Main Idea: Spain’s conquest, exploration, and colonization of the Americas brought wealth to some and tragedy to others

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US History

Fort Burrows

3.2 Spain Builds an Empire

READ pgs 74 – 80

Main Idea:

Spain’s conquest, exploration, and colonization of the Americas brought wealth to some and tragedy to others.

conquistador (kahn KWIS tuh dorz) – Spanish conqueror

pueblo – towns

presidio – a fort built to protect pueblos or a mission

mission – religious settlement set up to convert Native Americans; ran by

Catholic priest and friars, and paid for by the Spanish government

peninsulare – born in Spain, 1st class or highest in their society (conservatives)

creole (criollos ) – born in America to Spanish parents, 2nd or middle class

mestizo – mixed race between Spanish and Native Americans, 3rd or lowest class

encomienda (ehn koh mee EHN dahz) – land grants that include the right to

demand labor and/or taxes from Native Americans

plantation – a large estate farmed by many people; slaves, sharecroppers, etc
Setting the Scene:

“What a troublesome thing it is to discover new lands. The risks we took, it is hardly possible to exaggerate,” Bernal Diaz. He was one of many conquistadors that marched into the Americas in the early 1500s. When asked why they traveled to the Americas, Diaz responded, “We came here to serve GOD and the King (oh yea) and also to get rich.”

The conquistadors made Spain one of the richest nations in Europe. Spanish colonists followed the conquistadors and created a vast new empire in the Americas.
Spanish Conquistadors

Conquest of the Aztecs –

  • The Aztecs called themselves MEXICA (meh SHEE kah), from which the

modern day name of Mexico came from

  • Aztec religious writings said a white-skin would come from the East to lead

the Aztecs

  • 1519, Hernán Cortés was accepted as that god and welcomed by the Aztec

king Moctezuma (mokt ah ZOO muh)

capital, Tenochtitlan

  • Cortés wrote,

After God we owe this conquest of New Spain to Doña Marina.”

  • Doña Marina, Indian woman that gave information to Cortés and served him faithfully as interpreter, negotiator, secretary, confidant and mistress. She bore Cortés a son whom he acknowledged. Baptized Martin Cortés, he is the 1st “Mexican,” mestizo, whose name and history we know.

La Malinche or Doña Marina and Hernán Cortés in the city of Xaltelolco, in a drawing from the late 16th century History of Tlaxcala.

Conquest of the Incas

1532, Francisco Pizarro (pee SAR oh) sailed on the Pacific coast side of

South America with 200 soldiers

he captured and killed the Inca emperor Atahualpa (ah tuh WAHL puh)

with no leadership, Pizarro, controlled the Inca empire
5 Reasons for Spanish Victories

 #1 reason, more superior military equipment

steel armor, guns, cannons, etc

 Indians had bow/arrows, spears, clubs, and feet

sky dogs – allows army to move quickly, also Natives had never seen such a

creature; FEAR

slow to begin fighting due to possibly being gods

Indians were tired from constant fighting with other tribes

DISEASE; chicken pox, measles, influenza

List the order of events in sequence leading to the conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas
1) _______________________________________________________________________

2) _______________________________________________________________________

3) _______________________________________________________________________

4) _______________________________________________________________________

5) _______________________________________________________________________

6) _______________________________________________________________________

7) _______________________________________________________________________

8) _______________________________________________________________________

9) _______________________________________________________________________

10) ______________________________________________________________________
Exploring the Spanish Borderlands
After conquering South America, the Spanish moved further North; the area between present day California and Florida. 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon (PAWN suh day LAY awn) traveled through Florida looking for the fountain of youth.
An Ill-Fated Journey

 1528, Panfilo Narvaez (nar vah EHS) with about 800 conquistadors landed in

present day Florida

some returned to Spain, all but 4 of the others died

great-gran-daddy de Vaca, del Castillo, Dorantes, and a slave from Morocco

named Estebancio; the 1st person born in Africa to walk on Texas soil

[ Note: Spanish interchange ‘V’ and ‘B’. You may also see Estavancio ]
de Soto and Coronado

Hernando de Soto explored Southwestern U.S. from Florida up to the banks

of Ole Man River (Mississippi River); he was looking for gold and found death

*** de Soto died of the ‘Fever’ ,his aid de Moscoso, sank de Soto’s body in the Mississippi River to keep his death a secret. He had claimed to the local Indians that he was immortal and like a god.

1540 – 1542, Francisco Coronado , (koh roh NAH doh)

went looking for the Seven Cities of Cibola

traveling through Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, & Oklahoma

he never found the elusive city and returned home to Spain broke
Settling New Spain

Spain originally allowed the conquistadors to rule themselves and their new found lands. They proved to be poor rulers so, King Charles I (wife Joanna), 1516 – 1555, stepped in and created a strong system of government for his growing empire - New Spain and Peru. A viceroy was put in charge of each. A code was written - ‘Laws of the Indies’. This established three kinds of settlements: pueblos, presidios, and missions. Larger settlements could actually have all three types.
Pueblos and Presidios

pueblos were the centers of farming and trade

Juan de Onate (ha wuon oh NYAH tay) founded the colony of New Mexico; using

Pueblo Indians as slaves, he built a settlement for future Mexicans

the 1st presidio was built in 1565 in present day St. Augustine, Florida;

currently, still a town in America

¿¿ Did the Spanish actually have the 1st permanent settlement in America instead of

the English, 1607, Jamestown, Virginia ?

the Spanish believed that they had a duty to spread the Roman Catholic

faith, either by words or war

they built the 1st mission in El Paso in 1659

1691, in Arizona, 24 all total

West coast of California from San Diego to San Francisco

Society in New Spain

Four Social Classes

peninsulares – land owners, government officials, rich people

creoles – wealthy, educated, farm or ranch owners, teachers, lawyers

mestizos farm workers, carpenters, shoemakers, tailors

 Indians – conquered people, poor, workers with no ownership in anything
A blend of culture

 Spanish – language, religion, education; University of Mexico, 1551

 Indians – foods, ponchos, moccasins, adobe bricks
Harsh Life for Native America
Hard Labor

encomiendas allowed Spanish settlers to acquire needed workers for their

large farms and ranches; Indian slaves

Indian mine workers made Spain rich with gold and silver, lack of food and


Priest Bartolome de Las Casas wrote, “The Indians were totally deprived

their freedom… Even beasts enjoy more freedom when they are allowed to

graze in the field.”

he asks the King of Spain to protect the Indians; a law was passed

prohibiting the enslavement of Native Americans and allowed them to own

cattle and grow crops

of course, few officials of New Spain, enforced the laws

The Atlantic Slave Trade Begins

as more and more Native Americans died, the greedy Spaniards needed a

new source of labor

trying to protect the Native Americans, Las Casas suggested using Africans;

a lasting and tragic impact on America

Africans would not die from European diseases and were already accustomed

to hard work in their homelands … So It Would Be Okay! … NOT!!! ...
The Slave Trade Spreads

demand for slaves increased in New Spain, British colony of America,

Caribbean Islands, Portuguese colony of Brazil … each needing cheap labor

for large farms with labor-intense, large profit plants; sugarcane, cotton, etc

estimates claim 10 million West Africans came to the Americas between

1500s and the 1800s; 500,000 in North American colony of U.S.A.
¿¿ Identify the reasons for the increased need of slave labor in the Americas. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. How did conquistadors defeat two Indian empires ?



  1. What area did the Spanish explore ?



  1. In the code ‘Laws of the Indies’, Spain settled and organized its colonies how ?



  1. What was life like for Native Americans under Spanish rule ?



of 3.2 Printer Notes

Directory: cms -> lib09 -> TX01000550 -> Centricity -> Domain -> 880
880 -> Us history Super staar 131 Facts! Fort Burrows
880 -> Main Idea: In writing the Constitution, Americans drew on ancient traditions, Enlightenment ideas, and their own experience
880 -> Us history Fort Burrows The Nation Grows and Prospers 1790 1825
880 -> Main Idea: President Jackson showed the strength of his will in his fight with the Bank of the United States
880 -> Us history Fort Burrows Review Chapter 12 w/Yellow Answers
880 -> 10. 5 The War of 1812 Main Idea
880 -> Conquistador – ‘conquerors’ tribute – ‘payment of food & valuables’
880 -> The American Revolution 1775 1783 1 Fighting Begins in the North read pgs 166-172
880 -> Vocabulary: Battle of Bull Run – first major battle of the Civil War, fought in Virginia in 1861
880 -> Main Idea: As a result of the Mexican war, the United States expanded its borders to the Pacific Ocean

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