than as a woman. Like the pharaohs who had preceded her, Hatshepsut wore a false beard.
Role of the Pharaoh The Egyptian pharaoh performed the traditional functions of a head of state. The pharaoh was responsible for keeping the country running efficiently. He (or she) maintained law and order, collected taxes, and saw that food was stored in case of famine. The pharaoh also conducted public building programs, including the digging of canals for irrigation.
A pharaoh, however, was also considered a god. Egyptians believed that the pharaoh communicated directly with the gods. It was the pharaoh’s responsibility to honor the gods so that they would provide the people with prosperity. The lack of a pharaoh meant that they were out of favor with the gods. After six years of regency, the Egyptian were probably ready to welcome even a woman pharaoh.
Journey to Punt Hatshepsut’s reign lasted 15 years. While in power, she launched an extensive building program and restored monuments previously destroyed by invaders. She devoted herself to worshiping the gods. Successful trading missions added to the stability of her reign.
Hatshepsut sent a trading expedition to Punt, a region located at the southeastern region of the Red Sea. This mission, recorded on the walls of her temple, was a great success. Hatshepsut described the returning ships as “laden with the costly products of the Land of Punt and with its many valuable woods, with very much sweet-smelling resin and frankincense, with quantities of ebony and ivory. . . . ” The expedition is illustrated in great detail, and shows trees and plants, a

house on stilts, and a very overweight queen of Punt. Some types of fish were so accurately



drawn that their species can be easily identified.
Monument and Disappearance Like pharaohs before her, Hatshepsut had a temple built as a monument to herself and her achievements in Thebes. Hatshepsut’s temple is considered one of the world’s most beautiful buildings. Here Hatshepsut had herself portrayed as the child of her mother and the sun god Amon-Re.
Historians do not know how Hatshepsut died. But around 1457 B.C., she was replaced as pharaoh by Thutmose III. Late in his 33-year reign, a serious attempt was made to erase Hatshepsut from history. Many of her statues were destroyed, and her images were chipped away from stone walls. Some think that Thutmose III was responsible because he hated his stepmother. Another theory suggests that Thutmose III did not want women of future generations to think that they could become pharaoh. Fortunately, the attempt to erase Hatshepsut from history was not successful. The “woman who was king” maintains her place in history.
Questions

1. How was Hatshepsut different from most other Egyptian pharaohs?

2. How did being a regent help Hatshepsut become pharaoh?

3. Why did she have a temple built for herself in Thebes?

4. How did Hatshepsut establish a stable reign as pharaoh?


5. Why did Hatshepsut have herself portrayed as a man and as the child of a god?

6. Why might Thutmose III have hated Hatshepsut?




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